Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: seal chamber

40 CFD Modeling of High Temperature Seal Chamber

Authors: Mikhail P. Strongin, Ragupathi Soundararajan

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is fast design optimization of the seal chamber. The study includes the mass transfer between lower and upper chamber on seal chamber for hot water application pumps. The use of Fluent 12.1 commercial code made it possible to capture complex flow with heat-mass transfer, radiation, Tailor instability, and buoyancy effect. Realizable k-epsilon model was used for turbulence modeling. Radiation heat losses were taken into account. The temperature distribution at seal region is predicted with respect to heat addition. Results show the possibilities of the model simplifications by excluding the water domain in low chamber from calculations. CFD simulations permit to improve seal chamber design to meet target water temperature around the seal. This study can be used for the analysis of different seal chamber configurations.

Keywords: CFD, heat transfer, seal chamber, high temperature water

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39 Trends in Use of Millings in Pavement Maintenance

Authors: Rafiqul Tarefder, Mohiuddin Ahmad, Mohammad Hossain

Abstract:

While millings materials from old pavement surface can be an important component of cost effective maintenance operation, their use in maintenance projects are not uniform and well documented. This study documents the different maintenance practices followed by four transportation districts of New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) in an attempt to find whether millings are being used in maintenance projects by those districts. Based on existing literature, a questionnaire was developed related to six common maintenance practices. NMDOT district personal were interviewed face to face to discuss and get answers to that questionnaire. It revealed that NMDOT districts mainly use chip seal and patching. Other maintenance procedures such as sand seal, scrub seal, slurry seal, and thin overlay have limited use. Two out of four participating districts do not have any documents on chip sealing; rather they employ the experiences of the chip seal crew. All districts use polymer modified high float emulsion (HFE100P) for chip seal with an application rate ranging from 0.4 to 0.56 gallons per square yard. Chip application rate varies from 15 to 40 lb/ square yard. State wide, the thickness of chip seal varies from 3/8'' to 1'' and life varies from 3 to 10 years. NMDOT districts mainly use three type of patching: pothole, dig-out and blade patch. Pothole patches are used for small potholes and during emergency, dig-out patches are used for all type of potholes sometimes after pothole patching, and blade patch is used when a significant portion of the pavement is damaged. Pothole patches last as low as three days whereas, blade patch lasts as long as 3 years. It was observed that all participating districts use millings in maintenance projects.

Keywords: Chip seal, sand seal, scrub seal, slurry seal, overlay, patching, millings.

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38 Analysis of Flow in Cylindrical Mixing Chamber

Authors: Václav Dvořák

Abstract:

The article deals with numerical investigation of axisymmetric subsonic air to air ejector. An analysis of flow and mixing processes in cylindrical mixing chamber are made. Several modes with different velocity and ejection ratio are presented. The mixing processes are described and differences between flow in the initial region of mixing and the main region of mixing are described. The lengths of both regions are evaluated. Transition point and point where the mixing processes are finished are identified. It was found that the length of the initial region of mixing is strongly dependent on the velocity ratio, while the length of the main region of mixing is dependent on velocity ratio only slightly.

Keywords: Air ejector, mixing chamber, CFD.

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37 Numerical Study on CO2 Pollution in an Ignition Chamber by Oxygen Enrichment

Authors: Zohreh Orshesh

Abstract:

In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aims to obtain accurate information about the profile of the combustion in the furnace and also check the effect of oxygen enrichment on the combustion process. Oxygen enrichment is an effective way to reduce combustion pollutant. The flow rate of air to fuel ratio is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. Combustion simulations typically involve the solution of the turbulent flows with heat transfer, species transport and chemical reactions. It is common to use the Reynolds-averaged form of the governing equation in conjunction with a suitable turbulence model. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.3 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Species mass fractions at the wall are assumed to have zero normal gradients.Results show that minimum mole fraction of CO2 happens when the flow rate ratio of air to fuel is 5.1. Additionally, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak. As a result, oxygen-enrichment can reduce the CO2 emission at this kind of furnace in high air to fuel rates.

Keywords: Combustion chamber, Oxygen enrichment, Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes, CO2 emission

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36 A New Design of Temperature-Controlled Chamber for OLED Panels

Authors: Hsin-Hung Chang, Jin-Lung Guan, Ming-Ta Yang

Abstract:

This paper presents an inexpensive and effective temperature-controlled chamber for temperature environment tests of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) panels. The proposed chamber is a compact warmer and cooler with an exact temperature control system. In the temperature-controlled space of the chamber, thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are utilized to cool or to heat OLED panels, novel fixtures are designed to flexibly clamp the OLED panels of different size, and special connectors for wiring between the OLED panels and the test instrument are supplied. The proposed chamber has the following features. (1) The TEMs are solid semi-conductive devices, so they operate without noise and without pollution. (2) The volume of the temperature-controlled space of the chamber about 160mm*160mm*120mm, so the chamber are compact and easy to move. (3) The range of the controlled temperatures is from -10 oC to +80 oC, and the precision is ?0.5 oC. (4) The test instrument can conveniently and easily measure the OLED panels via the novel fixtures and special connectors. In addition to a constant temperature being maintained in the chamber, a temperature shock experiments can run for a long time. Therefore, the chamber will be convenient and useful for temperature environment tests of OLED panels.

Keywords: Thermoelectric module, Temperature environment test, OLED, chamber.

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35 Influence of Thermo-fluid-dynamic Parameters on Fluidics in an Expanding Thermal Plasma Deposition Chamber

Authors: G. Zuppardi, F. Romano

Abstract:

Technology of thin film deposition is of interest in many engineering fields, from electronic manufacturing to corrosion protective coating. A typical deposition process, like that developed at the University of Eindhoven, considers the deposition of a thin, amorphous film of C:H or of Si:H on the substrate, using the Expanding Thermal arc Plasma technique. In this paper a computing procedure is proposed to simulate the flow field in a deposition chamber similar to that at the University of Eindhoven and a sensitivity analysis is carried out in terms of: precursor mass flow rate, electrical power, supplied to the torch and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the plasma jet, using different nozzles. To this purpose a deposition chamber similar in shape, dimensions and operating parameters to the above mentioned chamber is considered. Furthermore, a method is proposed for a very preliminary evaluation of the film thickness distribution on the substrate. The computing procedure relies on two codes working in tandem; the output from the first code is the input to the second one. The first code simulates the flow field in the torch, where Argon is ionized according to the Saha-s equation, and in the nozzle. The second code simulates the flow field in the chamber. Due to high rarefaction level, this is a (commercial) Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. Gas is a mixture of 21 chemical species and 24 chemical reactions from Argon plasma and Acetylene are implemented in both codes. The effects of the above mentioned operating parameters are evaluated and discussed by 2-D maps and profiles of some important thermo-fluid-dynamic parameters, as per Mach number, velocity and temperature. Intensity, position and extension of the shock wave are evaluated and the influence of the above mentioned test conditions on the film thickness and uniformity of distribution are also evaluated.

Keywords: Deposition chamber, Direct Simulation Mote Carlo method (DSMC), Plasma chemistry, Rarefied gas dynamics.

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34 Numerical Study of Oxygen Enrichment on NO Pollution Spread in a Combustion Chamber

Authors: Zohreh Orshesh

Abstract:

In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aim to obtain detailed information on combustion characteristics and _ nitrogen oxides in the furnace and the effect of oxygen enrichment in a combustion process. Oxygenenriched combustion is an effective way to reduce emissions. This paper analyzes NO emission, including thermal NO and prompt NO. Flow rate ratio of air to fuel is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.32 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Results show that for AF=1.3, increase the oxygen flow rate of oxygen reduction in NO emissions is Lance. Moreover, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak, but not the NO emission rate. As a result, oxygen enrichment can reduce the NO emission at this kind of furnace in low air to fuel rates.

Keywords: Combustion chamber, Oxygen enrichment, Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes, NO emission

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33 Utilization of Kitchen Waste inside Green House Chamber: A Community Level Biogas Programme

Authors: Ravi P. Agrahari

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating kitchen waste as an alternative organic material for biogas production in community level biogas plant. The field study was carried out for one month (January 19, 2012– February 17, 2012) at Centre for Energy Studies, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India.

This study involves the uses of greenhouse canopy to increase the temperature for the production of biogas in winter period. In continuation, a semi-continuous study was conducted for one month with the retention time of 30 days under batch system. The gas generated from the biogas plant was utilized for cooking (burner) and lighting (lamp) purposes. Gas productions in the winter season registered lower than other months. It can be concluded that the solar greenhouse assisted biogas plant can be efficiently adopted in colder region or in winter season because temperature plays a major role in biogas production. 

Keywords: Biogas, Green house chamber, organic material, solar intensity.

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32 Characterization of an Extrapolation Chamber for Dosimetry of Low Energy X-Ray Beams

Authors: Fernanda M. Bastos, Teógenes A. da Silva

Abstract:

Extrapolation chambers were designed to be used as primary standard dosimeter for measuring absorbed dose in a medium in beta radiation and low energy x-rays. The International Organization for Standardization established series of reference x-radiation for calibrating and determining the energy dependence of dosimeters that are to be reproduced in metrology laboratories. Standardization of the low energy x-ray beams with tube potential lower than 30 kV may be affected by the instrument used for dosimetry. In this work, parameters of a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber were determined aiming its use in low energy x-ray beams as a reference instrument.

Keywords: Extrapolation chamber, low energy x-rays, standardization, x-ray dosimetry.

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31 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: Combustion, Emission, Can-type Combustion Chamber, CFD, Motility of Holes, Swirl Flow.

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30 Studies on Pre-Ignition Chamber Dynamics of Solid Rockets with Different Port Geometries

Authors: S. Vivek, Sharad Sharan, R. Arvind, D. V. Praveen, J. Vigneshwar, S. Ajith, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to examine the pre-ignition flow features of high-performance solid propellant rocket motors with two different port geometries but with same propellant loading density. Numerical computations have been carried out using a validated 3D, unsteady, 2nd-order implicit, SST k- ω turbulence model. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier- Stokes equations is employed. We have observed from the numerical results that in solid rocket motors with highly loaded propellants having divergent port geometry the hot igniter gases can create preignition pressure oscillations leading to thrust oscillations due to the flow unsteadiness and recirculation. We have also observed that the igniter temperature fluctuations are diminished rapidly thereby reaching the steady state value faster in the case of solid propellant rocket motors with convergent port than the divergent port irrespective of the igniter total pressure. We have concluded that the prudent selection of the port geometry, without altering the propellant loading density, for damping the total temperature fluctuations within the motor is a meaningful objective for the suppression and control of instability and/or thrust oscillations often observed in solid propellant rocket motors with non-uniform port geometry.

Keywords: Pre-Ignition chamber dynamics, starting transient, solid rockets, thrust oscillations in SRMs, ignition transient.

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29 CFD Investigation of the Effects of Re-Entrant Combustion Chamber Geometry in a HSDI Diesel Engine

Authors: Raouf Mobasheri, Zhijun Peng

Abstract:

A CFD simulation has applied to explore the effects of combustion chamber geometry on engine performance and pollutant emissions in a HSDI diesel engine. Three ITs (Injection Timing) at 2.65 CA BTDC, 0.65 CA BTDC and 1.35 CA ATDC, all with 30 crank angle pilot separations has firstly considered to identify the optimum IT for achieving the minimum amount of pollutant emissions. In order to investigate the effect of combustion chamber, thirteen different piston bowl configurations have been designed and analyzed. For all the studied cases, compression ratio, squish bowl volume and the amount of injected fuel were kept constant to assure that variation in the engine performance were only caused by geometric parameters. The results showed that by changing the geometric parameters on piston bowl, the amount of emission pollutants can be decreased while the other performance parameters of engine remain constant.

Keywords: HSDI Diesel Engine, Combustion Chamber Geometry, Pilot Injection, Injection Timing.

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28 Simulating Flow Transients in Conveying Pipeline Systems by Rigid Column and Full Elastic Methods: Pump Combined with Air Chamber

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar, A. A. Saber

Abstract:

In water pipeline systems, the flow control is an integrated part of the operation, for instance, opening and closing the valves, starting and stopping the pumps, when these operations very quickly performed, they shall cause the hydraulic transient phenomena, which may cause pump and, valve failures and catastrophic pipe ruptures. Fluid transient analysis is one of the more challenging and complicated flow problems in the design and the operation of water pipeline systems. Transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of water pipeline systems. An accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used to protect water pipeline systems. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to solve the dynamic and continuity equations in the rigid column method, while the characteristics method used to solve these equations in the full elastic methods. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulating of transient phenomena in conveying pipeline systems based on the rigid column and full elastic methods. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to protect the pipeline systems from damaging due to the gain pressure which occur in the transient state. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for flow transient analysis and provide approximately identical results by using these two methods. Moreover; using the closed surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients.

Keywords: Flow transient, Pipeline, Air chamber, Numerical model, Protection devices, Elastic method, Rigid column method.

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27 Design and Analysis of Annular Combustion Chamber for a Micro Turbojet Engine

Authors: Rashid Slaheldinn Elhaj Mohammed

Abstract:

The design of high performance combustion chambers for turbojet engines is considered as one of the most challenges that face gas turbine designers, since the design approach depends on empirical correlations of data derived from the previous design experiences. The objective of this paper is to design a combustion chamber that suits the requirements of a micro-turbojet engine with 400 N output thrust and operates with kerosene as fuel. In this paper, only preliminary calculations related to the annular type of combustion chamber are explained in details. These calculations will cover the evaluation of reference quantities, calculation of required dimensions, calculation of air distribution and pressure drop, estimation of number and diameters for air admission holes, as well as aerodynamic considerations. The design process is then accompanied by analytical procedure using commercial CFD ANALYSIS tool; ANSYS 16 CFX software. After conducting CFD analysis, the design process will be then iterated in order to gain satisfactory results. It should be noted that the design of the fuel preparation and installation systems is beyond the scope of this work, and it will be discussed separately in another work.  

Keywords: Annular combustion chamber, micro-turbojet engine, CFD ANALYSIS, pressure drop.

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26 Substructure Method for Thermal-Stress Analysis of Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber

Authors: Olga V. Korotkaya

Abstract:

This article is devoted to an important problem of calculation of deflected mode of the combustion chamber and the nozzle end of a new liquid-propellant rocket cruise engine. A special attention is given to the methodology of calculation. Three operating modes are considered. The analysis has been conducted in ANSYS software. The methods of conducted research are mathematical modeling, substructure method, cyclic symmetry, finite element method. The calculation has been carried out to order of S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation «Energia». The main results are practical. Proposed methodology and created models would be able to use for a wide range of strength problems.

Keywords: Combustion chamber, cyclic symmetry, finite element method, liquid-propellant rocket engine, nozzle end, substructure.

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25 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: Combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux.

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24 An Investigation into Sealing Materials for Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Paul Onyegbule, Harjit Singh

Abstract:

Vacuum glazing is an innovative transparent thermal insulator that has application in high performance window, especially in renewable energy. Different materials as well as sealing methods have been adopted to seal windows with different temperatures. The impact of temperatures on sealing layers has been found to have significant effects on the microstructure of the seal. This paper seeks to investigate the effects of sealing materials specifically glass powder and flux compound (borax) for vacuum glazing. The findings of the experiment conducted show that the sealing material was rigid with some leakage around the edge, and we found that this could be stopped by enhancing the uniformity of the seal within the periphery. Also, we found that due to the intense tensile stress from the oven surface temperature of the seal at 200 0C, a crack was observed at the side of the glass. Based on the above findings, this study concludes that a glass powder with a lower melting temperature of below 250 0C with the addition of an adhesive (borax flux) should be used for future vacuum seals.

Keywords: Double glazed windows, U-value, borax powder, edge seal.

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23 Design of an Authentication Protocol for Secure Electronic Seals

Authors: Seongsoo Park, Mun-Kyu Lee, Dong Kyue Kim, Kunsoo Park, Yousung Kang, Sokjoon Lee, Howon Kim, Kyoil Chung

Abstract:

Electronic seal is an electronic device to check the authenticity and integrity of freight containers at the point of arrival. While RFID-based eSeals are gaining more acceptances and there are also some standardization processes for these devices, a recent research revealed that the current RFID-based eSeals are vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we provide a feasible solution to enhance the security of active RFID-based eSeals. Our approach is to use an authentication and key agreement protocol between eSeal and reader device, enabling data encryption and integrity check. Our protocol is based on the use of block cipher AES, which is reasonable since a block cipher can also be used for many other security purposes including data encryption and pseudo-random number generation. Our protocol is very simple, and it is applicable to low-end active RFID eSeals.

Keywords: Authentication, Container Security, Electronic seal, RFID

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22 Theoretical Study of Flexible Edge Seals for Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde

Abstract:

The development of vacuum glazing represents a significant advancement in the area of low heat loss glazing systems with the potential to substantially reduce building heating and cooling loads. Vacuum glazing consists of two or more glass panes hermetically sealed together around the edge with a vacuum gap between the panes. To avoid the glass panes from collapsing and touching each other under the influence of atmospheric pressure an array of support pillars is provided between the glass panes. A high level of thermal insulation is achieved by evacuating the spaces between the glass panes to a very low pressure which greatly reduces conduction and convection within the space; therefore heat transfer through this kind of glazing is significantly lower when compared with conventional insulating glazing. However, vacuum glazing is subject to inherent stresses due to atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials which can lead to fracture of the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. A flexible edge seal has been proposed to minimise the impact of these issues. In this paper, vacuum glazing system with rigid and flexible edge seals is theoretically studied and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Keywords: Flexible edge seal, stress, support pillar, vacuum glazing.

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21 Cellulose Nanocrystals Suspensions as Water-Based Lubricants for Slurry Pump Gland Seals

Authors: Mohammad Javad Shariatzadeh, Dana Grecov

Abstract:

The tribological tests were performed on a new tribometer, in order to measure the coefficient of friction of a gland seal packing material on stainless steel shafts in presence of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) suspension as a sustainable, environmentally friendly, water-based lubricant. To simulate the real situation from the slurry pumps, silica sands were used as slurry particles. The surface profiles after tests were measured by interferometer microscope to characterize the surface wear. Moreover, the coefficient of friction and surface wear were measured between stainless steel shaft and chrome steel ball to investigate the tribological effects of CNC in boundary lubrication region. Alignment of nanoparticles in the CNC suspensions are the main reason for friction and wear reduction. The homogeneous concentrated suspensions showed fingerprint patterns of a chiral nematic liquid crystal. These properties made CNC a very good lubricant additive in water.

Keywords: Gland seal, lubricant additives, nanocrystalline cellulose, water-based lubricants.

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20 Analytical and Experimental Methods of Design for Supersonic Two-Stage Ejectors

Authors: S. Daneshmand, C. Aghanajafi, A. Bahrami

Abstract:

In this paper the supersonic ejectors are experimentally and analytically studied. Ejector is a device that uses the energy of a fluid to move another fluid. This device works like a vacuum pump without usage of piston, rotor or any other moving component. An ejector contains an active nozzle, a passive nozzle, a mixing chamber and a diffuser. Since the fluid viscosity is large, and the flow is turbulent and three dimensional in the mixing chamber, the numerical methods consume long time and high cost to analyze the flow in ejectors. Therefore this paper presents a simple analytical method that is based on the precise governing equations in fluid mechanics. According to achieved analytical relations, a computer code has been prepared to analyze the flow in different components of the ejector. An experiment has been performed in supersonic regime 1.5Keywords: Ejector, Wind Tunnel, Supersonic, Diffuser, Machnumber, Mixing Chamber

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19 Mechanical Simulation with Electrical and Dimensional Tests for AISHa Containment Chamber

Authors: F. Noto, G. Costa, L. Celona, F. Chines, G. Ciavola, G. Cuttone, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, S. Marletta, G. Torrisi

Abstract:

At Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (INFN-LNS), a broad experience in the design, construction and commissioning of ECR and microwave ion sources is available. The AISHa ion source has been designed by taking into account the typical requirements of hospital-based facilities, where the minimization of the mean time between failures (MTBF) is a key point together with the maintenance operations, which should be fast and easy. It is intended to be a multipurpose device, operating at 18 GHz, in order to achieve higher plasma densities. It should provide enough versatility for future needs of the hadron therapy, including the ability to run at larger microwave power to produce different species and highly charged ion beams. The source is potentially interesting for any hadron therapy facility using heavy ions. In this paper, we analyzed the dimensional test and electrical test about an innovative solution for the containment chamber that allows us to solve our isolation and structural problems.

Keywords: FEM Analysis, ECR ion source, dielectrical measurement.

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18 Decreasing Environmental Pollution in Superphosphate Production Using Apatite and Phosphorite Mixture

Authors: R. Guliyev

Abstract:

The enhanced need for food items is receiving more importance due to a gradual increase in the world population and, in this scenario, fertilizers play a very important role in agriculture. In this study, the production of the normal superphosphate was investigated with a continuous chamber method by adding potassium chloride to a mixture of Hibin apatite and Kingisepp phosphorite. In the experiments, the following parameters were selected: The concentration of sulfuric acid (54–66% (w/w)), the stoichiometric norm of sulfuric acid (100, 107, 110, 114% (w/w)), the ratio of apatite/phosphorite in the mixture of phosphate (95/5, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20, 75/25, 70/30, 65/35,60/40, 55/45, 50/50 (w/w)), potassium chloride/the mixture of phosphate (1/50, 2/50, 3/50,4/50, 5/50 (w/w)), and the reaction time (2–8 min). It was observed that by adding potassium chloride to a low-grade phosphorite and using it to substitute a fraction of high-grade apatite in the normal superphosphate production not only resulted in a high-quality product but also eliminated the waiting period for the maturation of superphosphate in the storage. The objective of this study was to produce a normal superphosphate fertilizer by using a continuous chamber method in order to accelerate the production process and to reduce the environmental pollution caused by fluoride gases by eliminating the maturation time in the storage.

Keywords: Continuous chamber method, environmental pollution, fluoride gases.

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17 An Attempt to Predict the Performances of a Rocket Thrust Chamber

Authors: A. Benarous, D. Karmed, R. Haoui, A. Liazid

Abstract:

The process for predicting the ballistic properties of a liquid rocket engine is based on the quantitative estimation of idealized performance deviations. In this aim, an equilibrium chemistry procedure is firstly developed and implemented in a Fortran routine. The thermodynamic formulation allows for the calculation of the theoretical performances of a rocket thrust chamber. In a second step, a computational fluid dynamic analysis of the turbulent reactive flow within the chamber is performed using a finite volume approach. The obtained values for the “quasi-real" performances account for both turbulent mixing and chemistryturbulence coupling. In the present work, emphasis is made on the combustion efficiency performance for which deviation is mainly due to radial gradients of static temperature and mixture ratio. Numerical values of the characteristic velocity are successfully compared with results from an industry-used code. The results are also confronted with the experimental data of a laboratory-scale rocket engine.

Keywords: JANAF methodology, Liquid rocket engine, Mascotte test-rig, Theoretical performances.

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16 Effect of Swirl on Gas-Fired Combustion Behavior in a 3-D Rectangular Combustion Chamber

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to investigate the turbulent reacting flow in a three dimensional combustor with emphasis on the effect of inlet swirl flow through a numerical simulation. Flow field is analyzed using the SIMPLE method which is known as stable as well as accurate in the combustion modeling, and the finite volume method is adopted in solving the radiative transfer equation. In this work, the thermal and flow characteristics in a three dimensional combustor by changing parameters such as equivalence ratio and inlet swirl angle have investigated. As the equivalence ratio increases, which means that more fuel is supplied due to a larger inlet fuel velocity, the flame temperature increases and the location of maximum temperature has moved towards downstream. In the mean while, the existence of inlet swirl velocity makes the fuel and combustion air more completely mixed and burnt in short distance. Therefore, the locations of the maximum reaction rate and temperature were shifted to forward direction compared with the case of no swirl.

Keywords: Gaseous Fuel, Inlet Swirl, Thermal Radiation, Turbulent Combustion

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15 Analysis of Vortical Structures Generated by the Swirler of Combustion Chamber

Authors: Vladislav A. Nazukin, Valery G. Avgustinovich, Vakhtang V. Tsatiashvili

Abstract:

The most important part of modern lean low NOx combustors is a premixer where swirlers are often used for intensification of mixing processes and further formation of required flow pattern in combustor liner. Swirling flow leads to formation of complex eddy structures causing flow perturbations. It is able to cause combustion instability. Therefore, at design phase, it is necessary to pay great attention to aerodynamics of premixers. Analysis based on unsteady CFD modeling of swirling flow in production combustor swirler showed presence of large number of different eddy structures that can be conditionally divided into three types relative to its location of origin and a propagation path. Further, features of each eddy type were subsequently defined. Comparison of calculated and experimental pressure fluctuations spectrums verified correctness of computations.

Keywords: DES simulation, swirler, vortical structures.

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14 Volatility of Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, and As in Fluidised-Bed Combustion Chamber in Relation to Their Modes of Occurrence in Coal

Authors: L. Bartoňová, Z. Klika

Abstract:

Modes of occurrence of Pb, As, Cr, Co, Cu, and Ni in bituminous coal and lignite were determined by means of sequential extraction using NH4OAc, HCl, HF and HNO3 extraction solutions. Elemental affinities obtained were then evaluated in relation to volatility of these elements during the combustion of these coals in two circulating fluidised-bed power stations. It was found out that higher percentage of the elements bound in silicates brought about lower volatility, while higher elemental proportion with monosulphides association (or bound as exchangeable ion) resulted in higher volatility. The only exception was the behavior of arsenic, whose volatility depended on amount of limestone added during the combustion process (as desulphurisation additive) rather than to its association in coal.

Keywords: Coal combustion, sequential extraction, trace elements, volatility.

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13 Experimental Investigation of Combustion Chamber Dimensions Effects on Pollutant Emission and Combustion Efficiency

Authors: K. Bashirnezhad, M. Joleini

Abstract:

The combustion chamber dimensions have important effects on pollutant emission in furnaces as a direct result of temperature distribution and maximum temperature value. In this paper the pollutant emission and the temperature distribution in two cylindrical furnaces with different dimensions (with similar length to diameter ratio) in similar condition have been investigated experimentally. The furnace fuel is gas oil that is used with three different flow rates. The results show that in these two cases the temperature increases to its maximum value quickly, and then decreases slowly. The results also show that increase in fuel flow rate cause to increase in NOx emission in each case, but this increase is greater in small furnace. With increase in fuel flow rate, CO emission decreases firstly, and then it increases. Combustion efficiency reduces with increase in fuel flow rate but the rate of reduction in small furnace is greater than large furnace. The results of axial temperature distribution have been compared with those have been obtained numerically and experimentally by Moghiman.

Keywords: Furnace dimensions, Oxides of Nitrogen, Carbonmonoxide, Efficiency.

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12 Study of Unsteady Swirling Flow in a Hydrodynamic Vortex Chamber

Authors: Sergey I. Shtork, Aleksey P. Vinokurov, Sergey V. Alekseenko

Abstract:

The paper reports on the results of experimental and numerical study of nonstationary swirling flow in an isothermal model of vortex burner. It has been identified that main source of the instability is related to a precessing vortex core (PVC) phenomenon. The PVC induced flow pulsation characteristics such as precession frequency and its variation as a function of flowrate and swirl number have been explored making use of acoustic probes. Additionally pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure drops on the working chamber and across the vortex flow. The experiments have been included also the mean velocity measurements making use of a laser-Doppler anemometry. The features of instantaneous flowfield generated by the PVC were analyzed employing a commercial CFD code (Star-CCM+) based on Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach. Validity of the numerical code has been checked by comparison calculated flowfield data with the obtained experimental results. It has been confirmed particularly that the CFD code applied correctly reproduces the flow features.

Keywords: Acoustic probes, detached eddy simulation (DES), laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA), precessing vortex core (PVC).

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11 Physiological and Performance Effects of Glycerol Hyperhydration for World Championship Distance Duathlons in Hot Conditions

Authors: John McCullagh, Jaclyn Munge, NivanWeerakkody, Kerrie Gamble

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preexercise glycerol hyperhydration on endurance performance in a heat chamber designed to simulate the World Championship Distance (WCD) duathlon (10km run, 40km ride, 5 km run). Duathlons are often performed in hot and humid conditions and as a result hydration is a major issue. Glycerol enhances the body’s capacity for fluid retention by inducing hyperhydration, which is theorized to improve thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses, and thereby improve performance. Six well-trained athletes completed the testing protocol in a heat chamber at the La Trobe University Exercise Physiology Laboratory. Each testing session was approximately 4.5 hours in duration (2 hours of pre-exercise glycerol hyper-hydration followed by approximately 2.5 hours of exercise). The results showed an increased water retention pre-exercise and an improved overall performance of 2.04% was achieved by subjects ingesting the glycerol solution.

Keywords: Endurance performance, glycerol hyperhydration, heat chamber.

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