Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: source separation

21 A Mixing Matrix Estimation Algorithm for Speech Signals under the Under-Determined Blind Source Separation Model

Authors: Jing Wu, Wei Lv, Yibing Li, Yuanfan You

Abstract:

The separation of speech signals has become a research hotspot in the field of signal processing in recent years. It has many applications and influences in teleconferencing, hearing aids, speech recognition of machines and so on. The sounds received are usually noisy. The issue of identifying the sounds of interest and obtaining clear sounds in such an environment becomes a problem worth exploring, that is, the problem of blind source separation. This paper focuses on the under-determined blind source separation (UBSS). Sparse component analysis is generally used for the problem of under-determined blind source separation. The method is mainly divided into two parts. Firstly, the clustering algorithm is used to estimate the mixing matrix according to the observed signals. Then the signal is separated based on the known mixing matrix. In this paper, the problem of mixing matrix estimation is studied. This paper proposes an improved algorithm to estimate the mixing matrix for speech signals in the UBSS model. The traditional potential algorithm is not accurate for the mixing matrix estimation, especially for low signal-to noise ratio (SNR).In response to this problem, this paper considers the idea of an improved potential function method to estimate the mixing matrix. The algorithm not only avoids the inuence of insufficient prior information in traditional clustering algorithm, but also improves the estimation accuracy of mixing matrix. This paper takes the mixing of four speech signals into two channels as an example. The results of simulations show that the approach in this paper not only improves the accuracy of estimation, but also applies to any mixing matrix.

Keywords: Clustering algorithm, potential function, speech signal, the UBSS model.

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20 Adaptive Filtering in Subbands for Supervised Source Separation

Authors: Bruna Luisa Ramos Prado Vasques, Mariane Rembold Petraglia, Antonio Petraglia

Abstract:

This paper investigates MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) adaptive filtering techniques for the application of supervised source separation in the context of convolutive mixtures. From the observation that there is correlation among the signals of the different mixtures, an improvement in the NSAF (Normalized Subband Adaptive Filter) algorithm is proposed in order to accelerate its convergence rate. Simulation results with mixtures of speech signals in reverberant environments show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm with respect to the performances of the NLMS (Normalized Least-Mean-Square) and conventional NSAF, considering both the convergence speed and SIR (Signal-to-Interference Ratio) after convergence.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering, multirate processing, normalized subband adaptive filter, source separation.

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19 Sparsity-Based Unsupervised Unmixing of Hyperspectral Imaging Data Using Basis Pursuit

Authors: Ahmed Elrewainy

Abstract:

Mixing in the hyperspectral imaging occurs due to the low spatial resolutions of the used cameras. The existing pure materials “endmembers” in the scene share the spectra pixels with different amounts called “abundances”. Unmixing of the data cube is an important task to know the present endmembers in the cube for the analysis of these images. Unsupervised unmixing is done with no information about the given data cube. Sparsity is one of the recent approaches used in the source recovery or unmixing techniques. The l1-norm optimization problem “basis pursuit” could be used as a sparsity-based approach to solve this unmixing problem where the endmembers is assumed to be sparse in an appropriate domain known as dictionary. This optimization problem is solved using proximal method “iterative thresholding”. The l1-norm basis pursuit optimization problem as a sparsity-based unmixing technique was used to unmix real and synthetic hyperspectral data cubes.

Keywords: Basis pursuit, blind source separation, hyperspectral imaging, spectral unmixing, wavelets.

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18 Separate Collection System of Recyclables and Biowaste Treatment and Utilization in Metropolitan Area Finland

Authors: Petri Kouvo, Aino Kainulainen, Kimmo Koivunen

Abstract:

Separate collection system for recyclable wastes in the Helsinki region was ranked second best of European capitals. The collection system includes paper, cardboard, glass, metals and biowaste. Residual waste is collected and used in energy production. The collection system excluding paper is managed by the Helsinki Region Environmental Services HSY, a public organization owned by four municipalities (Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa). Paper collection is handled by the producer responsibility scheme. The efficiency of the collection system in the Helsinki region relies on a good coverage of door-to-door-collection. All properties with 10 or more dwelling units are required to source separate biowaste and cardboard. This covers about 75% of the population of the area. The obligation is extended to glass and metal in properties with 20 or more dwelling units. Other success factors include public awareness campaigns and a fee system that encourages recycling. As a result of waste management regulations for source separation of recyclables and biowaste, nearly 50 percent of recycling rate of household waste has been reached. For households and small and medium size enterprises, there is a sorting station fleet of five stations available. More than 50 percent of wastes received at sorting stations is utilized as material. The separate collection of plastic packaging in Finland will begin in 2016 within the producer responsibility scheme. HSY started supplementing the national bring point system with door-to-door-collection and pilot operations will begin in spring 2016. The result of plastic packages pilot project has been encouraging. Until the end of 2016, over 3500 apartment buildings have been joined the piloting, and more than 1800 tons of plastic packages have been collected separately. In the summer 2015 a novel partial flow digestion process combining digestion and tunnel composting was adopted for source separated household and commercial biowaste management. The product gas form digestion process is converted in to heat and electricity in piston engine and organic Rankine cycle process with very high overall efficiency. This paper describes the efficient collection system and discusses key success factors as well as main obstacles and lessons learned as well as the partial flow process for biowaste management.

Keywords: Biowaste, HSY, MSW, plastic packages, recycling, separate collection.

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17 An Efficient Separation for Convolutive Mixtures

Authors: Salah Al-Din I. Badran, Samad Ahmadi, Dylan Menzies, Ismail Shahin

Abstract:

This paper describes a new efficient blind source separation method; in this method we uses a non-uniform filter bank and a new structure with different sub-bands. This method provides a reduced permutation and increased convergence speed comparing to the full-band algorithm. Recently, some structures have been suggested to deal with two problems: reducing permutation and increasing the speed of convergence of the adaptive algorithm for correlated input signals. The permutation problem is avoided with the use of adaptive filters of orders less than the full-band adaptive filter, which operate at a sampling rate lower than the sampling rate of the input signal. The decomposed signals by analysis bank filter are less correlated in each sub-band than the input signal at full-band, and can promote better rates of convergence.

Keywords: Blind source separation (BSS), estimates, full-band, mixtures, Sub-band.

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16 Wavelet Enhanced CCA for Minimization of Ocular and Muscle Artifacts in EEG

Authors: B. S. Raghavendra, D. Narayana Dutt

Abstract:

Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts. In this paper, the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used as blind source separation (BSS) technique (BSS-CCA) to decompose the artifact contaminated EEG into component signals. We combine the BSSCCA technique with wavelet filtering approach for minimizing both ocular and muscle artifacts simultaneously, and refer the proposed method as wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA. In this approach, after careful visual inspection, the muscle artifact components are discarded and ocular artifact components are subjected to wavelet filtering to retain high frequency cerebral information, and then clean EEG is reconstructed. The performance of the proposed wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA method is tested on real EEG recordings contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts, for which power spectral density is used as a quantitative measure. Our results suggest that the proposed hybrid approach minimizes ocular and muscle artifacts effectively, minimally affecting underlying cerebral activity in EEG recordings.

Keywords: Blind source separation, Canonical correlationanalysis, Electroencephalogram, Muscle artifact, Ocular artifact, Power spectrum, Wavelet threshold.

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15 A Semi- One Time Pad Using Blind Source Separation for Speech Encryption

Authors: Long Jye Sheu, Horng-Shing Chiou, Wei Ching Chen

Abstract:

We propose a new perspective on speech communication using blind source separation. The original speech is mixed with key signals which consist of the mixing matrix, chaotic signals and a random noise. However, parts of the keys (the mixing matrix and the random noise) are not necessary in decryption. In practice implement, one can encrypt the speech by changing the noise signal every time. Hence, the present scheme obtains the advantages of a One Time Pad encryption while avoiding its drawbacks in key exchange. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme is immune against traditional attacks.

Keywords: one time pad, blind source separation, independentcomponent analysis, speech encryption.

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14 A Frequency Grouping Approach for Blind Deconvolution of Fairly Motionless Sources

Authors: E. S. Gower, T. Tsalaile, E. Rakgati, M. O. J. Hawksford

Abstract:

A frequency grouping approach for multi-channel instantaneous blind source separation (I-BSS) of convolutive mixtures is proposed for a lower net residual inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-channel interference (ICI) than the conventional short-time Fourier transform (STFT) approach. Starting in the time domain, STFTs are taken with overlapping windows to convert the convolutive mixing problem into frequency domain instantaneous mixing. Mixture samples at the same frequency but from different STFT windows are grouped together forming unique frequency groups. The individual frequency group vectors are input to the I-BSS algorithm of choice, from which the output samples are dispersed back to their respective STFT windows. After applying the inverse STFT, the resulting time domain signals are used to construct the complete source estimates via the weighted overlap-add method (WOLA). The proposed algorithm is tested for source deconvolution given two mixtures, and simulated along with the STFT approach to illustrate its superiority for fairly motionless sources.

Keywords: Blind source separation, short-time Fouriertransform, weighted overlap-add method

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13 Blind Source Separation for Convoluted Signals Based on Properties of Acoustic Transfer Function in Real Environments

Authors: Takaaki Ishibashi

Abstract:

Frequency domain independent component analysis has a scaling indeterminacy and a permutation problem. The scaling indeterminacy can be solved by use of a decomposed spectrum. For the permutation problem, we have proposed the rules in terms of gain ratio and phase difference derived from the decomposed spectra and the source-s coarse directions. The present paper experimentally clarifies that the gain ratio and the phase difference work effectively in a real environment but their performance depends on frequency bands, a microphone-space and a source-microphone distance. From these facts it is seen that it is difficult to attain a perfect solution for the permutation problem in a real environment only by either the gain ratio or the phase difference. For the perfect solution, this paper gives a solution to the problems in a real environment. The proposed method is simple, the amount of calculation is small. And the method has high correction performance without depending on the frequency bands and distances from source signals to microphones. Furthermore, it can be applied under the real environment. From several experiments in a real room, it clarifies that the proposed method has been verified.

Keywords: blind source separation, frequency domain independent component analysys, permutation correction, scale adjustment, target extraction.

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12 Blind Source Separation based on the Estimation for the Number of the Blind Sources under a Dynamic Acoustic Environment

Authors: Takaaki Ishibashi

Abstract:

Independent component analysis can estimate unknown source signals from their mixtures under the assumption that the source signals are statistically independent. However, in a real environment, the separation performance is often deteriorated because the number of the source signals is different from that of the sensors. In this paper, we propose an estimation method for the number of the sources based on the joint distribution of the observed signals under two-sensor configuration. From several simulation results, it is found that the number of the sources is coincident to that of peaks in the histogram of the distribution. The proposed method can estimate the number of the sources even if it is larger than that of the observed signals. The proposed methods have been verified by several experiments.

Keywords: blind source separation, independent component analysys, estimation for the number of the blind sources, voice activity detection, target extraction.

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11 Atrial Fibrillation Analysis Based on Blind Source Separation in 12-lead ECG

Authors: Pei-Chann Chang, Jui-Chien Hsieh, Jyun-Jie Lin, Feng-Ming Yeh

Abstract:

Atrial Fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered by clinicians. Because of the invisible waveform of atrial fibrillation in atrial activation for human, it is necessary to develop an automatic diagnosis system. 12-Lead ECG now is available in hospital and is appropriate for using Independent Component Analysis to estimate the AA period. In this research, we also adopt a second-order blind identification approach to transform the sources extracted by ICA to more precise signal and then we use frequency domain algorithm to do the classification. In experiment, we gather a significant result of clinical data.

Keywords: 12-Lead ECG, Atrial Fibrillation, Blind SourceSeparation, Kurtosis

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10 Floating-Point Scaling for BSS Gain Control

Authors: Abdelmalek Fermas, Adel Belouchrani, Otmane Ait Mohamed

Abstract:

In Blind Source Separation (BSS) processing, taking advantage of scaling factor indetermination and based on the floatingpoint representation, we propose a scaling technique applied to the separation matrix, to avoid the saturation or the weakness in the recovered source signals. This technique performs an Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in an on-line BSS environment. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by using the implementation of a division free BSS algorithm with two input, two output. This technique is computationally cheaper and efficient for a hardware implementation.

Keywords: Automatic Gain Control, Blind Source Separation, Floating-Point Representation, FPGA Implementation.

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9 A Double Referenced Contrast for Blind Source Separation

Authors: Atman Jbari, Abdellah Adib, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of blind source separation (BSS). To recover original signals, from linear instantaneous mixtures, we propose a new contrast function based on the use of a double referenced system. Our approach assumes statistical independence sources. The reference vectors will be incrusted in the cumulant to evaluate the independence. The estimation of the separating matrix will be performed in two steps: whitening observations and joint diagonalization of a set of referenced cumulant matrices. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

Keywords: Blind source separation, Referenced Cumulant, Contrast, Joint Diagonalization.

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8 Blind Source Separation Using Modified Gaussian FastICA

Authors: V. K. Ananthashayana, Jyothirmayi M.

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of source separation in images. We propose a FastICA algorithm employing a modified Gaussian contrast function for the Blind Source Separation. Experimental result shows that the proposed Modified Gaussian FastICA is effectively used for Blind Source Separation to obtain better quality images. In this paper, a comparative study has been made with other popular existing algorithms. The peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and improved signal to noise ratio (ISNR) are used as metrics for evaluating the quality of images. The ICA metric Amari error is also used to measure the quality of separation.

Keywords: Amari error, Blind Source Separation, Contrast function, Gaussian function, Independent Component Analysis.

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7 Issues in Spectral Source Separation Techniques for Plant-wide Oscillation Detection and Diagnosis

Authors: A.K. Tangirala, S. Babji

Abstract:

In the last few years, three multivariate spectral analysis techniques namely, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) have emerged as effective tools for oscillation detection and isolation. While the first method is used in determining the number of oscillatory sources, the latter two methods are used to identify source signatures by formulating the detection problem as a source identification problem in the spectral domain. In this paper, we present a critical drawback of the underlying linear (mixing) model which strongly limits the ability of the associated source separation methods to determine the number of sources and/or identify the physical source signatures. It is shown that the assumed mixing model is only valid if each unit of the process gives equal weighting (all-pass filter) to all oscillatory components in its inputs. This is in contrast to the fact that each unit, in general, acts as a filter with non-uniform frequency response. Thus, the model can only facilitate correct identification of a source with a single frequency component, which is again unrealistic. To overcome this deficiency, an iterative post-processing algorithm that correctly identifies the physical source(s) is developed. An additional issue with the existing methods is that they lack a procedure to pre-screen non-oscillatory/noisy measurements which obscure the identification of oscillatory sources. In this regard, a pre-screening procedure is prescribed based on the notion of sparseness index to eliminate the noisy and non-oscillatory measurements from the data set used for analysis.

Keywords: non-negative matrix factorization, PCA, source separation, plant-wide diagnosis

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6 Spectral Analysis of Speech: A New Technique

Authors: Neeta Awasthy, J.P.Saini, D.S.Chauhan

Abstract:

ICA which is generally used for blind source separation problem has been tested for feature extraction in Speech recognition system to replace the phoneme based approach of MFCC. Applying the Cepstral coefficients generated to ICA as preprocessing has developed a new signal processing approach. This gives much better results against MFCC and ICA separately, both for word and speaker recognition. The mixing matrix A is different before and after MFCC as expected. As Mel is a nonlinear scale. However, cepstrals generated from Linear Predictive Coefficient being independent prove to be the right candidate for ICA. Matlab is the tool used for all comparisons. The database used is samples of ISOLET.

Keywords: Cepstral Coefficient, Distance measures, Independent Component Analysis, Linear Predictive Coefficients.

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5 An Approach to Solving a Permutation Problem of Frequency Domain Independent Component Analysis for Blind Source Separation of Speech Signals

Authors: Masaru Fujieda, Takahiro Murakami, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

Independent component analysis (ICA) in the frequency domain is used for solving the problem of blind source separation (BSS). However, this method has some problems. For example, a general ICA algorithm cannot determine the permutation of signals which is important in the frequency domain ICA. In this paper, we propose an approach to the solution for a permutation problem. The idea is to effectively combine two conventional approaches. This approach improves the signal separation performance by exploiting features of the conventional approaches. We show the simulation results using artificial data.

Keywords: Blind source separation, Independent componentanalysis, Frequency domain, Permutation ambiguity.

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4 Application of a Time-Frequency-Based Blind Source Separation to an Instantaneous Mixture of Secondary Radar Sources

Authors: M. Tria, M. Benidir, E. Chaumette

Abstract:

In Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) systems, it is more difficult to locate and recognise aircrafts in the neighbourhood of civil airports since aerial traffic becomes greater. Here, we propose to apply a recent Blind Source Separation (BSS) algorithm based on Time-Frequency Analysis, in order to separate messages sent by different aircrafts and falling in the same radar beam in reception. The above source separation method involves joint-diagonalization of a set of smoothed version of spatial Wigner-Ville distributions. The technique makes use of the difference in the t-f signatures of the nonstationary sources to be separated. Consequently, as the SSR sources emit different messages at different frequencies, the above fitted to this new application. We applied the technique in simulation to separate SSR replies. Results are provided at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Blind Source Separation, Time-Frequency Analysis, Secondary Radar

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3 A Robust Watermarking using Blind Source Separation

Authors: Anil Kumar, K. Negrat, A. M. Negrat, Abdelsalam Almarimi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a robust and secure algorithm for watermarking, the watermark is first transformed into the frequency domain using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Then the entire DWT coefficient except the LL (Band) discarded, these coefficients are permuted and encrypted by specific mixing. The encrypted coefficients are inserted into the most significant spectral components of the stego-image using a chaotic system. This technique makes our watermark non-vulnerable to the attack (like compression, and geometric distortion) of an active intruder, or due to noise in the transmission link.

Keywords: Blind source separation (BSS), Chaotic system, Watermarking, DWT.

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2 On-line Speech Enhancement by Time-Frequency Masking under Prior Knowledge of Source Location

Authors: Min Ah Kang, Sangbae Jeong, Minsoo Hahn

Abstract:

This paper presents the source extraction system which can extract only target signals with constraints on source localization in on-line systems. The proposed system is a kind of methods for enhancing a target signal and suppressing other interference signals. But, the performance of proposed system is superior to any other methods and the extraction of target source is comparatively complete. The method has a beamforming concept and uses an improved time-frequency (TF) mask-based BSS algorithm to separate a target signal from multiple noise sources. The target sources are assumed to be in front and test data was recorded in a reverberant room. The experimental results of the proposed method was evaluated by the PESQ score of real-recording sentences and showed a noticeable speech enhancement.

Keywords: Beam forming, Non-stationary noise reduction, Source separation, TF mask.

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1 An Approach for Blind Source Separation using the Sliding DFT and Time Domain Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Koji Yamanouchi, Masaru Fujieda, Takahiro Murakami, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

''Cocktail party problem'' is well known as one of the human auditory abilities. We can recognize the specific sound that we want to listen by this ability even if a lot of undesirable sounds or noises are mixed. Blind source separation (BSS) based on independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the methods by which we can separate only a special signal from their mixed signals with simple hypothesis. In this paper, we propose an online approach for blind source separation using the sliding DFT and the time domain independent component analysis. The proposed method can reduce calculation complexity in comparison with conventional methods, and can be applied to parallel processing by using digital signal processors (DSPs) and so on. We evaluate this method and show its availability.

Keywords: Cocktail party problem, blind Source Separation(BSS), independent component analysis, sliding DFT, onlineprocessing.

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