Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1369

Search results for: self propagating high temperature synthesis

1369 Effect of Preheating Temperature and Chamber Pressure on the Properties of Porous NiTi Alloy Prepared by SHS Technique

Authors: Wisutmethangoon S., Denmud N., Sikong L.

Abstract:

The fabrication of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) from elemental powder compacts was conducted by selfpropagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). Effects of the preheating temperature and the chamber pressure on the combustion characteristics as well as the final morphology and the composition of products were studied. The samples with porosity between 56.4 and 59.0% under preheating temperature in the range of 200-300°C and Ar-gas chamber pressure of 138 and 201 kPa were obtained. The pore structures were found to be dissimilar only in the samples processed with different preheating temperature. The major phase in the porous product is NiTi with small amounts of secondary phases, NiTi2 and Ni4Ti3. The preheating temperature and the chamber pressure have very little effect on the phase constituent. While the combustion temperature of the sample was notably increased by increasing the preheating temperature, they were slightly changed by varying the chamber pressure.

Keywords: Combustion synthesis, porous materials, self propagating high temperature synthesis, shape memory alloy.

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1368 High Level Synthesis of Canny Edge Detection Algorithm on Zynq Platform

Authors: Hanaa M. Abdelgawad, Mona Safar, Ayman M. Wahba

Abstract:

Real time image and video processing is a demand in many computer vision applications, e.g. video surveillance, traffic management and medical imaging. The processing of those video applications requires high computational power. Thus, the optimal solution is the collaboration of CPU and hardware accelerators. In this paper, a Canny edge detection hardware accelerator is proposed. Edge detection is one of the basic building blocks of video and image processing applications. It is a common block in the pre-processing phase of image and video processing pipeline. Our presented approach targets offloading the Canny edge detection algorithm from processing system (PS) to programmable logic (PL) taking the advantage of High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool flow to accelerate the implementation on Zynq platform. The resulting implementation enables up to a 100x performance improvement through hardware acceleration. The CPU utilization drops down and the frame rate jumps to 60 fps of 1080p full HD input video stream.

Keywords: High Level Synthesis, Canny edge detection, Hardware accelerators, and Computer Vision.

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1367 Mechanical Properties and Released Gas Analysis of High Strength Concrete with Polypropylene and Raw Rice Husk under High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

When concrete is exposed to high temperatures, some changes may occur in its physical and mechanical properties. Especially, high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a well-known method. In high temperatures, PP decomposes and releases harmful gases such as CO and CO2. This study researches the use of raw rice husk (RRH) as a sustainable material, instead of PP fibers considering its several favorable properties, and its usability in HSC. RRH and PP fibers were incorporated in concrete at 0.5-3% and 0.2-0.5% by weight of cement, respectively. Concrete specimens were exposed to 20 (control), 300, 600 and 900°C. Under these temperatures, residual compressive and splitting tensile strength was determined. During the high temperature effect, the amount of released harmful gases was measured by a gas detector.

Keywords: Gas analysis, high temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fibers, raw rice husk.

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1366 High-Temperature X-Ray Powder Diffraction of Secondary Gypsum

Authors: D. Gazdič, I. Hájková, M. Fridrichová

Abstract:

This paper involved the performance of a hightemperature X-Ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) of a sample of chemical gypsum generated in the production of titanium white; this gypsum originates by neutralizing highly acidic water with limestone suspension. Specifically, it was gypsum formed in the first stage of neutralization when the resulting material contains, apart from gypsum, a number of waste products resulting from the decomposition of ilmenite by sulphuric acid. So it can be described as red titanogypsum. By conducting the experiment using XRD apparatus Bruker D8 Advance with a Cu anode (λkα=1.54184 Å) equipped with high-temperature chamber Anton Paar HTK 16, it was possible to identify clearly in the sample each phase transition in the system of CaSO4·xH2O.

Keywords: Anhydrite, Gypsum, Bassanite, Hematite, XRD, Powder, High-Temperature.

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1365 High Temperature Hydrogen Sensors Based On Pd/Ta2O5/SiC MOS Capacitor

Authors: J. H. Choi, S. J. Kim, M. S. Jung, S. J. Kim, S. J. Joo, S. C. Kim

Abstract:

There are a many of needs for the development of SiC-based hydrogen sensor for harsh environment applications. We fabricated and investigated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen sensors with MOS capacitor structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in such automotive, chemical and petroleum industries as well as direct monitoring of combustion processes. In this work, we used silicon carbide (SiC) as a substrate to replace silicon which operating temperatures are limited to below 200°C. Tantalum oxide was investigated as dielectric layer which has high permeability for hydrogen gas and high dielectric permittivity, compared with silicon dioxide or silicon nitride. Then, electrical response properties, such as I-V curve and dependence of capacitance on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature ranges of room temperature to 500°C for performance evaluation of the sensor.

Keywords: High temperature, hydrogen sensor, SiC, Ta2O5 dielectric layer.

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1364 CFD Modeling of High Temperature Seal Chamber

Authors: Mikhail P. Strongin, Ragupathi Soundararajan

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is fast design optimization of the seal chamber. The study includes the mass transfer between lower and upper chamber on seal chamber for hot water application pumps. The use of Fluent 12.1 commercial code made it possible to capture complex flow with heat-mass transfer, radiation, Tailor instability, and buoyancy effect. Realizable k-epsilon model was used for turbulence modeling. Radiation heat losses were taken into account. The temperature distribution at seal region is predicted with respect to heat addition. Results show the possibilities of the model simplifications by excluding the water domain in low chamber from calculations. CFD simulations permit to improve seal chamber design to meet target water temperature around the seal. This study can be used for the analysis of different seal chamber configurations.

Keywords: CFD, heat transfer, seal chamber, high temperature water

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1363 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels

Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang

Abstract:

For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.

Keywords: Enhanced oil recovery, CO2 flooding, micromodel studies, miscible flooding.

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1362 High Level Synthesis of Digital Filters Based On Sub-Token Forwarding

Authors: Iyad F. Jafar, Sandra J. Alrawashdeh, Ban K. Alhamayel

Abstract:

High level synthesis (HLS) is a process which generates register-transfer level design for digital systems from behavioral description. There are many HLS algorithms and commercial tools. However, most of these algorithms consider a behavioral description for the system when a single token is presented to the system. This approach does not exploit extra hardware efficiently, especially in the design of digital filters where common operations may exist between successive tokens. In this paper, we modify the behavioral description to process multiple tokens in parallel. However, this approach is unlike the full processing that requires full hardware replication. It exploits the presence of common operations between successive tokens. The performance of the proposed approach is better than sequential processing and approaches that of full parallel processing as the hardware resources are increased.

Keywords: Digital filters, High level synthesis, Sub-token forwarding

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1361 Gasoline and Diesel Production via Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt Based Catalyst

Authors: N. Choosri, N. Swadchaipong, T. Utistham, U. W. Hartley

Abstract:

Performance of a cobalt doped sol-gel derived silica (Co/SiO2) catalyst for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) in slurryphase reactor was studied using paraffin wax as initial liquid media. The reactive mixed gas, hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in a molar ratio of 2:1, was flowed at 50 ml/min. Braunauer-Emmett- Teller (BET) surface area and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to characterize both the specific surface area and crystallinity of the catalyst, respectively. The reduction behavior of Co/SiO2 catalyst was investigated using the Temperature Programmmed Reduction (TPR) method. Operating temperatures were varied from 493 to 533K to find the optimum conditions to maximize liquid fuels production, gasoline and diesel.

Keywords: Fischer Tropsch synthesis, slurry phase, Co/SiO2, operating temperature.

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1360 Microstructure and High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cast 310S Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

High temperature deformation behavior of cast 310S stainless steel has been investigated in this study by performing tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 900 to 1200oC. Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 350×350×100 in millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software and database. Thermal expansion coefficient was also measured on the ingot in the temperature range from room temperature to 1200oC. Tensile strength of cast 310S stainless steel was 9 MPa at 1200oC, which is a little higher than that of a wrought 310S. With temperature decreased, tensile strength increased rapidly and reached up to 72 MPa at 900oC. Elongation also increased with temperature decreased. Microstructure observation revealed that s phase was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the matrix over 1200oC, which is detrimental to high temperature elongation.

Keywords: Stainless steel, STS 310S, high temperature deformation, microstructure, mechanical properties.

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1359 Ageing and Partial Discharge Patterns in Oil-Impregnated Paper and Pressboard Insulation at High Temperature

Authors: R. H. Khawaja, T. R. Blackburn, M. Rehan Arif

Abstract:

The power transformer is the most expensive, indispensable and arguably the most important equipment item in a power system Insulation failure in transformers can cause long term interruption to supply and loss of revenue and the condition assessment of the insulation is thus an important maintenance procedure. Oil-impregnated transformer insulation consists of mainly organic materials including mineral oil and cellulose-base paper and pressboard. The operating life of cellulose-based insulation, as with most organic insulation, depends heavily on its operating temperature rise above ambient. This paper reports results of a laboratory-based experimental investigation of partial discharge (PD) activity at high temperature in oil-impregnated insulation. The experiments reported here are part an on-going programme aimed at investigating the way in which insulation deterioration can be monitored and quantified by use of partial discharge diagnostics. Partial discharge patterns were recorded and analysed during increasing and decreasing phases of the temperature. The effect of ageing of the insulation on the PD patterns in oil and oil-impregnated insulation are also considered.

Keywords: Ageing, high temperature, PD, oil-impregnated insulation.

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1358 Physical and Thermo-Physical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Raw Rice Husk after High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

High temperature is one of the most detrimental effects that cause important changes in concrete’s mechanical, physical, and thermo-physical properties. As a result of these changes, especially high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a very well-known method. In this study, using RRH, as a sustainable material, instead of PP fiber in HSC to prevent spallings and improve physical and thermo-physical properties were investigated. Therefore, seven HSC mixtures with 0.25 water to binder ratio were prepared incorporating silica fume and blast furnace slag. PP and RRH were used at 0.2-0.5% and 0.5-3% by weight of cement, respectively. All specimens were subjected to high temperatures (20 (control), 300, 600 and 900˚C) with a heating rate of 2.5˚C/min and after cooling, residual physical and thermo-physical properties were determined.

Keywords: High temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fiber, raw rice husk, thermo-physical properties.

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1357 Post Elevated Temperature Effect on the Strength and Microstructure of Thin High Performance Cementitious Composites (THPCC)

Authors: A. Q. Sobia, A. Shyzleen, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi, S. Ahmad

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) lack in thermal resistance under elevated temperatures in the event of fire. This phenomenon led to the lining of strengthened concrete with thin high performance cementitious composites (THPCC) to protect the substrate against elevated temperature. Elevated temperature effects on THPCC, based on different cementitious materials have been studied in the past but high-alumina cement (HAC)-based THPCC have not been well characterized. This research study will focus on the THPCC based on HAC replaced by 60%, 70%, 80% and 85% of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Samples were evaluated by the measurement of their mechanical strength (28 & 56 days of curing) after exposed to 400°C, 600°C and 28°C of room temperature for comparison and corroborated by their microstructure study. Results showed that among all mixtures, the mix containing only HAC showed the highest compressive strength after exposed to 600°C as compared to other mixtures. However, the tensile strength of THPCC made of HAC and 60% GGBS content was comparable to the THPCC with HAC only after exposed to 600°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of THPCC accompanying Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis revealed that the microstructure deteriorated considerably after exposure to elevated temperatures which led to the decrease in mechanical strength.

Keywords: Ground granulated blast furnace slag, high aluminacement, microstructure at elevated temperature and residual strength.

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1356 Magnesium Waste Evaluation in Moderate Temperature (70oC) Magnesium Borate Synthesis

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, A. S. Kipcak, A. Kaplan, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Waste problem is becoming a future problem all over the world. Magnesium wastes which can be used in recycling processes are produced by many industrial activities. Magnesium borates which have useful properties such as; high heat resistance, corrosion resistance, supermechanical strength, superinsulation, light weight, high coefficient of elasticity and so on. Addition, magnesium borates have great potential in the development of ceramic and detergents industry, whisker-reinforced composites, antiwear, and reducing friction additives.

In this study, using the starting materials of waste magnesium and H3BO3 the hydrothermal method was applied at a moderate temperature of 70oC with different reaction times. Several reaction times of waste magnesium to H3BO3 were selected as; 30, 60, 120, 240 minutes. After the synthesis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques were applied to products. As a result, the forms of Admontite [MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)] and Mcallisterite [Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)] were synthesized.

Keywords: Hydrothermal synthesis, magnesium borates, waste magnesium.

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1355 The High Temperature Damage of DV – 2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni – Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

High pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV – 2 jet engines are made from Ni – based superalloy. This alloy was originally manufactured in the Soviet Union and referred as ŽS6K. For improving alloy’s high temperature resistance are blades coated with Al – Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An overcrossing working temperature range causes degradation of the protective coating as well as base material which microstructure is formed by the gamma matrix and strengthening phase gamma prime (forming small particles in the microstructure). Diffusion processes inside the material during exposition of the material to high temperatures causes mainly coarsening of the gamma prime particles, thus decreasing its strengthening effect. Degradation of the Al – Si coating caused its thickness growth. All the microstructure changes and coating layer thickness growth results in decreasing of the turbine blade operation lifetime.

Keywords: Alitize coating layer, gamma prime phase, high temperature degradation, Ni – base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade.

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1354 Behaviour of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures

Authors: Lenka Bodnárová, Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertová, Iveta Nováková

Abstract:

This paper is concerning the issues of behaviour of lightweight expanded clay aggregates concrete exposed to high temperature. Lightweight aggregates from expanded clay are produced by firing of row material up to temperature 1050°C. Lightweight aggregates have suitable properties in terms of volume stability, when exposed to temperatures up to 1050°C, which could indicate their suitability for construction applications with higher risk of fire. The test samples were exposed to heat by using the standard temperature-time curve ISO 834. Negative changes in resulting mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength were evaluated. Also visual evaluation of the specimen was performed. On specimen exposed to excessive heat, an explosive spalling could be observed, due to evaporation of considerable amount of unbounded water from the inner structure of the concrete.

Keywords: Expanded clay aggregate, explosive spalling, high temperature, lightweight concrete, temperature-time curve ISO 834.

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1353 Multi-Criteria Optimization of High-Temperature Reversed Starter-Generator

Authors: Flur R. Ismagilov, Irek Kh. Khayrullin, Vyacheslav E. Vavilov, Ruslan D. Karimov, Anton S. Gorbunov, Danis R. Farrakhov

Abstract:

The paper presents another structural scheme of high-temperature starter-generator with external rotor to be installed on High Pressure Shaft (HPS) of aircraft engines (AE) to implement More Electrical Engine concept. The basic materials to make this starter-generator (SG) were selected and justified. Multi-criteria optimization of the developed structural scheme was performed using a genetic algorithm and Pareto method. The optimum (in Pareto terms) active length and thickness of permanent magnets of SG were selected as a result of the optimization. Using the dimensions obtained, allowed to reduce the weight of the designed SG by 10 kg relative to a base option at constant thermal loads. Multidisciplinary computer simulation was performed on the basis of the optimum geometric dimensions, which proved performance efficiency of the design. We further plan to make a full-scale sample of SG of HPS and publish the results of its experimental research.

Keywords: High-temperature starter-generator, More electrical engine, multi-criteria optimization, permanent magnet.

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1352 High-Individuality Voice Conversion Based on Concatenative Speech Synthesis

Authors: Kei Fujii, Jun Okawa, Kaori Suigetsu

Abstract:

Concatenative speech synthesis is a method that can make speech sound which has naturalness and high-individuality of a speaker by introducing a large speech corpus. Based on this method, in this paper, we propose a voice conversion method whose conversion speech has high-individuality and naturalness. The authors also have two subjective evaluation experiments for evaluating individuality and sound quality of conversion speech. From the results, following three facts have be confirmed: (a) the proposal method can convert the individuality of speakers well, (b) employing the framework of unit selection (especially join cost) of concatenative speech synthesis into conventional voice conversion improves the sound quality of conversion speech, and (c) the proposal method is robust against the difference of genders between a source speaker and a target speaker.

Keywords: concatenative speech synthesis, join cost, speaker individuality, unit selection, voice conversion

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1351 Effect of Initial Conditions on Aerodynamic and Acoustic Characteristics of High Subsonic Jets from Sharp Edged Circular Orifice

Authors: Murugan, K. N. Sharma, S. D.

Abstract:

The present work involves measurements to examine the effects of initial conditions on aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a Jet at M=0.8 by changing the orientation of sharp edged orifice plate. A thick plate with chamfered orifice presented divergent and convergent openings when it was flipped over. The centerline velocity was found to decay more rapidly for divergent orifice and that was consistent with the enhanced mass entrainment suggesting quicker spread of the jet compared with that from the convergent orifice. The mixing layer region elucidated this effect of initial conditions at an early stage – the growth was found to be comparatively more pronounced for the divergent orifice resulting in reduced potential core size. The acoustic measurements, carried out in the near field noise region outside the jet within potential core length, showed the jet from the divergent orifice to be less noisy. The frequency spectra of the noise signal exhibited that in the initial region of comparatively thin mixing layer for the convergent orifice, the peak registered a higher SPL and a higher frequency as well. The noise spectra and the mixing layer development suggested a direct correlation between the coherent structures developing in the initial region of the jet and the noise captured in the surrounding near field.

Keywords: Convergent orifice jet, Divergent orifice jet, Mass entrainment, mixing layer, near field noise, frequency spectrum, SPL, Strouhal number, wave number, reactive pressure field, propagating pressure field.

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1350 Research and Development of Lightweight Repair Mortars with Focus on Their Resistance to High Temperatures

Authors: Tomáš Melichar, Jiří Bydžovský, Vít Černý

Abstract:

In this article our research focused on study of basic physical and mechanical parameters of polymer-cement repair materials is presented. Namely the influence of applied aggregates in combination with active admixture is specially considered. New formulas which were exposed in ambient with temperature even to 1000°C were suggested. Subsequently densities and strength characteristics including their changes were evaluated. Selected samples were analyzed using electron microscope. The positive influence of porous aggregates based on sintered ash was definitely demonstrated. Further it was found than in terms of thermal resistance the effective micro silica amount represents 5% to 7.5% of cement weight.

Keywords: Aggregate, ash, high, lightweight, microsilica, mortar, polymer-cement, repair, temperature.

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1349 A High Precision Temperature Insensitive Current and Voltage Reference Generator

Authors: Kimberly Jane S. Uy, Patricia Angela Reyes-Abu, Wen Yaw Chung

Abstract:

A high precision temperature insensitive current and voltage reference generator is presented. It is specifically developed for temperature compensated oscillator. The circuit, designed using MXIC 0.5um CMOS technology, has an operating voltage that ranges from 2.6V to 5V and generates a voltage of 1.21V and a current of 6.38 ӴA. It exhibits a variation of ±0.3nA for the current reference and a stable output for voltage reference as the temperature is varied from 0°C to 70°C. The power supply rejection ratio obtained without any filtering capacitor at 100Hz and 10MHz is -30dB and -12dB respectively.

Keywords: Current reference, voltage reference, threshold voltage, temperature compensation, mobility.

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1348 Influence of Thermal Cycle on Temperature Dependent Process Parameters Involved in GTA Welded High Carbon Steel Joints

Authors: J. Dutta, Narendranath S.

Abstract:

In this research article a comprehensive investigation has been carried out to determine the effect of thermal cycle on temperature dependent process parameters developed during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of high carbon (AISI 1090) steel butt joints. An experiment based thermal analysis has been performed to obtain the thermal history. We have focused on different thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient and cooling rate. Angular torch model has been utilized to find out the surface heat flux and its variation along the fusion zone as well as along the longitudinal direction from fusion boundary. After welding and formation of weld pool, heat transfer coefficient varies rapidly in the vicinity of molten weld bead and heat affected zone. To evaluate the heat transfer coefficient near the fusion line and near the rear end of the plate (low temperature region), established correlation has been implemented and has been compared with empirical correlation which is noted as coupled convective and radiation heat transfer coefficient. Change in thermal conductivity has been visualized by analytical model of moving point heat source. Rate of cooling has been estimated by using 2-dimensional mathematical expression of cooling rate and it has shown good agreement with experimental temperature cycle. Thermophysical properties have been varied randomly within 0 -10s time span.

Keywords: Thermal history, Gas tungsten arc welding, Butt joint, High carbon steel.

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1347 High Level Synthesis of Kahn Process Networks(KPN) for Streaming Applications

Authors: Attiya Mahmood, Syed Ali Abbas, Shoab A. Khan

Abstract:

Streaming Applications usually run in parallel or in series that incrementally transform a stream of input data. It poses a design challenge to break such an application into distinguishable blocks and then to map them into independent hardware processing elements. For this, there is required a generic controller that automatically maps such a stream of data into independent processing elements without any dependencies and manual considerations. In this paper, Kahn Process Networks (KPN) for such streaming applications is designed and developed that will be mapped on MPSoC. This is designed in such a way that there is a generic Cbased compiler that will take the mapping specifications as an input from the user and then it will automate these design constraints and automatically generate the synthesized RTL optimized code for specified application.

Keywords: KPN, DFG, FPGA

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1346 Activation Parameters of the Low Temperature Creep Controlling Mechanism in Martensitic Steels

Authors: M. Münch, R. Brandt

Abstract:

Martensitic steels with an ultimate tensile strength beyond 2000 MPa are applied in the powertrain of vehicles due to their excellent fatigue strength and high creep resistance. However, the creep controlling mechanism in martensitic steels at ambient temperatures up to 423 K is not evident. The purpose of this study is to review the low temperature creep (LTC) behavior of martensitic steels at temperatures from 363 K to 523 K. Thus, the validity of a logarithmic creep law is reviewed and the stress and temperature dependence of the creep parameters α and β are revealed. Furthermore, creep tests are carried out, which include stepped changes in temperature or stress, respectively. On one hand, the change of the creep rate due to a temperature step provides information on the magnitude of the activation energy of the LTC controlling mechanism and on the other hand, the stress step approach provides information on the magnitude of the activation volume. The magnitude, the temperature dependency, and the stress dependency of both material specific activation parameters may deliver a significant contribution to the disclosure of the nature of the LTC rate controlling mechanism.

Keywords: Activation parameters, creep mechanisms, high strength steels, low temperature creep.

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1345 Nanocrystalline Mg-3%Al Alloy: its Synthesis and Investigation of its Tensile Behavior

Authors: A. Mallick

Abstract:

The tensile properties of Mg-3%Al nanocrystalline alloys were investigated at different test environment. Bulk nanocrystalline samples of these alloy was successfully prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by cold compaction, sintering, and hot extrusion process. The crystal size of the consolidated milled sample was calculated by X-Ray line profile analysis. The deformation mechanism and microstructural characteristic at different test condition was discussed extensively. At room temperature, relatively lower value of activation volume (AV) and higher value of strain rate sensitivity (SRS) suggests that new rate controlling mechanism accommodating plastic flow in the present nanocrystalline sample. The deformation behavior and the microstructural character of the present samples were discussed in details.

Keywords: Nanocrystalline, tensile properties, temperature effect.

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1344 Measurement of UHF Signal Strength Propagating from Road Surface with Vehicle Obstruction

Authors: C. Thongsopa, P. Sukphongchirakul, A. Intarapanich, P. Jarataku

Abstract:

Radio wave propagation on the road surface is a major problem on wireless sensor network for traffic monitoring. In this paper, we compare receiving signal strength on two scenarios 1) an empty road and 2) a road with a vehicle. We investigate the effect of antenna polarization and antenna height to the receiving signal strength. The transmitting antenna is installed on the road surface. The receiving signal is measured 360 degrees around the transmitting antenna with the radius of 2.5 meters. Measurement results show the receiving signal fluctuation around the transmitting antenna in both scenarios. Receiving signal with vertical polarization antenna results in higher signal strength than horizontal polarization antenna. The optimum antenna elevation is 1 meter for both horizon and vertical polarizations with the vehicle on the road. In the empty road, the receiving signal level is unvarying with the elevation when the elevation is greater than 1.5 meters.

Keywords: Wave propagation, wireless sensor network.

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1343 Thermodynamic Attainable Region for Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether from Synthesis Gas

Authors: Thulane Paepae, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the use of a method of synthesizing process flowsheets using a graphical tool called the GH-plot and in particular, to look at how it can be used to compare the reactions of a combined simultaneous process with regard to their thermodynamics. The technique uses fundamental thermodynamic principles to allow the mass, energy and work balances locate the attainable region for chemical processes in a reactor. This provides guidance on what design decisions would be best suited to developing new processes that are more effective and make lower demands on raw material and energy usage.

Keywords: Attainable region, dimethyl ether synthesis, mass balance, optimal reaction networks.

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1342 Effect of Temperature of Exposure on Properties of Cement Mortar with MSWI Bottom Ash

Authors: Z. Pavlík, M. Keppert, J. Žumár, M. Pavlíková, A. Trník, R. Černý

Abstract:

Effect of high temperature exposure on properties of cement mortar containing municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as partial natural aggregate replacement is analyzed in the paper. The measurements of mechanical properties, bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, sorption and desorption isotherms are done on samples exposed to the temperatures of 20°C to 1000°C. TGA analysis is performed as well. Finally, the studied samples are analyzed by IR spectroscopy in order to evaluate TGA data.

Keywords: Cement mortar, high temperature exposure, MSWI bottom ash, natural aggregate replacement, mechanical properties

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1341 Transformer Top-Oil Temperature Modeling and Simulation

Authors: T. C. B. N. Assunção, J. L. Silvino, P. Resende

Abstract:

The winding hot-spot temperature is one of the most critical parameters that affect the useful life of the power transformers. The winding hot-spot temperature can be calculated as function of the top-oil temperature that can estimated by using the ambient temperature and transformer loading measured data. This paper proposes the estimation of the top-oil temperature by using a method based on Least Squares Support Vector Machines approach. The estimated top-oil temperature is compared with measured data of a power transformer in operation. The results are also compared with methods based on the IEEE Standard C57.91-1995/2000 and Artificial Neural Networks. It is shown that the Least Squares Support Vector Machines approach presents better performance than the methods based in the IEEE Standard C57.91-1995/2000 and artificial neural networks.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Hot-spot Temperature, Least Squares Support Vector, Top-oil Temperature.

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1340 Investigation of the Synthesis of Alcohols Byproducts in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Modified Fe-Cu Catalyst: Reactivity and Mechanism

Authors: Wanyu Mao, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The influence of copper promoters and reaction conditions on the formation of alcohols byproducts of a common Fischer-Tropsch synthesis used iron-based catalysts were investigated. A good compromise of 28%Cu/FeKLaSiO2 can lead to the optimization of an improved Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. The product distribution shifts towards hydrocarbons with increasing the reaction temperature, while pressure promotes the formation of alcohols. It was found that the production of either alcohols or hydrocarbons followed A-S-F distributions, and their α parameters were essentially different which indicated a competition in the growing chain between the two species. TPD after acetaldehyde adsorption gave strong evidence of the insertion of a C1 oxygen-containing species into an alkyl chain.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fe-Cu catalyst, alcohols byproducts, reaction pathways

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