Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: reflectivity

14 Delineating Concern Ground in Block Caving – Underground Mine Using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Eric Sitorus, Septian Prahastudhi, Turgod Nainggolan, Erwin Riyanto

Abstract:

Mining by block or panel caving is a mining method that takes advantage of fractures within an ore body, coupled with gravity, to extract material from a predetermined column of ore. The caving column is weakened from beneath through the use of undercutting, after which the ore breaks up and is extracted from below in a continuous cycle. The nature of this method induces cyclical stresses on the pillars of excavations as stress is built up and released over time, which has a detrimental effect on both the installed ground support and the rock mass itself. Ground support capacity, especially on the production where excavation void ratio is highest, is subjected to heavy loading. Strain above threshold of the elongation of support capacity can yield resulting in damage to excavations. Geotechnical engineers must evaluate not only the remnant capacity of ground support systems but also investigate depth of rock mass yield within pillars, backs and floors. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that has the ability to evaluate rock mass damage using electromagnetic waves. This paper illustrates a case study from the Grasberg mining complex where non-invasive information on the depth of damage and condition of the remaining rock mass was required. GPR with 100 MHz antenna resolution was used to obtain images of the subsurface to determine rehabilitation requirements prior to recommencing production activities. The GPR surveys were used to calibrate the reflection coefficient response of varying rock mass conditions to known Rock Quality Designation (RQD) parameters observed at the mine. The calibrated GPR survey allowed site engineers to map subsurface conditions and plan rehabilitation accordingly.

Keywords: Block caving, ground penetrating radar, reflectivity, RQD.

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13 Studies on Properties of Knowledge Dependency and Reduction Algorithm in Tolerance Rough Set Model

Authors: Chen Wu, Lijuan Wang

Abstract:

Relation between tolerance class and indispensable attribute and knowledge dependency in rough set model with tolerance relation is explored. After giving definitions and concepts of knowledge dependency and knowledge dependency degree for incomplete information system in tolerance rough set model by distinguishing decision attribute containing missing attribute value or not, the result of maintaining reflectivity, transitivity, augmentation, decomposition law and merge law for complete knowledge dependency is proved. Knowledge dependency degrees (not complete knowledge dependency degrees) only satisfy some laws after transitivity, augmentation and decomposition operations. An algorithm to solve attribute reduction in an incomplete decision table is designed. The correctness is checked by an example.

Keywords: Incomplete information system, rough set, tolerance relation, knowledge dependence, attribute reduction.

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12 Microwave Absorption Properties of Low Density Polyethelene-Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposite

Authors: R. Fazaeli, R. Eslami-Farsani, H. Targhagh

Abstract:

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites with 3, 5 and 7 wt. % cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanopowder fabricated with extrusion mixing and followed up by hot press to reach compact samples. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out with a network analyzer in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz. By increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder, reflection loss (S11) increases, while transferring loss (S21) decreases. Reflectivity (R) calculations made using S11 and S21. Increase in percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % in composite leaded to higher reflectivity amount, and revealed that increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % leads to further microwave absorption in 8-12 GHz range.

Keywords: Nanocomposite, Cobalt Ferrite, Low Density Polyethylene, Microwave Absorption.

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11 Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method

Authors: M. Babaeipour, M. Vejdanihemmat

Abstract:

Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.

Keywords: 1H-CaAlSi, absorption, bulk, optical, thin film.

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10 Experimental Investigation on the Optimal Operating Frequency of a Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Authors: Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue, Channarong Wantha

Abstract:

This paper presents effects of the mean operating pressure on the optimal operating frequency based on temperature differences across stack ends in a thermoacoustic refrigerator. In addition to the length of the resonance tube, components of the thermoacoustic refrigerator have an influence on the operating frequency due to their acoustic properties, i.e., absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity. The interference of waves incurs and distorts the original frequency generated by the driver so that the optimal operating frequency differs from the designs. These acoustic properties are not parameters in the designs and be very complicated to infer their responses. A prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator is constructed and used to investigate its optimal operating frequency compared to the design at various operating pressures. Helium and air are used as working fluids during the experiments. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency of the prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator using helium is at 6 bar and 490Hz or approximately 20% away from the design frequency. The optimal operating frequency at other mean pressures differs from the design in an unpredictable manner, however, the optimal operating frequency and pressure can be identified by testing.

Keywords: Acoustic properties, Carnot’s efficiency, Interference of waves, Operating pressure, Optimal operating frequency, Stack performance, Standing Wave, Thermoacoustic refrigerator.

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9 Classification of Precipitation Types Detected in Malaysia

Authors: K. Badron, A. F. Ismail, A. L. Asnawi, N. F. A. Malik, S. Z. Abidin, S. Dzulkifly

Abstract:

The occurrences of precipitation, also commonly referred as rain, in the form of "convective" and "stratiform" have been identified to exist worldwide. In this study, the radar return echoes or known as reflectivity values acquired from radar scans have been exploited in the process of classifying the type of rain endured. The investigation use radar data from Malaysian Meteorology Department (MMD). It is possible to discriminate the types of rain experienced in tropical region by observing the vertical characteristics of the rain structure. .Heavy rain in tropical region profoundly affects radiowave signals, causing transmission interference and signal fading. Required wireless system fade margin depends on the type of rain. Information relating to the two mentioned types of rain is critical for the system engineers and researchers in their endeavour to improve the reliability of communication links. This paper highlights the quantification of percentage occurrences over one year period in 2009.

Keywords: Stratiform, convective, tropical region, attenuation radar reflectivity.

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8 Characterization of Printed Reflectarray Elements on Variable Substrate Thicknesses

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, Arslan Kiyani

Abstract:

Narrow bandwidth and high loss performance limits the use of reflectarray antennas in some applications. This article reports on the feasibility of employing strategic reflectarray resonant elements to characterize the reflectivity performance of reflectarrays in X-band frequency range. Strategic reflectarray resonant elements incorporating variable substrate thicknesses ranging from 0.016λ to 0.052λ have been analyzed in terms of reflection loss and reflection phase performance. The effect of substrate thickness has been validated by using waveguide scattering parameter technique. It has been demonstrated that as the substrate thickness is increased from 0.508mm to 1.57mm the measured reflection loss of dipole element decreased from 5.66dB to 3.70dB with increment in 10% bandwidth of 39MHz to 64MHz. Similarly the measured reflection loss of triangular loop element is decreased from 20.25dB to 7.02dB with an increment in 10% bandwidth of 12MHz to 23MHz. The results also show a significant decrease in the slope of reflection phase curve as well. A Figure of Merit (FoM) has also been defined for the comparison of static phase range of resonant elements under consideration. Moreover, a novel numerical model based on analytical equations has been established incorporating the material properties of dielectric substrate and electrical properties of different reflectarray resonant elements to obtain the progressive phase distribution for each individual reflectarray resonant element.

Keywords: Numerical model, Reflectarray resonant elements, Scattering parameter measurements, Variable substrate thickness.

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7 Structural and Optical Characterizations of CIGST Solar Cell Materials

Authors: Abhay Kumar Singh

Abstract:

Structural and UV/Visible optical properties can be useful to describe a material for the CIGS solar cell active layer, therefore, this work demonstrates the properties like surface morphology, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) bonding energy (EB) core level spectra, UV/Visible absorption spectra, refractive index (n), optical energy band (Eg), reflection spectra for the Cu25 (In16Ga9) Se40Te10 (CIGST-1) and Cu20 (In14Ga9) Se45Te12 (CIGST-2) chalcogenide compositions. Materials have been exhibited homogenous surface morphologies, broading /-or diffusion of bonding energy peaks relative elemental values and a high UV/Visible absorption tendency in the wave length range 400 nm- 850 nm range with the optical energy band gaps 1.37 and 1.42 respectively. Subsequently, UV/Visible reflectivity property in the wave length range 250 nm to 320 nm for these materials has also been discussed.

Keywords: Chalcogen, Optical energy band gap, UV/Visible spectra, XPS spectra.

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6 Full Potential Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of NdF3

Authors: Sapan Mohan Saini

Abstract:

We report the electronic structure and optical properties of NdF3 compound. Our calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method with the inclusion of spin orbit coupling. We employed the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and Coulomb-corrected local spin density approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. We find that the standard LSDA approach is incapable of correctly describing the electronic properties of such materials since it positions the f-bands incorrectly resulting in an incorrect metallic ground state. On the other hand, LSDA + U approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. Interestingly, however, we do not find any significant differences in the optical properties calculated using LSDA, and LSDA + U suggesting that the 4f electrons do not play a decisive role in the optical properties of these compounds. The reflectivity for NdF3 compound stays low till 7 eV which is consistent with their large energy gaps. The calculated energy gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculated reflectivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band to band transitions.

Keywords: FPLAPW Method, optical properties, rare earthtrifluorides LSDA+U

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5 The Effects of Tissue Optical Parameters and Interface Reflectivity on Light Diffusion in Biological Tissues

Authors: MA. Ansari

Abstract:

In cancer progress, the optical properties of tissues like absorption and scattering coefficient change, so by these changes, we can trace the progress of cancer, even it can be applied for pre-detection of cancer. In this paper, we investigate the effects of changes of optical properties on light penetrated into tissues. The diffusion equation is widely used to simulate light propagation into biological tissues. In this study, the boundary integral method (BIM) is used to solve the diffusion equation. We illustrate that the changes of optical properties can modified the reflectance or penetrating light.

Keywords: Diffusion equation, boundary element method, refractive index

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4 Efficiency Improvements of GaAs-based Solar Cells by Hydrothermally-deposited ZnO Nanostructure Array

Authors: Chun-Yuan Huang, Chiao-Yang Cheng, Chun-Yem Huang, Yan-Kuin Su, James Chin-Lung Fang

Abstract:

ZnO nanostructures including nanowires, nanorods, and nanoneedles were successfully deposited on GaAs substrates, respectively, by simple two-step chemical method for the first time. A ZnO seed layer was firstly pre-coated on the O2-plasma treated substrate by sol-gel process, followed by the nucleation of ZnO nanostructures through hydrothermal synthesis. Nanostructures with different average diameter (15-250 nm), length (0.9-1.8 μm), density (0.9-16×109 cm-2) were obtained via adjusting the growth time and concentration of precursors. From the reflectivity spectra, we concluded ordered and taper nanostructures were preferential for photovoltaic applications. ZnO nanoneedles with an average diameter of 106 nm, a moderate length of 2.4 μm, and the density of 7.2×109 cm-2 could be synthesized in the concentration of 0.04 M for 18 h. Integrated with the nanoneedle array, the power conversion efficiency of single junction solar cell was increased from 7.3 to 12.2%, corresponding to a 67% improvement.

Keywords: Anti-reflection, Chemical synthesis, Solar cells, ZnO nanostructures.

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3 Detection of Ultrasonic Images in the Presence of a Random Number of Scatterers: A Statistical Learning Approach

Authors: J. P. Dubois, O. M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool that was initially developed by Vapnik in 1979 and later developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). SVM is playing an increasing role in applications to detection problems in various engineering problems, notably in statistical signal processing, pattern recognition, image analysis, and communication systems. In this paper, SVM was applied to the detection of medical ultrasound images in the presence of partially developed speckle noise. The simulation was done for single look and multi-look speckle models to give a complete overlook and insight to the new proposed model of the SVM-based detector. The structure of the SVM was derived and applied to clinical ultrasound images and its performance in terms of the mean square error (MSE) metric was calculated. We showed that the SVM-detected ultrasound images have a very low MSE and are of good quality. The quality of the processed speckled images improved for the multi-look model. Furthermore, the contrast of the SVM detected images was higher than that of the original non-noisy images, indicating that the SVM approach increased the distance between the pixel reflectivity levels (detection hypotheses) in the original images.

Keywords: LS-SVM, medical ultrasound imaging, partially developed speckle, multi-look model.

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2 SVM-Based Detection of SAR Images in Partially Developed Speckle Noise

Authors: J. P. Dubois, O. M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool that was initially developed by Vapnik in 1979 and later developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). SVM is playing an increasing role in applications to detection problems in various engineering problems, notably in statistical signal processing, pattern recognition, image analysis, and communication systems. In this paper, SVM was applied to the detection of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images in the presence of partially developed speckle noise. The simulation was done for single look and multi-look speckle models to give a complete overlook and insight to the new proposed model of the SVM-based detector. The structure of the SVM was derived and applied to real SAR images and its performance in terms of the mean square error (MSE) metric was calculated. We showed that the SVM-detected SAR images have a very low MSE and are of good quality. The quality of the processed speckled images improved for the multi-look model. Furthermore, the contrast of the SVM detected images was higher than that of the original non-noisy images, indicating that the SVM approach increased the distance between the pixel reflectivity levels (the detection hypotheses) in the original images.

Keywords: Least Square-Support Vector Machine, SyntheticAperture Radar. Partially Developed Speckle, Multi-Look Model.

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1 On Analysis of Boundness Property for ECATNets by Using Rewriting Logic

Authors: Noura Boudiaf, Allaoua Chaoui

Abstract:

To analyze the behavior of Petri nets, the accessibility graph and Model Checking are widely used. However, if the analyzed Petri net is unbounded then the accessibility graph becomes infinite and Model Checking can not be used even for small Petri nets. ECATNets [2] are a category of algebraic Petri nets. The main feature of ECATNets is their sound and complete semantics based on rewriting logic [8] and its language Maude [9]. ECATNets analysis may be done by using techniques of accessibility analysis and Model Checking defined in Maude. But, these two techniques supported by Maude do not work also with infinite-states systems. As a category of Petri nets, ECATNets can be unbounded and so infinite systems. In order to know if we can apply accessibility analysis and Model Checking of Maude to an ECATNet, we propose in this paper an algorithm allowing the detection if the ECATNet is bounded or not. Moreover, we propose a rewriting logic based tool implementing this algorithm. We show that the development of this tool using the Maude system is facilitated thanks to the reflectivity of the rewriting logic. Indeed, the self-interpretation of this logic allows us both the modelling of an ECATNet and acting on it.

Keywords: ECATNets, Rewriting Logic, Maude, Finite-stateSystems, Infinite-state Systems, Boundness Property Checking.

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