Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: shape memory alloy

15 Non-Linear Load-Deflection Response of Shape Memory Alloys-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells under Uniform Radial Load

Authors: Behrang Tavousi Tehrani, Mohammad-Zaman Kabir

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMA) are often implemented in smart structures as the active components. Their ability to recover large displacements has been used in many applications, including structural stability/response enhancement and active structural acoustic control. SMA wires or fibers can be embedded with composite cylinders to increase their critical buckling load, improve their load-deflection behavior, and reduce the radial deflections under various thermo-mechanical loadings. This paper presents a semi-analytical investigation on the non-linear load-deflection response of SMA-reinforced composite circular cylindrical shells. The cylinder shells are under uniform external pressure load. Based on first-order shear deformation shell theory (FSDT), the equilibrium equations of the structure are derived. One-dimensional simplified Brinson’s model is used for determining the SMA recovery force due to its simplicity and accuracy. Airy stress function and Galerkin technique are used to obtain non-linear load-deflection curves. The results are verified by comparing them with those in the literature. Several parametric studies are conducted in order to investigate the effect of SMA volume fraction, SMA pre-strain value, and SMA activation temperature on the response of the structure. It is shown that suitable usage of SMA wires results in a considerable enhancement in the load-deflection response of the shell due to the generation of the SMA tensile recovery force.

Keywords: Airy stress function, cylindrical shell, Galerkin technique, load-deflection curve, recovery stress, shape memory alloy.

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14 Improvement of Load Carrying Capacity of an RCC T-Beam Bridge Longitudinal Girder by Replacing Steel Bars with SMA Bars

Authors: N. K. Paul, S. Saha

Abstract:

An innovative three dimensional finite element model has beed developed and tested under two point loading system to examine the structural behavior of the longitudinal reinforced concrete Tee-beam bridge girder, reinforcing with steel and shape memory alloy bars respectively. 25% of steel bars are replaced with superelastic Shape Memory Alloy bars in this study. Finite element analysis is performed using ANSYS 11.0 program. Experimentally a model of steel reinforced girder has been casted and its load deflection responses are checked with ANSYS analysis. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel RC girder and the girder combined reinforcement with SMA and steel are also performed.

Keywords: Shape memory alloy, bridge girder, ANSYS, load-deflection.

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13 Dynamic High-Rise Moment Resisting Frame Dissipation Performances Adopting Glazed Curtain Walls with Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy Joints

Authors: Lorenzo Casagrande, Antonio Bonati, Ferdinando Auricchio, Antonio Occhiuzzi

Abstract:

This paper summarizes the results of a survey on smart non-structural element dynamic dissipation when installed in modern high-rise mega-frame prototypes. An innovative glazed curtain wall was designed using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) joints in order to increase the energy dissipation and enhance the seismic/wind response of the structures. The studied buildings consisted of thirty- and sixty-storey planar frames, extracted from reference three-dimensional steel Moment Resisting Frame (MRF) with outriggers and belt trusses. The internal core was composed of a CBF system, whilst outriggers were placed every fifteen stories to limit second order effects and inter-storey drifts. These structural systems were designed in accordance with European rules and numerical FE models were developed with an open-source code, able to account for geometric and material nonlinearities. With regard to the characterization of non-structural building components, full-scale crescendo tests were performed on aluminium/glass curtain wall units at the laboratory of the Construction Technologies Institute (ITC) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), deriving force-displacement curves. Three-dimensional brick-based inelastic FE models were calibrated according to experimental results, simulating the fac¸ade response. Since recent seismic events and extreme dynamic wind loads have generated the large occurrence of non-structural components failure, which causes sensitive economic losses and represents a hazard for pedestrians safety, a more dissipative glazed curtain wall was studied. Taking advantage of the mechanical properties of SMA, advanced smart joints were designed with the aim to enhance both the dynamic performance of the single non-structural unit and the global behavior. Thus, three-dimensional brick-based plastic FE models were produced, based on the innovated non-structural system, simulating the evolution of mechanical degradation in aluminium-to-glass and SMA-to-glass connections when high deformations occurred. Consequently, equivalent nonlinear links were calibrated to reproduce the behavior of both tested and smart designed units, and implemented on the thirty- and sixty-storey structural planar frame FE models. Nonlinear time history analyses (NLTHAs) were performed to quantify the potential of the new system, when considered in the lateral resisting frame system (LRFS) of modern high-rise MRFs. Sensitivity to the structure height was explored comparing the responses of the two prototypes. Trends in global and local performance were discussed to show that, if accurately designed, advanced materials in non-structural elements provide new sources of energy dissipation.

Keywords: Advanced technologies, glazed curtain walls, non-structural elements, seismic-action reduction, shape memory alloy.

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12 In vivo Histomorphometric and Corrosion Analysis of Ti-Ni-Cr Shape Memory Alloys in Rabbits

Authors: T. Ahmed, Z. Butt, M. Ali, S. Attiq, M. Ali

Abstract:

A series of Ti based shape memory alloys with composition of Ti50Ni49Cr1, Ti50Ni47Cr3 and Ti50Ni45Cr5 were developed by vacuum arc-melting under a purified argon atmosphere. The histometric and corrosion evaluation of Ti-Ni-Cr shape memory alloys have been considered in this research work. The alloys were developed by vacuum arc melting and implanted subcutaneously in rabbits for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Metallic implants were embedded in order to determine the outcome of implantation on histometric and corrosion evaluation of Ti-Ni-Cr metallic strips. Encapsulating membrane formation around the alloys was minimal in the case of all materials. After histomorphometric analyses it was possible to demonstrate that there were no statistically significant differences between the materials. Corrosion rate was also determined in this study which is within acceptable range. The results showed the Ti- Ni-Cr alloy was neither cytotoxic, nor have any systemic reaction on living system in any of the test performed. Implantation shows good compatibility and a potential of being used directly in vivo system.

Keywords: Shape memory alloy, Ti-Ni-Fe, histomorphometric, corrosion.

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11 On the Design of Shape Memory Alloy Locking Mechanism: A Novel Solution for Laparoscopic Ligation Process

Authors: Reza Yousefian, Michael A. Kia, Mehrdad Hosseini Zadeh

Abstract:

The blood ducts must be occluded to avoid loss of blood from vessels in laparoscopic surgeries. This paper presents a locking mechanism to be used in a ligation laparoscopic procedure (LigLAP I), as an alternative solution for a stapling procedure. Currently, stapling devices are being used to occlude vessels. Using these devices may result in some problems, including injury of bile duct, taking up a great deal of space behind the vessel, and bile leak. In this new procedure, a two-layer suture occludes a vessel. A locking mechanism is also required to hold the suture. Since there is a limited space at the device tip, a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator is used in this mechanism. Suitability for cleanroom applications, small size, and silent performance are among the advantages of SMA actuators in biomedical applications. An experimental study is conducted to examine the function of the locking mechanism. To set up the experiment, a prototype of a locking mechanism is built using nitinol, which is a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy. The locking mechanism successfully locks a polymer suture for all runs of the experiment. In addition, the effects of various surface materials on the applied pulling forces are studied. Various materials are mounted at the mechanism tip to compare the maximum pulling forces applied to the suture for each material. The results show that the various surface materials on the device tip provide large differences in the applied pulling forces.

Keywords: Laparoscopic surgery, ligation process, locking mechanism, Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator.

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10 Development of UiTM Robotic Prosthetic Hand

Authors: M. Amlie A. Kasim, Ahsana Aqilah, Ahmed Jaffar, Cheng Yee Low, Roseleena Jaafar, M. Saiful Bahari, Armansyah

Abstract:

The study of human hand morphology reveals that developing an artificial hand with the capabilities of human hand is an extremely challenging task. This paper presents the development of a robotic prosthetic hand focusing on the improvement of a tendon driven mechanism towards a biomimetic prosthetic hand. The design of this prosthesis hand is geared towards achieving high level of dexterity and anthropomorphism by means of a new hybrid mechanism that integrates a miniature motor driven actuation mechanism, a Shape Memory Alloy actuated mechanism and a passive mechanical linkage. The synergy of these actuators enables the flexion-extension movement at each of the finger joints within a limited size, shape and weight constraints. Tactile sensors are integrated on the finger tips and the finger phalanges area. This prosthesis hand is developed with an exact size ratio that mimics a biological hand. Its behavior resembles the human counterpart in terms of working envelope, speed and torque, and thus resembles both the key physical features and the grasping functionality of an adult hand.

Keywords: Prosthetic hand, Biomimetic actuation, Shape Memory Alloy, Tactile sensing.

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9 Control of Thermal Flow in Machine Tools Using Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Reimund Neugebauer, Welf-Guntram Drossel, Andre Bucht, Christoph Ohsenbr├╝gge

Abstract:

In this paper the authors propose and verify an approach to control heat flow in machine tool components. Thermal deformations are a main aspect that affects the accuracy of machining. Due to goals of energy efficiency, thermal basic loads should be reduced. This leads to inhomogeneous and time variant temperature profiles. To counteract these negative consequences, material with high melting enthalpy is used as a method for thermal stabilization. The increased thermal capacity slows down the transient thermal behavior. To account for the delayed thermal equilibrium, a control mechanism for thermal flow is introduced. By varying a gap in a heat flow path the thermal resistance of an assembly can be controlled. This mechanism is evaluated in two experimental setups. First to validate the ability to control the thermal resistance and second to prove the possibility of a self-sufficient option based on the selfsensing abilities of thermal shape memory alloys.

Keywords: energy-efficiency, heat transfer path, MT thermal stability, thermal shape memory alloy

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8 Effect of Preheating Temperature and Chamber Pressure on the Properties of Porous NiTi Alloy Prepared by SHS Technique

Authors: Wisutmethangoon S., Denmud N., Sikong L.

Abstract:

The fabrication of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) from elemental powder compacts was conducted by selfpropagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). Effects of the preheating temperature and the chamber pressure on the combustion characteristics as well as the final morphology and the composition of products were studied. The samples with porosity between 56.4 and 59.0% under preheating temperature in the range of 200-300°C and Ar-gas chamber pressure of 138 and 201 kPa were obtained. The pore structures were found to be dissimilar only in the samples processed with different preheating temperature. The major phase in the porous product is NiTi with small amounts of secondary phases, NiTi2 and Ni4Ti3. The preheating temperature and the chamber pressure have very little effect on the phase constituent. While the combustion temperature of the sample was notably increased by increasing the preheating temperature, they were slightly changed by varying the chamber pressure.

Keywords: Combustion synthesis, porous materials, self propagating high temperature synthesis, shape memory alloy.

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7 Shape Memory alloy Actuator System Optimization for New Hand Prostheses

Authors: Mogeeb A. Ahmed, Mona F. Taher, Sayed M. Metwalli

Abstract:

Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators have found a wide range of applications due to their unique properties such as high force, small size, lightweight and silent operation. This paper presents the development of compact (SMA) actuator and cooling system in one unit. This actuator is developed for multi-fingered hand. It consists of nickel-titanium (Nitinol) SMA wires in compact forming. The new arrangement insulates SMA wires from the human body by housing it in a heat sink and uses a thermoelectric device for rejecting heat to improve the actuator performance. The study uses optimization methods for selecting the SMA wires geometrical parameters and the material of a heat sink. The experimental work implements the actuator prototype and measures its response.

Keywords: Optimization, Prosthetic hand, Shape memory alloy, Thermoelectric device, Actuator system

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6 Analytical Prediction of Seismic Response of Steel Frames with Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy

Authors: Mohamed Omar

Abstract:

Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is accepted when it used as connection in steel structures. The seismic behaviour of steel frames with SMA is being assessed in this study. Three eightstorey steel frames with different SMA systems are suggested, the first one of which is braced with diagonal bracing system, the second one is braced with nee bracing system while the last one is which the SMA is used as connection at the plastic hinge regions of beams. Nonlinear time history analyses of steel frames with SMA subjected to two different ground motion records have been performed using Seismostruct software. To evaluate the efficiency of suggested systems, the dynamic responses of the frames were compared. From the comparison results, it can be concluded that using SMA element is an effective way to improve the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations. Implementing the SMA braces can lead to a reduction in residual roof displacement. The shape memory alloy is effective in reducing the maximum displacement at the frame top and it provides a large elastic deformation range. SMA connections are very effective in dissipating energy and reducing the total input energy of the whole frame under severe seismic ground motion. Using of the SMA connection system is more effective in controlling the reaction forces at the base frame than other bracing systems. Using SMA as bracing is more effective in reducing the displacements. The efficiency of SMA is dependant on the input wave motions and the construction system as well.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, seismic response, shapesmemory alloy, steel frame, superelasticity

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5 Uniform Distribution of Ductility Demand in Irregular Bridges using Shape Memory Alloy

Authors: Seyed Mohyeddin Ghodratian, Mehdi Ghassemieh, Mohammad Khanmohammadi

Abstract:

Excessive ductility demand on shorter piers is a common problem for irregular bridges subjected to strong ground motion. Various techniques have been developed to reduce the likelihood of collapse of bridge due to failure of shorter piers. This paper presents the new approach to improve the seismic behavior of such bridges using Nitinol shape memory alloys (SMAs). Superelastic SMAs have the ability to remain elastic under very large deformation due to martensitic transformation. This unique property leads to enhanced performance of controlled bridge compared with the performance of the reference bridge. To evaluate the effectiveness of the devices, nonlinear time history analysis is performed on a RC single column bent highway bridge using a suite of representative ground motions. The results show that this method is very effective in limiting the ductility demand of shorter pier.

Keywords: bridge, ductility demand, irregularity, shape memory alloy

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4 Thermal Post-buckling of Shape Memory Alloy Composite Plates under Non-uniform Temperature Distribution

Authors: Z.A. Rasid, R. Zahari, A. Ayob, D.L. Majid, A.S.M. Rafie

Abstract:

Aerospace vehicles are subjected to non-uniform thermal loading that may cause thermal buckling. A study was conducted on the thermal post-buckling of shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to the non-uniform tent-like temperature field. The shape memory alloy wires were embedded within the laminated composite plates to add recovery stress to the plates. The non-linear finite element model that considered the recovery stress of the shape memory alloy and temperature dependent properties of the shape memory alloy and composite matrix along with its source codes were developed. It was found that the post-buckling paths of the shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to various tentlike temperature fields were stable within the studied temperature range. The addition of shape memory alloy wires to the composite plates was found to significantly improve the post-buckling behavior of laminated composite plates under non-uniform temperature distribution.

Keywords: Post-buckling, shape memory alloy, temperaturedependent property, tent-like temperature distribution

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3 Research and Development of a Biomorphic Robot Driven by Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Y.J. Lai, H.Y. Peng, M.W. Wu, J. Shaw

Abstract:

In this study, we used shape memory alloys as actuators to build a biomorphic robot which can imitate the motion of an earthworm. The robot can be used to explore in a narrow space. Therefore we chose shape memory alloys as actuators. Because of the small deformation of a wire shape memory alloy, spiral shape memory alloys are selected and installed both on the X axis and Y axis (each axis having two shape memory alloys) to enable the biomorphic robot to do reciprocating motion. By the mechanism we designed, the robot can increase the distance as it moves in a duty cycle. In addition, two shape memory alloys are added to the robot head for controlling right and left turns. By sending pulses through the I/O card from the controller, the signals are then amplified by a driver to heat the shape memory alloys in order to make the SMA shrink to pull the mechanism to move.

Keywords: Biomorphic Robot, Shape Memory Alloy.

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2 Mechanical Design and Theoretical Analysis of a Four Fingered Prosthetic Hand Incorporating Embedded SMA Bundle Actuators

Authors: Kevin T. O'Toole, Mark M. McGrath

Abstract:

The psychological and physical trauma associated with the loss of a human limb can severely impact on the quality of life of an amputee rendering even the most basic of tasks very difficult. A prosthetic device can be of great benefit to the amputee in the performance of everyday human tasks. This paper outlines a proposed mechanical design of a 12 degree-of-freedom SMA actuated artificial hand. It is proposed that the SMA wires be embedded intrinsically within the hand structure which will allow for significant flexibility for use either as a prosthetic hand solution, or as part of a complete lower arm prosthetic solution. A modular approach is taken in the design facilitating ease of manufacture and assembly, and more importantly, also allows the end user to easily replace SMA wires in the event of failure. A biomimetric approach has been taken during the design process meaning that the artificial hand should replicate that of a human hand as far as is possible with due regard to functional requirements. The proposed design has been exposed to appropriate loading through the use of finite element analysis (FEA) to ensure that it is structurally sound. Theoretical analysis of the mechanical framework was also carried out to establish the limits of the angular displacement and velocity of the finger tip as well finger tip force generation. A combination of various polymers and Titanium, which are suitably lightweight, are proposed for the manufacture of the design.

Keywords: Hand prosthesis, mechanical design, shape memory alloys, wire bundle actuation.

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1 Phase Transformation Temperatures for Shape Memory Alloy Wire

Authors: Tan Wee Choon, Abdul Saad Salleh, Saifulnizan Jamian, Mohd. Imran Ghazali

Abstract:

Phase transformation temperature is one of the most important parameters for the shape memory alloys (SMAs). The most popular method to determine these phase transformation temperatures is the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), but due to the limitation of the DSC testing itself, it made it difficult for the finished product which is not in the powder form. A novel method which uses the Universal Testing Machine has been conducted to determine the phase transformation temperatures. The Flexinol wire was applied with force and maintained throughout the experiment and at the same time it was heated up slowly until a temperature of approximately 1000C with direct current. The direct current was then slowly decreased to cool down the temperature of the Flexinol wire. All the phase transformation temperatures for Flexinol wire were obtained. The austenite start at 52.540C and austenite finish at 60.900C, while martensite start at 44.780C and martensite finish at 32.840C.

Keywords: Phase transformation temperature, Robotic, Shapememory alloy, Universal Testing Machine.

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