Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: steam explosion

3 Effect of Enzyme and Heat Pretreatment on Sunflower Oil Recovery Using Aqueous and Hexane Extractions

Authors: E. Danso-Boateng

Abstract:

The effects of enzyme action and heat pretreatment on oil extraction yield from sunflower kernels were analysed using hexane extraction with Soxhlet, and aqueous extraction with incubator shaker. Ground kernels of raw and heat treated kernels, each with and without Viscozyme treatment were used. Microscopic images of the kernels were taken to analyse the visible effects of each treatment on the cotyledon cell structure of the kernels. Heat pretreated kernels before both extraction processes produced enhanced oil extraction yields than the control, with steam explosion the most efficient. In hexane extraction, applying a combination of steam explosion and Viscozyme treatments to the kernels before the extraction gave the maximum oil extractable in 1 hour; while for aqueous extraction, raw kernels treated with Viscozyme gave the highest oil extraction yield. Remarkable cotyledon cell disruption was evident in kernels treated with Viscozyme; whereas steam explosion and conventional heat treated kernels had similar effects.

Keywords: Enzyme-assisted aqueous and hexane extraction, heatpretreatment, sunflower cotyledon structure, sunflower oil extraction

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2 Feasibility Study on Vanillin Production from Jatropha curcas Stem Using Steam Explosion as a Pretreatment

Authors: Pilanee Vaithanomsat, Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

Abstract:

Jatropha curcas stem was analyzed for chemical compositions: 19.11% pentosan, 42.99% alphacellulose and 24.11% lignin based on dry weight of 100-g raw material. The condition to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in J. curcas stem using steam explosion was optimized. The procedure started from cutting J. curcas stem into small pieces and soaked in water for overnight. After that, they were steam exploded at 214 °C and 21 kg/cm2 for 5 min. The obtained hydrolysate contained 1.55 g/L ferulic acid which after that was used as substrate for vanillin production by Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus in one-step process. The maximum 0.65 g/L of vanillin were obtained with the conversion rate of 45.2% based on the initial ferulic acid.

Keywords: Vanillin, production, Jatropha curcas stem, steam explosion.

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1 Bioethanol Production from Enzymatically Saccharified Sunflower Stalks Using Steam Explosion as Pretreatment

Authors: Pilanee Vaithanomsat, Sinsupha Chuichulcherm, Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

Abstract:

Sunflower stalks were analysed for chemical compositions: pentosan 15.84%, holocellulose 70.69%, alphacellulose 45.74%, glucose 27.10% and xylose 7.69% based on dry weight of 100-g raw material. The most optimum condition for steam explosion pretreatment was as follows. Sunflower stalks were cut into small pieces and soaked in 0.02 M H2SO4 for overnight. After that, they were steam exploded at 207 C and 21 kg/cm2 for 3 minutes to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting hydrolysate, containing hemicellulose, and cellulose pulp contained xylose sugar at 2.53% and 7.00%, respectively.The pulp was further subjected to enzymatic saccharification at 50 C, pH 4.8 citrate buffer) with pulp/buffer 6% (w/w)and Celluclast 1.5L/pulp 2.67% (w/w) to obtain single glucose with maximum yield 11.97%. After fixed-bed fermentation under optimum condition using conventional yeast mixtures to produce bioethanol, it indicated maximum ethanol yield of 0.028 g/100 g sunflower stalk.

Keywords: Enzymatic, steam explosion, sunflower stalk, ethanol production.

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