Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: silage

10 Use of Chlorophyll Meters to Assess In-Season Wheat Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirements in the Southern San Joaquin Valley

Authors: Brian H. Marsh

Abstract:

Nitrogen fertilizer is the most used and often the most mismanaged nutrient input. Nitrogen management has tremendous implications on crop productivity, quality and environmental stewardship. Sufficient nitrogen is needed to optimum yield and quality. Soil and in-season plant tissue testing for nitrogen status are a time consuming and expensive process. Real time sensing of plant nitrogen status can be a useful tool in managing nitrogen inputs. The objectives of this project were to assess the reliability of remotely sensed non-destructive plant nitrogen measurements compared to wet chemistry data from sampled plant tissue, develop in-season nitrogen recommendations based on remotely sensed data for improved nitrogen use efficiency and assess the potential for determining yield and quality from remotely sensed data. Very good correlations were observed between early-season remotely sensed crop nitrogen status and plant nitrogen concentrations and subsequent in-season fertilizer recommendations. The transmittance/absorbance type meters gave the most accurate readings. Early in-season fertilizer recommendation would be to apply 40 kg nitrogen per hectare plus 15 kg nitrogen per hectare for each unit difference measured with the SPAD meter between the crop and reference area or 25 kg plus 13 kg per hectare for each unit difference measured with the CCM 200. Once the crop was sufficiently fertilized meter readings became inconclusive and were of no benefit for determining nitrogen status, silage yield and quality and grain yield and protein.

Keywords: Wheat, nitrogen fertilization, chlorophyll meter.

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9 Influence of Probiotics on Dairy Cows Diet

Authors: V. A. Vieira, M. P. Sforcini, V. Endo, G. C. Magioni, M. D. S. Oliveira

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper was evaluate the effect of diets containing different levels of probiotic on performance and milk composition of lactating cows. Eight Holstein cows were distributed in two 4x4 Latin square. The diets were based on corn silage, concentrate and the treatment (0, 3, 6 or 9 grams of probiotic/animal/day). It was evaluated the dry matter intake of nutrients, milk yield and composition. The use of probiotics did not affect the nutrient intake (p>0.05) neither the daily milk production or corrected to 4% fat (p>0.05). However, it was observed that there was a significant fall in milk composition with higher levels of probiotics supplementation. These results emphasize the need of further studies with different experimental designs or improve the number of Latin square with longer periods of adaptation.

Keywords: Dairy cow, milk composition, probiotics.

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8 Drought Stress Indices in Some Silage Maize Cultivars

Authors: Ehsan Shahrabian, Ali Soleymani

Abstract:

Several yield-based stress indices have been developed that may be more applicable to work on drought tolerance. In this study, we investigate possibility of using stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (TOL), yield stability index (YSI), yield index (YI), stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), harmonic mean (HARM), mean productivity (MP) to identify genotypic performance of some maize cultivars under normal and stressed condition. The results indicate that it was possible to identify superior genotypes for drought tolerance based on their stress indices and generally SSI indices which showed the lowest negative correlation with dry matter yield can be used as the best index for maize breeding programs to introduce drought tolerant hybrids. It was found that SC 647 showed the best behavior under drought stress condition based on TOL and SSI. A higher STI, GMP, and HARM values were attained for ko6. It can be suggested that ko6 should be cultivated in moderate stressful environment of Iran.

Keywords: Index, productivity, stress, susceptibility tolerance, yield.

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7 Aflatoxins Aggravate the Incidence of Salmonellosis Outbreak in Fattening Calves: A Case Study

Authors: Abdel-Rahman A., El Okle O. S.

Abstract:

Fever, bloody diarrhea and high mortality rate were the main clinical finding in a group of fattening calves. Analysis of corn silage revealed presence of aflatoxins at level of 370 ppb. This level of aflatoxins in the feed of cattle is somewhat low to be the main cause of reported signs. Leukocytopenia, anemia, decreased lymphocytic activity and lowered phagocytic index are the main hematological and immunological alterations in diseased calves. Bacteriological investigation revealed isolation of pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium from the rectal swabs of diseased calves. Our results suggested that, long duration of exposure to aflatoxins even at small concentrations may considered as predisposing factor for the incidence of natural infectious outbreaks as salmonellosis due to its immunosuppressive effect. We can conclude that the veterinarians and owners must be given an attention to the relation between aflatoxicosis and salmonellosis under field condition. We are recommended that the treatment program during similar outbreaks must be including anti-aflatoxins preparations beside the antimicrobial therapy.

Keywords: Aflatoxins, Calves, Salmonellosis.

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6 Effect of Feeding Systems on Meat Goat CLA

Authors: P. Paengkoum, A. Lukkananukool, S. Bureenok, Y. Kawamoto, Y. Imura, J. Mitchaothai, S. Paengkoum, S. Traiyakun

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tropical forage source and feeding system on fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity in meat goats. Twenty male crossbred goats (Boer x Saanen), were included in the current study and the study design was assigned to be a 2 x 3 factorial in completely randomized design. All goats were slaughtered after 120 days of experimental period. Dietary tropical roughage sources were grass (Mulata II) and legume (Verano stylo). Both types of roughage were offered to the experimental meat goat as 3 feeding regimes; cut-and-carry, silage and grazing. All goats were fed basal concentrate diet at 1.5% of body weight, and they were fed ad libitum the roughages.Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and antioxidation activity of dietary treatments in all feeding system and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles in all groups were quantified. The results have shown that the fat content in both types of studied roughage sources ranged from about 2.0% to 4.0% of DM and the fatty acid composition of those was mainly C16:0, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3, with less proportion for C18:1n9. The free-radical scavenging activity of the Mulato II was lower than that of the Verano stylo. The free-radical scavenging activity of the Mulato II was lower than that of the Verano stylo. For LD muscle, the fatty acid composition was mainly C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9, with less proportion for C18:2n6. The LD muscle of the goats fed with Mulato II and the Verano stylo by grazing had highest free-radical scavenging activity, compared to those fed with cut-and-carry and silage regime, although there were rather high unsaturated fatty acids in LD muscle. Thus, feeding the meat goats with the Mulato II and Verano stylo by grazing would be beneficial effect for consumers to intake high unsaturated fatty acids and lower risk for oxidation from goat meat.

Keywords: Feeding system, goat, CLA, meat.

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5 A Comparison of Fuel Usage and Harvest Capacity in Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters

Authors: Brian H. Marsh

Abstract:

Self-propelled forage harvesters in the 850 horsepower range were tested over three years for fuel consumption, throughput and quality of chop for corn silage. Cut length had a significant effect on fuel consumption, throughput and some aspects of chop quality. Measure cut length was often different than theoretical length of cut. Where cut length was equivalent fuel consumption and throughput were equivalent across brands. Shortening cut length from 17 to 11mm increases fuel consumption 53 percent measured as Mg of silage harvested per gallon of fuel used and a 42 percent decrease in capacity as tons of fresh material per hour run time.

Keywords: Corn silage, forage harvester, fuel use, length of cut.

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4 Effect of Cassava Root Ensiled with Cassava Top or Legumes on Feed Intake and Digestibility of Dairy Cows

Authors: S. Bureenok, C. Yuangklang, K. Vasupen

Abstract:

The effect of cassava root ensiled with cassava top or legumes on voluntary feed intake and milk production were determined in 12 dairy cows using a 4×3 change-over design. Experimental period were 30 days long and consisted of 14 days of adaptation. Silage was prepared from cassava root mixed with cassava top or legumes at ratio 60:40. Cows were allotted at random to receive ad libitum one of four rations: T1) control, T2) cassava root +cassava top-silages, T3) cassava root +hamata - silages and T4) cassava root +Thapra stylo-silages. The dry matter intake (BW0.75) was higher (P< 0.05) in cow fed with silages diets compared with T1. However, the intake of T2 was higher among treatments. Milk production was lowest in cow fed with T1. Among silages based diets, milk production was not significantly different but 4%FCM was higher in cow fed T2. Milk compositions were not affected by feeding diets. It is concluded that feeding cassava root ensiled with its leaves as a supplement increased dry matter intake and significantly improved 4%FCM. The combination of cassava root and legume silages did not improve the feed intake but did increase the milk production.

Keywords: Cassava, dairy cow, hamata, Thapra stylo, silage.

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3 Energy Evaluation and Utilization of Cassava Peel for Lactating Dairy Cows

Authors: Pipat Lounglawan, Yutthapong Sornwongkaew, Wassana Lounglawan, Wisitiporn Suksombat

Abstract:

The experiment was then conducted to investigate the effect of cassava peel addition in the concentrate on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 12.2+2.1 kg of milk, 119+45 days in milk, 44.1+6.2 months old and 449+33 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. The first, second and third groups were fed concentrates containing the respective cassava peel, 0, 20 and 40%. All cows were fed ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Dry matter intake, 4%FCM, milk composition and body weight change were affected (P<0.05) by the third treatments (40%). The present study indicated that 20% cassava peel can be used in the concentrate for lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: Cassava peel, Energy evaluation, Milk production, Dairy cattle

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2 Supplementation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae or Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Goats Diets

Authors: Pramote Paengkoum, Y. Han , S. Traiyakun, J. Khotsakdee, S. Paengkoum

Abstract:

This experiment was performed with the purpose of investigating effect of additional blend of probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus on plasma fatty acid profiles particularly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in growing goats fed corn silage, and selected the optimal levels of the probiotics for further study. Twenty-four growing crossbred (Thai native x Anglo-Nubian) goats that weighed (14.2 ± 2.3) kg, aged about 6 months, were purchased and allocated to 4 treatments according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 6 goats in each treatment. The blocks were made by weight into heavy, medium, and light goats and each of the treatments contained two goats from each of the blocks. In the mean time, ruminal average pH unaffected, but the NH3-N and also plasma urea nitrogen (p<0.05), total volatile fatty acid (p>0.05) were raised, but propionic proportion (p<0.05) and butyric proportion (p>0.05) were reduced in concurrent with raise of acetic proportion and resultantly C2:C3 ratio (p>0.05). On plasma fatty acid profiles, total saturated fatty acids (p>0.05) was increased, and contrasted with decrease of C15:0 (p<0.01), C16:0 (p>0.05), and C18-C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05 or p<0.01). In addition, the experiment proved that the supplemented probiotics was in force for heightening CLA (p<0.01); for raising desirable fatty acids (p<0.05); for reducing ratio of PUFA: SFA (p>0.05) and for raising ratio of n6:n3 (p<0.05).

Keywords: Probiotic, conjugated linoleic acid, plasma fattyacid, goats

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1 Effects of Feeding Glycerol to Lactating Dairy Cows on Milk Production and Composition

Authors: Pipat Lounglawan, Wassana Lounglawan, Wisitiporm Suksombat

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding glycerol on dairy cows performance. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in early lactation; averaging 13+2.4 kg of milk, 64+45 days in milk, 55+16 months old and 325+26 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. All cows were fed approximate 8 kg of concentrate together with ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Nil or 150 and 300g of glycerol were supplemented to the cows according to treatment groups. All cows consumed similar concentrate, corn silage and total DM and NELP. There were no significant differences in DM intake, CP intake, NELP intake, milk and milk composition yields. All cows had similar fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat and total solid percentage. All cows gain similar live weight. The present study indicated that, supplementation of glycerol did not enhance milk yield, milk composition and live weight change.

Keywords: Glycerol, Milk production and composition, Dairycattle

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