Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1059

Search results for: renewable energy sources

1059 Towards a Sustained Use of Renewable Energy Sources in Romania

Authors: Adriana Alexandru, Cristian Tantareanu, Elena Jitaru

Abstract:

The paper presents the potential for RES in Romania and the results of the Romanian national research project “Romania contribution to the European targets regarding the development of renewable energy sources - PROMES". The objective of the project is the development of energy generation from renewable energy sources (RES) in Romania by drawing up scenarios and prognosis harmonized with national and European targets, RES development effects modeling (environmental, economic, social etc.), research of the impact of the penetration of RES into the main, implementation of an advanced software system tool for RES information recording and communication, experimental research based on demonstrative applications. The expected results are briefly presented, as well as the social, economic and environmental impact.

Keywords: Energy policy, Internet, renewable energy sources, potential.

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1058 Towards the Use of Renewable Energy Sources in the Home

Authors: Adriana Alexandru, Elena Jitaru, Rayner Mayer

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of the European EIE project “Realising the potential for small scale renewable energy sources in the home – Kyotointhehome". The project's global aim is to inform and educate teachers, students and their families so that they can realise the need and can assess the potential for energy efficiency (EE) measures and renewable energy sources (RES) in their homes. The project resources were translated and trialled by 16 partners in 10 European countries. A web-based methodology which will enable families to assess how RES can be incorporated into energy efficient homes was accomplished. The web application “KYOTOINHOME" will help the citizens to identify what they can do to help their community meet the Kyoto target for greenhouse gas reductions and prevent global warming. This application provides useful information on how the citizens can use renewable energy sources in their home to provide space heating and cooling, hot water and electricity. A methodology for assessing heat loss in a dwelling and application of heat pump system was elaborated and will be implemented this year. For schools, we developed a set of practical activities concerned with preventing climate change through using renewable energy sources. Complementary resources will also developed in the Romanian research project “Romania Contribution to the European Targets Regarding the Development of Renewable Energy Sources" - PROMES.

Keywords: Education, energy policy, Internet, renewable energy sources.

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1057 Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola L. J. Rajakovic

Abstract:

This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.

Keywords: Distributed generation, renewable energy sources, techno-economic analysis, energy policy, curriculum.

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1056 Evaluation of Energy Upgrade Measures and Connection of Renewable Energy Sources Using Software Tools: Case Study of an Academic Library Building in Larissa, Greece

Authors: Giwrgos S. Gkarmpounis, Aikaterini G. Rokkou, Marios N. Moschakis

Abstract:

Increased energy consumption in the academic buildings, creates the need to implement energy saving measures and to take advantage of the renewable energy sources to cover the electrical needs of those buildings. An Academic Library will be used as a case study. With the aid of RETScreen software that takes into account the energy consumptions and characteristics of the Library Building, it is proved that measures such as the replacement of fluorescent lights with led lights, the installation of outdoor shading, the replacement of the openings and Building Management System installation, provide a high level of energy savings. Moreover, given the available space of the building and the climatic data, the installation of a photovoltaic system of 100 kW can also cover a serious amount of the building energy consumption, unlike a wind system that seems uncompromising. Lastly, HOMER software is used to compare the use of a photovoltaic system against a wind system in order to verify the results that came up from the RETScreen software concerning the renewable energy sources.

Keywords: Energy saving measures, homer software, renewable energy sources, RETScreen software, energy efficiency and quality.

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1055 Micropower Composite Nanomaterials Based on Porous Silicon for Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Alexey P. Antropov, Alexander V. Ragutkin, Nicolay A. Yashtulov

Abstract:

The original controlled technology for power active nanocomposite membrane-electrode assembly engineering on the basis of porous silicon is presented. The functional nanocomposites were studied by electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry methods. The application possibility of the obtained nanocomposites as high performance renewable energy sources for micro-power electronic devices is demonstrated.

Keywords: Cyclic voltammetry, electron microscopy, nanotechnology, platinum-palladium nanocomposites, porous silicon, power activity, renewable energy sources.

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1054 Green-Y Model for Preliminary Sustainable Economical Concept of Renewable Energy Sources Deployment in ASEAN Countries

Authors: H. H. Goh, K. C. Goh, W. N. Z. S. Wan Sukri, Q. S. Chua, S. W. Lee, B. C. Kok

Abstract:

Endowed of renewable energy sources (RES) are the advantages of ASEAN, but they are using a low amount of RES only to generate electricity because their primary energy sources are fossil and coal. The cost of purchasing fossil and coal is cheaper now, but it might be expensive soon, as it will be depleted sooner and after. ASEAN showed that the RES are convenient to be implemented. Some country in ASEAN has huge renewable energy sources potential and use. The primary aim of this project is to assist ASEAN countries in preparing the renewable energy and to guide the policies for RES in the more upright direction. The Green-Y model will help ASEAN government to study and forecast the economic concept, including feed-in tariff.

Keywords: ASEAN RES, Renewable Energy, RES Policies, RES Potential, RES Utilization.

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1053 Perspectives of Renewable Energy in 21st Century in India: Statistics and Estimation

Authors: Manoj Kumar, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

With the favourable geographical conditions at Indian-subcontinent, it is suitable for flourishing renewable energy. Increasing amount of dependence on coal and other conventional sources is driving the world into pollution and depletion of resources. This paper presents the statistics of energy consumption and energy generation in Indian Sub-continent, which notifies us with the increasing energy demands surpassing energy generation. With the aggrandizement in demand for energy, usage of coal has increased, since the major portion of energy production in India is from thermal power plants. The increase in usage of thermal power plants causes pollution and depletion of reserves; hence, a paradigm shift to renewable sources is inevitable. In this work, the capacity and potential of renewable sources in India are analyzed. Based on the analysis of this work, future potential of these sources is estimated.

Keywords: Energy consumption and generation, depletion of reserves, pollution, estimation, renewable sources.

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1052 Decision Support for the Selection of Electric Power Plants Generated from Renewable Sources

Authors: Aumnad Phdungsilp, Teeradej Wuttipornpun

Abstract:

Decision support based upon risk analysis into comparison of the electricity generation from different renewable energy technologies can provide information about their effects on the environment and society. The aim of this paper is to develop the assessment framework regarding risks to health and environment, and the society-s benefits of the electric power plant generation from different renewable sources. The multicriteria framework to multiattribute risk analysis technique and the decision analysis interview technique are applied in order to support the decisionmaking process for the implementing renewable energy projects to the Bangkok case study. Having analyses the local conditions and appropriate technologies, five renewable power plants are postulated as options. As this work demonstrates, the analysis can provide a tool to aid decision-makers for achieving targets related to promote sustainable energy system.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Bangkok, MultiattributeRisk Analysis, Renewable Energy Technology.

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1051 Technical and Economic Analysis of Smart Micro-Grid Renewable Energy Systems: An Applicable Case Study

Authors: M. A. Fouad, M. A. Badr, Z. S. Abd El-Rehim, Taher Halawa, Mahmoud Bayoumi, M. M. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Renewable energy-based micro-grids are presently attracting significant consideration. The smart grid system is presently considered a reliable solution for the expected deficiency in the power required from future power systems. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal components sizes of a micro-grid, investigating technical and economic performance with the environmental impacts. The micro grid load is divided into two small factories with electricity, both on-grid and off-grid modes are considered. The micro-grid includes photovoltaic cells, back-up diesel generator wind turbines, and battery bank. The estimated load pattern is 76 kW peak. The system is modeled and simulated by MATLAB/Simulink tool to identify the technical issues based on renewable power generation units. To evaluate system economy, two criteria are used: the net present cost and the cost of generated electricity. The most feasible system components for the selected application are obtained, based on required parameters, using HOMER simulation package. The results showed that a Wind/Photovoltaic (W/PV) on-grid system is more economical than a Wind/Photovoltaic/Diesel/Battery (W/PV/D/B) off-grid system as the cost of generated electricity (COE) is 0.266 $/kWh and 0.316 $/kWh, respectively. Considering the cost of carbon dioxide emissions, the off-grid will be competitive to the on-grid system as COE is found to be (0.256 $/kWh, 0.266 $/kWh), for on and off grid systems.

Keywords: Optimum energy systems, renewable energy sources, smart grid, micro-grid system, on- grid system, off-grid system, modeling and simulation, economical evaluation, net present value, cost of energy, environmental impacts.

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1050 Role of Non-Renewable and Renewable Energy for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Malaysia

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Nor Hamisham Harun

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of non-renewable energy and renewable energy utilization in Malaysia, including hydropower, solar photovoltaic, biomass and biogas technologies. Malaysia mainly depends on non-renewable energy (natural gas, coal and crude oil) for electricity generation. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the energy sector and discusses diversification of electricity generation as a strategy for providing sustainable energy in Malaysia. Energy policies and strategies to protect the non-renewable energy utilization also are highlighted, focusing in the different sources of energy available for high and sustained economic growth. Emphasis is also placed on a discussion of the role of renewable energy as an alternative source for the increase of electricity supply security. It is now evident that to achieve sustainable development through renewable energy, energy policies and strategies have to be well designed and supported by the government, industries (firms), and individual or community participation. The hope is to create a positive impact on sustainable development through renewable sources for current and future generations.

Keywords: Malaysia, non-renewable energy, renewable energy, sustainable energy.

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1049 Smart Grid Simulator

Authors: Andrei Ursachi, Dorin Bordeasu

Abstract:

The Smart Grid Simulator is a computer software based on advance algorithms which has as the main purpose to lower the energy bill in the most optimized price efficient way as possible for private households, companies or energy providers. It combines the energy provided by a number of solar modules and wind turbines with the consumption of one household or a cluster of nearby households and information regarding weather conditions and energy prices in order to predict the amount of energy that can be produced by renewable energy sources and the amount of energy that will be bought from the distributor for the following day. The user of the system will not only be able to minimize his expenditures on energy factures, but also he will be informed about his hourly consumption, electricity prices fluctuation and money spent for energy bought as well as how much money he saved each day and since he installed the system. The paper outlines the algorithm that supports the Smart Grid Simulator idea and presents preliminary test results that supports the discussion and implementation of the system.

Keywords: Applied Science, Renewable energy sources, Smart Grid, Sustainable energy.

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1048 Enhancing the Quality of Learning by Using an Innovative Approach for Teaching Energy in Secondary Schools

Authors: Adriana Alexandru, Ovidiu Bica, Eleonora Tudora, Cristina Simona Alecu, Cristina-Adriana Alexandru, Ioan Covalcic

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the authors in designing, experimenting, assessing and transferring an innovative approach to energy education in secondary schools, aimed to enhance the quality of learning in terms of didactic curricula and pedagogic methods. The training is online delivered to youngsters via e-Books and portals specially designed for this purpose or by learning by doing via interactive games. An online educational methodology is available teachers.

Keywords: Education, eLearning, Energy Efficiency, InternetMethodology, Renewable Energy Sources.

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1047 How Can We Carry Out Green Incentives Most Efficiently?

Authors: Peter Yang

Abstract:

Green incentives are included in the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009" (ARRA). It is, however, unclear how these government incentives can be carried out most effectively according to market-based principles and if they can serve as a catalyst for an accelerated green transformation and an ultimate solution to the current U.S. and global economic and financial crisis. The article will compare the existing U.S. green economic policies with those in Germany, identify problems, and suggest improvements to allow the green stimulus incentives to achieve the best results in the process of an accelerated green transformation. The author argues that the current U.S. green stimulus incentives can only be most successful if they are carried out as part of a visionary, comprehensive, long-term, and consistent strategy of the green economic transformation.

Keywords: Green incentives, financial crisis, green economy, renewable energy sources, energy efficiency.

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1046 A Brief Review on Recent Trends in Alternative Sources of Energy

Authors: Divya S., Jibin Joseph

Abstract:

Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels. Today, because of the variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as "alternative" is highly controversial. Most of the recent and existing alternative sources of energy are discussed below

Keywords: Athra Quinone Disulphonic Acid (AQDS), Renewable Methanol (RM), Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT).

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1045 Hybrid Energy Supply with Dominantly Renewable Option for Small Industrial Complex

Authors: Tomislav Stambolic, Anton Causevski

Abstract:

The deficit of power for electricity demand reaches almost 30% for consumers in the last few years. This reflects with continually increasing the price of electricity, and today the price for small industry is almost 110Euro/MWh. The high price is additional problem for the owners in the economy crisis which is reflected with higher price of the goods. The paper gives analyses of the energy needs for real agro complex in Macedonia, private vinery with capacity of over 2 million liters in a year and with self grapes and fruits fields. The existing power supply is from grid with 10/04 kV transformer. The geographical and meteorological condition of the vinery location gives opportunity for including renewable as a power supply option for the vinery complex. After observation of the monthly energy needs for the vinery, the base scenario is the existing power supply from the distribution grid. The electricity bill in small industry has three factors: electricity in high and low tariffs in kWh and the power engaged for the technological process of production in kW. These three factors make the total electricity bill and it is over 110 Euro/MWh which is the price near competitive for renewable option. On the other side investments in renewable (especially photovoltaic (PV)) has tendency of decreasing with price of near 1,5 Euro/W. This means that renewable with PV can be real option for power supply for small industry capacities (under 500kW installed power). Therefore, the other scenarios give the option with PV and the last one includes wind option. The paper presents some scenarios for power supply of the vinery as the followings: • Base scenario of existing conventional power supply from the grid • Scenario with implementation of renewable of Photovoltaic • Scenario with implementation of renewable of Photovoltaic and Wind power The total power installed in a vinery is near 570 kW, but the maximum needs are around 250kW. At the end of the full paper some of the results from scenarios will be presented. The paper also includes the environmental impacts of the renewable scenarios, as well as financial needs for investments and revenues from renewable.

Keywords: Energy, Power Supply, Renewable, Efficiency.

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1044 Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Rafayel K. Kostanyan

Abstract:

The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.

Keywords: Magnesium, power generation, production, renewable energy.

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1043 Conceptual Synthesis of Multi-Source Renewable Energy Based Microgrid

Authors: Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa, Mighanda J. Manyahi, Nicodemu Gregory, Alex L. Kyaruzi

Abstract:

Microgrids are increasingly being considered to provide electricity for the expanding energy demand in the grid distribution network and grid isolated areas. However, the technical challenges associated with the operation and controls are immense. Management of dynamic power balances, power flow, and network voltage profiles imposes unique challenges in the context of microgrids. Stability of the microgrid during both grid-connected and islanded mode is considered as the major challenge during its operation. Traditional control methods have been employed are based on the assumption of linear loads. For instance the concept of PQ, voltage and frequency control through decoupled PQ are some of very useful when considering linear loads, but they fall short when considering nonlinear loads. The deficiency of traditional control methods of microgrid suggests that more research in the control of microgrids should be done. This research aims at introducing the dq technique concept into decoupled PQ for dynamic load demand control in inverter interfaced DG system operating as isolated LV microgrid. Decoupled PQ in exact mathematical formulation in dq frame is expected to accommodate all variations of the line parameters (resistance and inductance) and to relinquish forced relationship between the DG variables such as power, voltage and frequency in LV microgrids and allow for individual parameter control (frequency and line voltages). This concept is expected to address and achieve accurate control, improve microgrid stability and power quality at all load conditions.

Keywords: Decoupled PQ, microgrid, multisource, renewable energy, dq control.

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1042 Scope, Relevance and Sustainability of Decentralized Renewable Energy Systems in Developing Economies: Imperatives from Indian Case Studies

Authors: Harshit Vallecha, Prabha Bhola

Abstract:

‘Energy for all’, is a global issue of concern for the past many years. Despite the number of technological advancements and innovations, significant numbers of people are living without access to electricity around the world. India, an emerging economy, tops the list of nations having the maximum number of residents living off the grid, thus raising global attention in past few years to provide clean and sustainable energy access solutions to all of its residents. It is evident from developed economies that centralized planning and electrification alone is not sufficient for meeting energy security. Implementation of off-grid and consumer-driven energy models like Decentralized Renewable Energy (DRE) systems have played a significant role in meeting the national energy demand in developed nations. Cases of DRE systems have been reported in developing countries like India for the past few years. This paper attempts to profile the status of DRE projects in the Indian context with their scope and relevance to ensure universal electrification. Diversified cases of DRE projects, particularly solar, biomass and micro hydro are identified in different Indian states. Critical factors affecting the sustainability of DRE projects are extracted with their interlinkages in the context of developers, beneficiaries and promoters involved in such projects. Socio-techno-economic indicators are identified through similar cases in the context of DRE projects. Exploratory factor analysis is performed to evaluate the critical sustainability factors followed by regression analysis to establish the relationship between the dependent and independent factors. The generated EFA-Regression model provides a basis to develop the sustainability and replicability framework for broader coverage of DRE projects in developing nations in order to attain the goal of universal electrification with least carbon emissions.

Keywords: Climate change, decentralized generation, electricity access, renewable energy.

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1041 DC-to-DC Converters for Low-Voltage High-Power Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: Abdar Ali, Rizwan Ullah, Zahid Ullah

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the study of DC-to-DC converters, which are suitable for low-voltage high-power applications. The output voltages generated by renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic arrays and fuel cell stacks are generally low and required to be increased to high voltage levels. Development of DC-to-DC converters, which provide high step-up voltage conversion ratios with high efficiencies and low voltage stresses, is one of the main issues in the development of renewable energy systems. A procedure for three converters−conventional DC-to-DC converter, interleaved boost converter, and isolated flyback based converter, is illustrated for a given set of specifications. The selection among the converters for the given application is based on the voltage conversion ratio, efficiency, and voltage stresses.

Keywords: Flyback converter, interleaved boost, photovoltaic array, fuel cell, switch stress, voltage conversion ratio, renewable energy.

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1040 Modelling the Photovoltaic Pump Output Using Empirical Data from Local Conditions in the Vhembe District

Authors: C. Matasane, C. Dwarika, R. Naidoo

Abstract:

The mathematical analysis on radiation obtained and the development of the solar photovoltaic (PV) array groundwater pumping is needed in the rural areas of Thohoyandou for sizing and power performance subject to the climate conditions within the area. A simple methodology approach is developed for the directed coupled solar, controller and submersible ground water pump system. The system consists of a PV array, pump controller and submerged pump, battery backup and charger controller. For this reason, the theoretical solar radiation is obtained for optimal predictions and system performance in order to achieve different design and operating parameters. Here the examination of the PV schematic module in a Direct Current (DC) application is used for obtainable maximum solar power energy for water pumping. In this paper, a simple efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented with its theoretical studies and mathematical modeling of photovoltaics (PV) system.

Keywords: Renewable energy sources, solar groundwater pumping, theoretical and mathematical analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system, theoretical solar radiation.

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1039 Scenarios for a Sustainable Energy Supply Results of a Case Study for Austria

Authors: Petra Wächter

Abstract:

A comprehensive discussion of feasible strategies for sustainable energy supply is urgently needed to achieve a turnaround of the current energy situation. The necessary fundamentals required for the development of a long term energy vision are lacking to a great extent due to the absence of reasonable long term scenarios that fulfill the requirements of climate protection and sustainable energy use. The contribution of the study is based on a search for sustainable energy paths in the long run for Austria. The analysis makes use of secondary data predominantly. The measures developed to avoid CO2 emissions and other ecological risk factors vary to a great extent among all economic sectors. This is shown by the calculation of CO2 cost of abatement curves. In this study it is demonstrated that the most effective technical measures with the lowest CO2 abatement costs yield solutions to the current energy problems. Various scenarios are presented concerning the question how the technological and environmental options for a sustainable energy system for Austria could look like in the long run. It is shown how sustainable energy can be supplied even with today-s technological knowledge and options available. The scenarios developed include an evaluation of the economic costs and ecological impacts. The results are not only applicable to Austria but demonstrate feasible and cost efficient ways towards a sustainable future.

Keywords: Cost of CO2 Abatement, Energy Economics, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Sustainable Energy and Development.

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1038 Deep Learning for Renewable Power Forecasting: An Approach Using LSTM Neural Networks

Authors: Fazıl Gökgöz, Fahrettin Filiz

Abstract:

Load forecasting has become crucial in recent years and become popular in forecasting area. Many different power forecasting models have been tried out for this purpose. Electricity load forecasting is necessary for energy policies, healthy and reliable grid systems. Effective power forecasting of renewable energy load leads the decision makers to minimize the costs of electric utilities and power plants. Forecasting tools are required that can be used to predict how much renewable energy can be utilized. The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of LSTM-based neural networks for estimating renewable energy loads. In this study, we present models for predicting renewable energy loads based on deep neural networks, especially the Long Term Memory (LSTM) algorithms. Deep learning allows multiple layers of models to learn representation of data. LSTM algorithms are able to store information for long periods of time. Deep learning models have recently been used to forecast the renewable energy sources such as predicting wind and solar energy power. Historical load and weather information represent the most important variables for the inputs within the power forecasting models. The dataset contained power consumption measurements are gathered between January 2016 and December 2017 with one-hour resolution. Models use publicly available data from the Turkish Renewable Energy Resources Support Mechanism. Forecasting studies have been carried out with these data via deep neural networks approach including LSTM technique for Turkish electricity markets. 432 different models are created by changing layers cell count and dropout. The adaptive moment estimation (ADAM) algorithm is used for training as a gradient-based optimizer instead of SGD (stochastic gradient). ADAM performed better than SGD in terms of faster convergence and lower error rates. Models performance is compared according to MAE (Mean Absolute Error) and MSE (Mean Squared Error). Best five MAE results out of 432 tested models are 0.66, 0.74, 0.85 and 1.09. The forecasting performance of the proposed LSTM models gives successful results compared to literature searches.

Keywords: Deep learning, long-short-term memory, energy, renewable energy load forecasting.

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1037 Model and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: Yelena Chaiko

Abstract:

This paper presents a developed method for controlling multi-renewable energy generators. The control system depends basically on three sensors (wind anemometer, solar sensor, and voltage sensor). These sensors represent PLC-s analogue inputs. Controlling the output voltage supply can be achieved by an enhanced method of interlocking between the renewable energy generators, depending on those sensors and output contactors.

Keywords: Renewable, energy, control, model, generator.

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1036 Characterization of Banana (Musa spp.) Pseudo-Stem and Fruit-Bunch-Stem as a Potential Renewable Energy Resource

Authors: Nurhayati Abdullah, Fauziah Sulaiman, Muhamad Azman Miskam, Rahmad Mohd Taib

Abstract:

Banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are agricultural residues that can be used for conversion to bio-char, biooil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 11.0 mf wt.% and 20.6 mf wt.%; while the carbon content of banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are 37.9 mf wt.% and 35.58 mf wt.% respectively. The molecular formulas for banana stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are C24H33NO26 and C19H29NO33 respectively. The measured higher heating values of banana pseudostem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 15.5MJ/kg and 12.7 MJ/kg respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The feasibility of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Banana Waste, Biomass, Renewable Energy, Thermo-chemical Characteristics.

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1035 DC Bus Voltage Regulator for Renewable Energy Based Microgrid Application

Authors: Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

Abstract:

Renewable Energy based microgrids are being considered to provide electricity for the expanding energy demand in the grid distribution network and grid isolated areas. The technical challenges associated with the operation and controls are immense. Electricity generation by Renewable Energy Sources is of stochastic nature such that there is a demand for regulation of voltage output in order to satisfy the standard loads’ requirements. In a renewable energy based microgrid, the energy sources give stochastically variable magnitude AC or DC voltages. AC voltage regulation of micro and mini sources pose practical challenges as well as unbearable costs. It is therefore practically and economically viable to convert the voltage outputs from stochastic AC and DC voltage sources to constant DC voltage to satisfy various DC loads including inverters which ultimately feed AC loads. This paper presents results obtained from SEPIC converter based DC bus voltage regulator as a case study for renewable energy microgrid application. Real-Time Simulation results show that upon appropriate choice of controller parameters for control of the SEPIC converter, the output DC bus voltage can be kept constant regardless of wide range of voltage variations of the source. This feature is particularly important in the situation that multiple renewable sources are to be integrated to supply a microgrid under main grid integration or isolated modes of operation.

Keywords: DC Voltage Regulator, microgrid, multisource, Renewable Energy, SEPIC Converter.

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1034 Photovoltaic Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Project for Rural and New-Cultivated Areas in Egypt

Authors: Fadia M. A. Ghali

Abstract:

The problem of wastewater treatment in Egypt is a two-fold problem; the first part concerning the existing rural areas, the second one dealing with new industrial/domestic areas. In Egypt several agricultural projects have been initiated by the government and the private sector as well, in order to change its infrastructure. As a reliable energy source, photovoltaic pumping systems have contributed to supply water for local rural communities worldwide; they can also be implemented to solve the problem “wastewater environment pollution". The solution of this problem can be categorised as recycle process. In addition, because of regional conditions past technologies are being reexamined to select a smallscale treatment system requiring low construction and maintenance costs. This paper gives the design guidelines of a Photovoltaic Small- Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant (PVSSWTP) based on technologies that can be transferred.

Keywords: Renewable energy sources, Photovoltaic, small-scale projects, wastewater treatment.

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1033 Energy Efficiency and Renewable for Power System in Macedonia

Authors: Tomislav Stambolic, Anton Causevski

Abstract:

The deficit of power supply in Macedonia is almost 30% or reached up to 3000 GWh in a year. The existing thermal and hydro power plants are not enough to cover the power and energy, so the import increases every year. Therefore, in order to have more domestic energy supply, the new trends in renewable and energy efficiency should be implemented in power sector. The paper gives some perspectives for development of the power system in Macedonia, taking into account the growth of electricity demand and in the same time with implementation of renewable and energy efficiency. The development of power system is made for the period up to 2030 with the period of every 5 years.

Keywords: Energy, Power System, Renewable, Efficiency

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1032 Procedure Model for Data-Driven Decision Support Regarding the Integration of Renewable Energies into Industrial Energy Management

Authors: M. Graus, K. Westhoff, X. Xu

Abstract:

The climate change causes a change in all aspects of society. While the expansion of renewable energies proceeds, industry could not be convinced based on general studies about the potential of demand side management to reinforce smart grid considerations in their operational business. In this article, a procedure model for a case-specific data-driven decision support for industrial energy management based on a holistic data analytics approach is presented. The model is executed on the example of the strategic decision problem, to integrate the aspect of renewable energies into industrial energy management. This question is induced due to considerations of changing the electricity contract model from a standard rate to volatile energy prices corresponding to the energy spot market which is increasingly more affected by renewable energies. The procedure model corresponds to a data analytics process consisting on a data model, analysis, simulation and optimization step. This procedure will help to quantify the potentials of sustainable production concepts based on the data from a factory. The model is validated with data from a printer in analogy to a simple production machine. The overall goal is to establish smart grid principles for industry via the transformation from knowledge-driven to data-driven decisions within manufacturing companies.

Keywords: Data analytics, green production, industrial energy management, optimization, renewable energies, simulation.

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1031 Sensitivity of Small Disturbance Angle Stability to the System Parameters of Future Power Networks

Authors: Nima Farkhondeh Jahromi, George Papaefthymiou, Lou van der Sluis

Abstract:

The incorporation of renewable energy sources for the sustainable electricity production is undertaking a more prominent role in electric power systems. Thus, it will be an indispensable incident that the characteristics of future power networks, their prospective stability for instance, get influenced by the imposed features of sustainable energy sources. One of the distinctive attributes of the sustainable energy sources is exhibiting the stochastic behavior. This paper investigates the impacts of this stochastic behavior on the small disturbance rotor angle stability in the upcoming electric power networks. Considering the various types of renewable energy sources and the vast variety of system configurations, the sensitivity analysis can be an efficient breakthrough towards generalizing the effects of new energy sources on the concept of stability. In this paper, the definition of small disturbance angle stability for future power systems and the iterative-stochastic way of its analysis are presented. Also, the effects of system parameters on this type of stability are described by performing a sensitivity analysis for an electric power test system.

Keywords: Power systems stability, Renewable energy sources, Stochastic behavior, Small disturbance rotor angle stability.

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1030 Illuminating the Policies Affecting Energy Security in Malaysia’s Electricity Sector

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Endang Jati Mat Sahid

Abstract:

For the past few decades, the Malaysian economy has expanded at an impressive pace, whilst, the Malaysian population has registered a relatively high growth rate. These factors had driven the growth of final energy demand. The ballooning energy demand coupled with the country’s limited indigenous energy resources have resulted in an increased of the country’s net import. Therefore, acknowledging the precarious position of the country’s energy self-sufficiency, this study has identified three main concerns regarding energy security, namely; over-dependence on fossil fuel, increasing energy import dependency, and increasing energy consumption per capita. This paper discusses the recent energy demand and supply trends, highlights the policies that are affecting energy security in Malaysia and suggests strategic options towards achieving energy security. The paper suggested that diversifying energy sources, reducing carbon content of energy, efficient utilization of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries could further enhance the effectiveness of the measures as the introduction of policies and initiatives will be more holistic.

Keywords: Energy security, electricity, energy policy, renewable energy, energy efficiency, Malaysia.

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