Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: scintillator

4 The TiO2 Refraction Film for CsI Scintillator

Authors: C. C. Chen, C. W. Hun, C. J. Wang, C. Y. Chen, J. S. Lin, K. J. Huang

Abstract:

Cesium iodide (CsI) melt was injected into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and was solidified to CsI column. The controllable AAO channel size (10~500 nm) can makes CsI column size from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. In order to have a shorter light irradiate from each singe CsI column top to bottom the AAO template was coated a TiO2 nano-film. The TiO2 film acts a refraction film and makes X-ray has a shorter irradiation path in the CsI crystal making a stronger the photo-electron signal. When the incidence light irradiate from air (R=1.0) to CsI’s first surface (R=1.84) the first refraction happen, the first refraction continue into TiO2 film (R=2.88) and produces the low angle of the second refraction. Then the second refraction continue into AAO wall (R=1.78) and produces the third refraction after refractions between CsI and AAO wall (R=1.78) produce the fourth refraction. The incidence light through TiO2 filmand the first surface of CsI then arrive to the second surface of CsI. Therefore, the TiO2 film can has shorter refraction path of incidence light and increase the photo-electron conversion efficiency.

Keywords: Cesium iodide, AAO, TiO2, Refraction, X-ray.

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3 The Fabrication of Scintillator Column by Hydraulic Pressure Injection Method

Authors: C. C. Chen, C. M. Chu, C. J. Wang, C. Y. Chen, K. J. Huang

Abstract:

Cesiumiodide with Na doping (CsI(Na)) solution or melt is easily forming three- dimension dendrites on the free surface. The defects or bobbles form inside the CsI(Na) during the solution or melt solidification. The defects or bobbles can further effect the x-ray path in the CsI(Na) crystal and decrease the scintillation characteristics of CsI(Na). In order to enhance the CsI(Na) scintillated property we made single crystal of CsI(Na) column in the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by hydraulic pressure injection method. It is interesting that when CsI(Na) melt is confined in the small AAO channels, the column grow as stable single column without any dendrites. The high aspect ratio (100~10000) of AAO and nano to sub-micron channel structure which is a suitable template for single of crystal CsI(Na) formation. In this work, a new low-cost approach to fabricate scintillator crystals using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) rather than Si is reported, which can produce scintillator crystals with a wide range of controllable size to optimize their performance in X-ray detection.

Keywords: Cesiumiodide, AAO, scintillator, crystal, X-ray.

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2 Structural and Optical Properties of Ce3+ Doped YPO4: Nanophosphors Synthesis by Sol Gel Method

Authors: B. Kahouadji, L. Guerbous, L. Lamiri, A. Mendoud

Abstract:

Recently, nanomaterials are developed in the form of nano-films, nano-crystals and nano-pores. Lanthanide phosphates as a material find extensive application as laser, ceramic, sensor, phosphor, and also in optoelectronics, medical and biological labels, solar cells and light sources. Among the different kinds of rare-earth orthophosphates, yttrium orthophosphate has been shown to be an efficient host lattice for rare earth activator ions, which have become a research focus because of their important role in the field of light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices. It is in this context that the 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies .Though there has been a few reports on Eu3+, Nd3+, Pr3+,Er3+, Ce3+, Tm3+ doped YPO4. The 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggesting to study on a very specific class of inorganic material that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions. This study focused on the effect of Ce3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Ce3+ doped YPO4 yttrium orthophosphate with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: YPO4, Ce3+, 4fn- <->4fn-1 5d transitions, scintillator.

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1 A Comparison of Experimental Data with Monte Carlo Calculations for Optimisation of the Sourceto- Detector Distance in Determining the Efficiency of a LaBr3:Ce (5%) Detector

Authors: H. Aldousari, T. Buchacher, N. M. Spyrou

Abstract:

Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide LaBr3:Ce(5%) crystals are considered to be one of the most advanced scintillator materials used in PET scanning, combining a high light yield, fast decay time and excellent energy resolution. Apart from the correct choice of scintillator, it is also important to optimise the detector geometry, not least in terms of source-to-detector distance in order to obtain reliable measurements and efficiency. In this study a commercially available 25 mm x 25 mm BrilLanCeTM 380 LaBr3: Ce (5%) detector was characterised in terms of its efficiency at varying source-to-detector distances. Gamma-ray spectra of 22Na, 60Co, and 137Cs were separately acquired at distances of 5, 10, 15, and 20cm. As a result of the change in solid angle subtended by the detector, the geometric efficiency reduced in efficiency with increasing distance. High efficiencies at low distances can cause pulse pile-up when subsequent photons are detected before previously detected events have decayed. To reduce this systematic error the source-to-detector distance should be balanced between efficiency and pulse pile-up suppression as otherwise pile-up corrections would need to be necessary at short distances. In addition to the experimental measurements Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for the same setup, allowing a comparison of results. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been highlighted.

Keywords: BrilLanCeTM380 LaBr3:Ce(5%), Coincidence summing, GATE simulation, Geometric efficiency

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