Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: singular value decomposition

22 Identification of LTI Autonomous All Pole System Using Eigenvector Algorithm

Authors: Sudipta Majumdar

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for identification of a linear time invariant (LTI) autonomous all pole system using singular value decomposition. The novelty of this paper is two fold: First, MUSIC algorithm for estimating complex frequencies from real measurements is proposed. Secondly, using the proposed algorithm, we can identify the coefficients of differential equation that determines the LTI system by switching off our input signal. For this purpose, we need only to switch off the input, apply our complex MUSIC algorithm and determine the coefficients as symmetric polynomials in the complex frequencies. This method can be applied to unstable system and has higher resolution as compared to time series solution when, noisy data are used. The classical performance bound, Cramer Rao bound (CRB), has been used as a basis for performance comparison of the proposed method for multiple poles estimation in noisy exponential signal.

Keywords: MUSIC algorithm, Cramer Rao bound, frequency estimation.

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21 A Sparse Representation Speech Denoising Method Based on Adapted Stopping Residue Error

Authors: Qianhua He, Weili Zhou, Aiwu Chen

Abstract:

A sparse representation speech denoising method based on adapted stopping residue error was presented in this paper. Firstly, the cross-correlation between the clean speech spectrum and the noise spectrum was analyzed, and an estimation method was proposed. In the denoising method, an over-complete dictionary of the clean speech power spectrum was learned with the K-singular value decomposition (K-SVD) algorithm. In the sparse representation stage, the stopping residue error was adaptively achieved according to the estimated cross-correlation and the adjusted noise spectrum, and the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) approach was applied to reconstruct the clean speech spectrum from the noisy speech. Finally, the clean speech was re-synthesised via the inverse Fourier transform with the reconstructed speech spectrum and the noisy speech phase. The experiment results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional methods in terms of subjective and objective measure.

Keywords: Speech denoising, sparse representation, K-singular value decomposition, orthogonal matching pursuit.

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20 Lifting Wavelet Transform and Singular Values Decomposition for Secure Image Watermarking

Authors: Siraa Ben Ftima, Mourad Talbi, Tahar Ezzedine

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a technique of secure watermarking of grayscale and color images. This technique consists in applying the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in LWT (Lifting Wavelet Transform) domain in order to insert the watermark image (grayscale) in the host image (grayscale or color image). It also uses signature in the embedding and extraction steps. The technique is applied on a number of grayscale and color images. The performance of this technique is proved by the PSNR (Pick Signal to Noise Ratio), the MSE (Mean Square Error) and the SSIM (structural similarity) computations.

Keywords: Color image, grayscale image, singular values decomposition, lifting wavelet transform, image watermarking, watermark, secure.

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19 Optimal Image Representation for Linear Canonical Transform Multiplexing

Authors: Navdeep Goel, Salvador Gabarda

Abstract:

Digital images are widely used in computer applications. To store or transmit the uncompressed images requires considerable storage capacity and transmission bandwidth. Image compression is a means to perform transmission or storage of visual data in the most economical way. This paper explains about how images can be encoded to be transmitted in a multiplexing time-frequency domain channel. Multiplexing involves packing signals together whose representations are compact in the working domain. In order to optimize transmission resources each 4 × 4 pixel block of the image is transformed by a suitable polynomial approximation, into a minimal number of coefficients. Less than 4 × 4 coefficients in one block spares a significant amount of transmitted information, but some information is lost. Different approximations for image transformation have been evaluated as polynomial representation (Vandermonde matrix), least squares + gradient descent, 1-D Chebyshev polynomials, 2-D Chebyshev polynomials or singular value decomposition (SVD). Results have been compared in terms of nominal compression rate (NCR), compression ratio (CR) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) in order to minimize the error function defined as the difference between the original pixel gray levels and the approximated polynomial output. Polynomial coefficients have been later encoded and handled for generating chirps in a target rate of about two chirps per 4 × 4 pixel block and then submitted to a transmission multiplexing operation in the time-frequency domain.

Keywords: Chirp signals, Image multiplexing, Image transformation, Linear canonical transform, Polynomial approximation.

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18 Singular Value Decomposition Based Optimisation of Design Parameters of a Gearbox

Authors: Mehmet Bozca

Abstract:

Singular value decomposition based optimisation of geometric design parameters of a 5-speed gearbox is studied. During the optimisation, a four-degree-of freedom torsional vibration model of the pinion gear-wheel gear system is obtained and the minimum singular value of the transfer matrix is considered as the objective functions. The computational cost of the associated singular value problems is quite low for the objective function, because it is only necessary to compute the largest and smallest singular values (μmax and μmin) that can be achieved by using selective eigenvalue solvers; the other singular values are not needed. The design parameters are optimised under several constraints that include bending stress, contact stress and constant distance between gear centres. Thus, by optimising the geometric parameters of the gearbox such as, the module, number of teeth and face width it is possible to obtain a light-weight-gearbox structure. It is concluded that the all optimised geometric design parameters also satisfy all constraints.

Keywords: Singular value, optimisation, gearbox, torsional vibration.

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17 Blind Channel Estimation for Frequency Hopping System Using Subspace Based Method

Authors: M. M. Qasaymeh, M. A. Khodeir

Abstract:

Subspace channel estimation methods have been studied widely, where the subspace of the covariance matrix is decomposed to separate the signal subspace from noise subspace. The decomposition is normally done by using either the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) or the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the auto-correlation matrix (ACM). However, the subspace decomposition process is computationally expensive. This paper considers the estimation of the multipath slow frequency hopping (FH) channel using noise space based method. In particular, an efficient method is proposed to estimate the multipath time delays by applying multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm which is based on the null space extracted by the rank revealing LU (RRLU) factorization. As a result, precise information is provided by the RRLU about the numerical null space and the rank, (i.e., important tool in linear algebra). The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed novel method by approximately decreasing the computational complexity to the half as compared with RRQR methods keeping the same performance.

Keywords: Time Delay Estimation, RRLU, RRQR, MUSIC, LS-ESPRIT, LS-ESPRIT, Frequency Hopping.

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16 Encryption Image via Mutual Singular Value Decomposition

Authors: Adil Al-Rammahi

Abstract:

Image or document encryption is needed through egovernment data base. Really in this paper we introduce two matrices images, one is the public, and the second is the secret (original). The analyses of each matrix is achieved using the transformation of singular values decomposition. So each matrix is transformed or analyzed to three matrices say row orthogonal basis, column orthogonal basis, and spectral diagonal basis. Product of the two row basis is calculated. Similarly the product of the two column basis is achieved. Finally we transform or save the files of public, row product and column product. In decryption stage, the original image is deduced by mutual method of the three public files.

Keywords: Image cryptography, Singular values decomposition.

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15 Video Shot Detection and Key Frame Extraction Using Faber Shauder DWT and SVD

Authors: Assma Azeroual, Karim Afdel, Mohamed El Hajji, Hassan Douzi

Abstract:

Key frame extraction methods select the most representative frames of a video, which can be used in different areas of video processing such as video retrieval, video summary, and video indexing. In this paper we present a novel approach for extracting key frames from video sequences. The frame is characterized uniquely by his contours which are represented by the dominant blocks. These dominant blocks are located on the contours and its near textures. When the video frames have a noticeable changement, its dominant blocks changed, then we can extracte a key frame. The dominant blocks of every frame is computed, and then feature vectors are extracted from the dominant blocks image of each frame and arranged in a feature matrix. Singular Value Decomposition is used to calculate sliding windows ranks of those matrices. Finally the computed ranks are traced and then we are able to extract key frames of a video. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust against a large range of digital effects used during shot transition.

Keywords: Key Frame Extraction, Shot detection, FSDWT, Singular Value Decomposition.

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14 Principal Component Analysis using Singular Value Decomposition of Microarray Data

Authors: Dong Hoon Lim

Abstract:

A series of microarray experiments produces observations of differential expression for thousands of genes across multiple conditions. Principal component analysis(PCA) has been widely used in multivariate data analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the data in order to simplify subsequent analysis and allow for summarization of the data in a parsimonious manner. PCA, which can be implemented via a singular value decomposition(SVD), is useful for analysis of microarray data. For application of PCA using SVD we use the DNA microarray data for the small round blue cell tumors(SRBCT) of childhood by Khan et al.(2001). To decide the number of components which account for sufficient amount of information we draw scree plot. Biplot, a graphic display associated with PCA, reveals important features that exhibit relationship between variables and also the relationship of variables with observations.

Keywords: Principal component analysis, singular value decomposition, microarray data, SRBCT

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13 Optimal Placement of Piezoelectric Actuators on Plate Structures for Active Vibration Control Using Modified Control Matrix and Singular Value Decomposition Approach

Authors: Deepak Chhabra, Gian Bhushan, Pankaj Chandna

Abstract:

The present work deals with the optimal placement of piezoelectric actuators on a thin plate using Modified Control Matrix and Singular Value Decomposition (MCSVD) approach. The problem has been formulated using the finite element method using ten piezoelectric actuators on simply supported plate to suppress first six modes. The sizes of ten actuators are combined to outline one actuator by adding the ten columns of control matrix to form a column matrix. The singular value of column control matrix is considered as the fitness function and optimal positions of the actuators are obtained by maximizing it with GA. Vibration suppression has been studied for simply supported plate with piezoelectric patches in optimal positions using Linear Quadratic regulator) scheme. It is observed that MCSVD approach has given the position of patches adjacent to each-other, symmetric to the centre axis and given greater vibration suppression than other previously published results on SVD. 

Keywords: Closed loop Average dB gain, Genetic Algorithm (GA), LQR Controller, MCSVD, Optimal positions, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) Approaches.

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12 Tracking Objects in Color Image Sequences: Application to Football Images

Authors: Mourad Moussa, Ali Douik, Hassani Messaoud

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a comparative study between two computer vision systems for objects recognition and tracking, these algorithms describe two different approach based on regions constituted by a set of pixels which parameterized objects in shot sequences. For the image segmentation and objects detection, the FCM technique is used, the overlapping between cluster's distribution is minimized by the use of suitable color space (other that the RGB one). The first technique takes into account a priori probabilities governing the computation of various clusters to track objects. A Parzen kernel method is described and allows identifying the players in each frame, we also show the importance of standard deviation value research of the Gaussian probability density function. Region matching is carried out by an algorithm that operates on the Mahalanobis distance between region descriptors in two subsequent frames and uses singular value decomposition to compute a set of correspondences satisfying both the principle of proximity and the principle of exclusion.

Keywords: Image segmentation, objects tracking, Parzen window, singular value decomposition, target recognition.

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11 Dynamic Clustering Estimation of Tool Flank Wear in Turning Process using SVD Models of the Emitted Sound Signals

Authors: A. Samraj, S. Sayeed, J. E. Raja., J. Hossen, A. Rahman

Abstract:

Monitoring the tool flank wear without affecting the throughput is considered as the prudent method in production technology. The examination has to be done without affecting the machining process. In this paper we proposed a novel work that is used to determine tool flank wear by observing the sound signals emitted during the turning process. The work-piece material we used here is steel and aluminum and the cutting insert was carbide material. Two different cutting speeds were used in this work. The feed rate and the cutting depth were constant whereas the flank wear was a variable. The emitted sound signal of a fresh tool (0 mm flank wear) a slightly worn tool (0.2 -0.25 mm flank wear) and a severely worn tool (0.4mm and above flank wear) during turning process were recorded separately using a high sensitive microphone. Analysis using Singular Value Decomposition was done on these sound signals to extract the feature sound components. Observation of the results showed that an increase in tool flank wear correlates with an increase in the values of SVD features produced out of the sound signals for both the materials. Hence it can be concluded that wear monitoring of tool flank during turning process using SVD features with the Fuzzy C means classification on the emitted sound signal is a potential and relatively simple method.

Keywords: Fuzzy c means, Microphone, Singular ValueDecomposition, Tool Flank Wear.

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10 Enhancement of Low Contrast Satellite Images using Discrete Cosine Transform and Singular Value Decomposition

Authors: A. K. Bhandari, A. Kumar, P. K. Padhy

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel contrast enhancement technique for contrast enhancement of a low-contrast satellite image has been proposed based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT). The singular value matrix represents the intensity information of the given image and any change on the singular values change the intensity of the input image. The proposed technique converts the image into the SVD-DCT domain and after normalizing the singular value matrix; the enhanced image is reconstructed by using inverse DCT. The visual and quantitative results suggest that the proposed SVD-DCT method clearly shows the increased efficiency and flexibility of the proposed method over the exiting methods such as Linear Contrast Stretching technique, GHE technique, DWT-SVD technique, DWT technique, Decorrelation Stretching technique, Gamma Correction method based techniques.

Keywords: Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), discretecosine transforms (DCT), image equalization and satellite imagecontrast enhancement.

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9 The Inverse Problem of Nonsymmetric Matrices with a Submatrix Constraint and its Approximation

Authors: Yongxin Yuan, Hao Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we first give the representation of the general solution of the following least-squares problem (LSP): Given matrices X ∈ Rn×p, B ∈ Rp×p and A0 ∈ Rr×r, find a matrix A ∈ Rn×n such that XT AX − B = min, s. t. A([1, r]) = A0, where A([1, r]) is the r×r leading principal submatrix of the matrix A. We then consider a best approximation problem: given an n × n matrix A˜ with A˜([1, r]) = A0, find Aˆ ∈ SE such that A˜ − Aˆ = minA∈SE A˜ − A, where SE is the solution set of LSP. We show that the best approximation solution Aˆ is unique and derive an explicit formula for it. Keyw

Keywords: Inverse problem, Least-squares solution, model updating, Singular value decomposition (SVD), Optimal approximation.

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8 An Improved Algorithm for Calculation of the Third-order Orthogonal Tensor Product Expansion by Using Singular Value Decomposition

Authors: Chiharu Okuma, Naoki Yamamoto, Jun Murakami

Abstract:

As a method of expanding a higher-order tensor data to tensor products of vectors we have proposed the Third-order Orthogonal Tensor Product Expansion (3OTPE) that did similar expansion as Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition (HOSVD). In this paper we provide a computation algorithm to improve our previous method, in which SVD is applied to the matrix that constituted by the contraction of original tensor data and one of the expansion vector obtained. The residual of the improved method is smaller than the previous method, truncating the expanding tensor products to the same number of terms. Moreover, the residual is smaller than HOSVD when applying to color image data. It is able to be confirmed that the computing time of improved method is the same as the previous method and considerably better than HOSVD.

Keywords: Singular value decomposition (SVD), higher-orderSVD (HOSVD), outer product expansion, power method.

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7 The Use of Voltage Stability Indices and Proposed Instability Prediction to Coordinate with Protection Systems

Authors: R. Leelaruji, V. Knazkins

Abstract:

This paper proposes a methodology for mitigating the occurrence of cascading failure in stressed power systems. The methodology is essentially based on predicting voltage instability in the power system using a voltage stability index and then devising a corrective action in order to increase the voltage stability margin. The paper starts with a brief description of the cascading failure mechanism which is probable root cause of severe blackouts. Then, the voltage instability indices are introduced in order to evaluate stability limit. The aim of the analysis is to assure that the coordination of protection, by adopting load shedding scheme, capable of enhancing performance of the system after the major location of instability is determined. Finally, the proposed method to generate instability prediction is introduced.

Keywords: Blackouts, cascading failure, voltage stability indices, singular value decomposition, load shedding.

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6 Comparison between Higher-Order SVD and Third-order Orthogonal Tensor Product Expansion

Authors: Chiharu Okuma, Jun Murakami, Naoki Yamamoto

Abstract:

In digital signal processing it is important to approximate multi-dimensional data by the method called rank reduction, in which we reduce the rank of multi-dimensional data from higher to lower. For 2-dimennsional data, singular value decomposition (SVD) is one of the most known rank reduction techniques. Additional, outer product expansion expanded from SVD was proposed and implemented for multi-dimensional data, which has been widely applied to image processing and pattern recognition. However, the multi-dimensional outer product expansion has behavior of great computation complex and has not orthogonally between the expansion terms. Therefore we have proposed an alterative method, Third-order Orthogonal Tensor Product Expansion short for 3-OTPE. 3-OTPE uses the power method instead of nonlinear optimization method for decreasing at computing time. At the same time the group of B. D. Lathauwer proposed Higher-Order SVD (HOSVD) that is also developed with SVD extensions for multi-dimensional data. 3-OTPE and HOSVD are similarly on the rank reduction of multi-dimensional data. Using these two methods we can obtain computation results respectively, some ones are the same while some ones are slight different. In this paper, we compare 3-OTPE to HOSVD in accuracy of calculation and computing time of resolution, and clarify the difference between these two methods.

Keywords: Singular value decomposition (SVD), higher-order SVD (HOSVD), higher-order tensor, outer product expansion, power method.

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5 An Algorithm for Computing the Analytic Singular Value Decomposition

Authors: Drahoslava Janovska, Vladimir Janovsky, Kunio Tanabe

Abstract:

A proof of convergence of a new continuation algorithm for computing the Analytic SVD for a large sparse parameter– dependent matrix is given. The algorithm itself was developed and numerically tested in [5].

Keywords: Analytic Singular Value Decomposition, large sparse parameter–dependent matrices, continuation algorithm of a predictorcorrector type.

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4 A Nonoblivious Image Watermarking System Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Texture Segmentation

Authors: Soroosh Rezazadeh, Mehran Yazdi

Abstract:

In this paper, a robust digital image watermarking scheme for copyright protection applications using the singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed. In this scheme, an entropy masking model has been applied on the host image for the texture segmentation. Moreover, the local luminance and textures of the host image are considered for watermark embedding procedure to increase the robustness of the watermarking scheme. In contrast to all existing SVD-based watermarking systems that have been designed to embed visual watermarks, our system uses a pseudo-random sequence as a watermark. We have tested the performance of our method using a wide variety of image processing attacks on different test images. A comparison is made between the results of our proposed algorithm with those of a wavelet-based method to demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm.

Keywords: Watermarking, copyright protection, singular value decomposition, entropy masking, texture segmentation.

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3 In Search of an SVD and QRcp Based Optimization Technique of ANN for Automatic Classification of Abnormal Heart Sounds

Authors: Samit Ari, Goutam Saha

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been extensively used for classification of heart sounds for its discriminative training ability and easy implementation. However, it suffers from overparameterization if the number of nodes is not chosen properly. In such cases, when the dataset has redundancy within it, ANN is trained along with this redundant information that results in poor validation. Also a larger network means more computational expense resulting more hardware and time related cost. Therefore, an optimum design of neural network is needed towards real-time detection of pathological patterns, if any from heart sound signal. The aims of this work are to (i) select a set of input features that are effective for identification of heart sound signals and (ii) make certain optimum selection of nodes in the hidden layer for a more effective ANN structure. Here, we present an optimization technique that involves Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and QR factorization with column pivoting (QRcp) methodology to optimize empirically chosen over-parameterized ANN structure. Input nodes present in ANN structure is optimized by SVD followed by QRcp while only SVD is required to prune undesirable hidden nodes. The result is presented for classifying 12 common pathological cases and normal heart sound.

Keywords: ANN, Classification of heart diseases, murmurs, optimization, Phonocardiogram, QRcp, SVD.

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2 Blind Channel Estimation Based on URV Decomposition Technique for Uplink of MC-CDMA

Authors: Pradya Pornnimitkul, Suwich Kunaruttanapruk, Bamrung Tau Sieskul, Somchai Jitapunkul

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate a blind channel estimation method for Multi-carrier CDMA systems that use a subspace decomposition technique. This technique exploits the orthogonality property between the noise subspace and the received user codes to obtain channel of each user. In the past we used Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique but SVD have most computational complexity so in this paper use a new algorithm called URV Decomposition, which serve as an intermediary between the QR decomposition and SVD, replaced in SVD technique to track the noise space of the received data. Because of the URV decomposition has almost the same estimation performance as the SVD, but has less computational complexity.

Keywords: Channel estimation, MC-CDMA, SVD, URV.

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1 Mathematical Approach towards Fault Detection and Isolation of Linear Dynamical Systems

Authors: V.Manikandan, N.Devarajan

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to provide a fault detection and isolation based on Markov parameters for residual generation and a neural network for fault classification. The diagnostic approach is accomplished in two steps: In step 1, the system is identified using a series of input / output variables through an identification algorithm. In step 2, the fault is diagnosed comparing the Markov parameters of faulty and non faulty systems. The Artificial Neural Network is trained using predetermined faulty conditions serves to classify the unknown fault. In step 1, the identification is done by first formulating a Hankel matrix out of Input/ output variables and then decomposing the matrix via singular value decomposition technique. For identifying the system online sliding window approach is adopted wherein an open slit slides over a subset of 'n' input/output variables. The faults are introduced at arbitrary instances and the identification is carried out in online. Fault residues are extracted making a comparison of the first five Markov parameters of faulty and non faulty systems. The proposed diagnostic approach is illustrated on benchmark problems with encouraging results.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Fault Diagnosis, Identification, Markov parameters.

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