Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: recycled concrete aggregates

12 Stress Analysis of Hexagonal Element for Precast Concrete Pavements

Authors: J. Novak, A. Kohoutkova, V. Kristek, J. Vodicka, M. Sramek

Abstract:

While the use of cast-in-place concrete for an airfield and highway pavement overlay is very common, the application of precast concrete elements is very limited today. The main reasons consist of high production costs and complex structural behavior. Despite that, several precast concrete systems have been developed and tested with the aim to provide a system with rapid construction. The contribution deals with the reinforcement design of a hexagonal element developed for a proposed airfield pavement system. The sub-base course of the system is composed of compacted recycled concrete aggregates and fiber reinforced concrete with recycled aggregates place on top of it. The selected element belongs to a group of precast concrete elements which are being considered for the construction of a surface course. Both high costs of full-scale experiments and the need to investigate various elements force to simulate their behavior in a numerical analysis software by using finite element method instead of performing expensive experiments. The simulation of the selected element was conducted on a nonlinear model in order to obtain such results which could fully compensate results from experiments. The main objective was to design reinforcement of the precast concrete element subject to quasi-static loading from airplanes with respect to geometrical imperfections, manufacturing imperfections, tensile stress in reinforcement, compressive stress in concrete and crack width. The obtained findings demonstrate that the position and the presence of imperfection in a pavement highly affect the stress distribution in the precast concrete element. The precast concrete element should be heavily reinforced to fulfill all the demands. Using under-reinforced concrete elements would lead to the formation of wide cracks and cracks permanently open.

Keywords: Imperfection, numerical simulation, pavement, precast concrete element, reinforcement design, stress analysis.

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11 Development of a Double Coating Technique for Recycled Concrete Aggregates Used in Hot-mix Asphalt

Authors: Abbaas I. Kareem, H. Nikraz

Abstract:

The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) production could ease natural aggregate shortage and maintain sustainability in modern societies. However, it was the attached cement mortar and other impurities that make the RCAs behave differently than high-quality aggregates. Therefore, different upgrading treatments were suggested to enhance its properties before being used in HMA production. Disappointedly, some of these treatments had caused degradation to some RCA properties. In order to avoid degradation, a coating technique is developed. This technique is based on combining of two main treatments, so it is named as double coating technique (DCT). Dosages of 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% uncoated RCA, RCA coated with Cement Slag Paste (CSP), and Double Coated Recycled Concrete Aggregates (DCRCAs) in place of granite aggregates were evaluated. The results indicated that the DCT improves strength and reduces water absorption of the DCRCAs compared with uncoated RCAs and RCA coated with CSP. In addition, the DCRCA asphalt mixtures exhibit stability values higher than those obtained for mixes made with granite aggregates, uncoated RCAs and RCAs coated with CSP. Also, the DCRCA asphalt mixtures require less bitumen to achieve the optimum bitumen content (OBC) than those manufactured with uncoated RCA and RCA-coated with CSP. Although the results obtained were encouraging, more testing is required in order to examine the effect of the DCT on performance properties of DCRCA- asphalt mixtures such as rutting and fatigue.

Keywords: Recycled concrete aggregates, hot mix asphalt, double coating technique, aggregate crashed value, Marshall parameters.

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10 Influence of Recycled Concrete Aggregate Content on the Rebar/Concrete Bond Properties through Pull-Out Tests and Acoustic Emission Measurements

Authors: L. Chiriatti, H. Hafid, H. R. Mercado-Mendoza, K. L. Apedo, C. Fond, F. Feugeas

Abstract:

Substituting natural aggregate with recycled aggregate coming from concrete demolition represents a promising alternative to face the issues of both the depletion of natural resources and the congestion of waste storage facilities. However, the crushing process of concrete demolition waste, currently in use to produce recycled concrete aggregate, does not allow the complete separation of natural aggregate from a variable amount of adhered mortar. Given the physicochemical characteristics of the latter, the introduction of recycled concrete aggregate into a concrete mix modifies, to a certain extent, both fresh and hardened concrete properties. As a consequence, the behavior of recycled reinforced concrete members could likely be influenced by the specificities of recycled concrete aggregates. Beyond the mechanical properties of concrete, and as a result of the composite character of reinforced concrete, the bond characteristics at the rebar/concrete interface have to be taken into account in an attempt to describe accurately the mechanical response of recycled reinforced concrete members. Hence, a comparative experimental campaign, including 16 pull-out tests, was carried out. Four concrete mixes with different recycled concrete aggregate content were tested. The main mechanical properties (compressive strength, tensile strength, Young’s modulus) of each concrete mix were measured through standard procedures. A single 14-mm-diameter ribbed rebar, representative of the diameters commonly used in the domain of civil engineering, was embedded into a 200-mm-side concrete cube. The resulting concrete cover is intended to ensure a pull-out type failure (i.e. exceedance of the rebar/concrete interface shear strength). A pull-out test carried out on the 100% recycled concrete specimen was enriched with exploratory acoustic emission measurements. Acoustic event location was performed by means of eight piezoelectric transducers distributed over the whole surface of the specimen. The resulting map was compared to existing data related to natural aggregate concrete. Damage distribution around the reinforcement and main features of the characteristic bond stress/free-end slip curve appeared to be similar to previous results obtained through comparable studies carried out on natural aggregate concrete. This seems to show that the usual bond mechanism sequence (‘chemical adhesion’, mechanical interlocking and friction) remains unchanged despite the addition of recycled concrete aggregate. However, the results also suggest that bond efficiency seems somewhat improved through the use of recycled concrete aggregate. This observation appears to be counter-intuitive with regard to the diminution of the main concrete mechanical properties with the recycled concrete aggregate content. As a consequence, the impact of recycled concrete aggregate content on bond characteristics seemingly represents an important factor which should be taken into account and likely to be further explored in order to determine flexural parameters such as deflection or crack distribution.

Keywords: Acoustic emission monitoring, high-bond steel rebar, pull-out test, recycled aggregate concrete.

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9 Microstructural Properties of the Interfacial Transition Zone and Strength Development of Concrete Incorporating Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Authors: S. Boudali, A. M. Soliman, B. Abdulsalam, K. Ayed, D. E. Kerdal, S. Poncet

Abstract:

This study investigates the potential of using crushed concrete as aggregates to produce green and sustainable concrete. Crushed concrete was sieved to powder fine recycled aggregate (PFRA) less than 80 µm and coarse recycled aggregates (CRA). Physical, mechanical, and microstructural properties for PFRA and CRA were evaluated. The effect of the additional rates of PFRA and CRA on strength development of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) was investigated. Additionally, the characteristics of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between cement paste and recycled aggregate were also examined. Results show that concrete mixtures made with 100% of CRA and 40% PFRA exhibited similar performance to that of the control mixture prepared with 100% natural aggregate (NA) and 40% natural pozzolan (NP). Moreover, concrete mixture incorporating recycled aggregate exhibited a slightly higher later compressive strength than that of the concrete with NA. This was confirmed by the very dense microstructure for concrete mixture incorporating recycled concrete aggregates compared to that of conventional concrete mixture.

Keywords: Compressive strength, recycled concrete aggregates, microstructure, interfacial transition zone, powder fine recycled aggregate.

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8 Investigation of the Recycling of Geopolymer Cement Wastes as Fine Aggregates in Mortar Mixes

Authors: Napoleana-Anna Chaliasou, Andrew Heath, Kevin Paine

Abstract:

Fly ash-slag based Geopolymer Cement (GPC) is presenting mechanical properties and environmental advantages that make it the predominant “green” alternative to Portland Cement (PC). Although numerous life-cycle analyses praising its environmental advantages, disposal after the end of its life remains as an issue that has been barely explored. The present study is investigating the recyclability of fly ash-slag GPC as aggregate in mortars. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of GPC fine Recycled Aggregates (RA), at replacement levels of 25% and 50%, on the main mechanical properties of PC and GPC mortar mixes. The results were compared with those obtained by corresponding mixes incorporating natural and PC-RA. The main physical properties of GPC-RA were examined and proven to be comparable to those of PC-RA and slightly inferior to those of natural sand. A negligible effect was observed at 28-day compressive and flexural strength of PC mortars with GPC aggregates having a milder effect than PC. As far as GPC mortars are concerned, the influence of GPC aggregates was enhancing for the investigated mechanical properties. Additionally, a screening test showed that recycled geopolymer aggregates are not prone of inducing alkali silica reaction.

Keywords: Concrete recycling, geopolymer cement, recycled concrete aggregates, sustainable concrete technology.

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7 Compressive Strength and Capillary Water Absorption of Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregate

Authors: Yeşim Tosun, Remzi Şahin

Abstract:

This paper presents results of compressive strength, capillary water absorption, and density tests conducted on concrete containing recycled aggregate (RCA) which is obtained from structural waste generated by the construction industry in Turkey. In the experiments, 0%, 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% of the normal (natural) coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled aggregate. Maximum aggregate particle sizes were selected as 16 mm, 22,4 mm and 31,5 mm; and 0,06%, 0,13% and 0,20% of air-entraining agent (AEA) were used in mixtures. Fly ash and superplasticizer were used as a mineral and chemical admixture, respectively. The same type (CEM I 42.5) and constant dosage of cement were used in the study. Water/cement ratio was kept constant as 0.53 for all mixture. It was concluded that capillary water absorption, compressive strength, and density of concrete decreased with increasing RCA ratio. Increasing in maximum aggregate particle size and amount of AEA also affect the properties of concrete significantly.

Keywords: Capillary water absorption, compressive strength, density, recycled concrete aggregates.

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6 Substitution of Natural Aggregates by Crushed Concrete Waste in Concrete Products Manufacturing

Authors: Jozef Junak, Nadezda Stevulova

Abstract:

This paper is aimed to the use of different types of industrial wastes in concrete production. From examined waste (crushed concrete waste) our tested concrete samples with dimension 150 mm were prepared. In these samples, fractions 4/8 mm and 8/16 mm by recycled concrete aggregate with a range of variation from 0 to 100% were replaced. Experiment samples were tested for compressive strength after 2, 7, 14 and 28 days of hardening. From obtained results it is evident that all samples prepared with washed recycled concrete aggregates met the requirement of standard for compressive strength of 20 MPa already after 14 days of hardening. Sample prepared with recycled concrete aggregates (4/8 mm: 100% and 8/16 mm: 60%) reached 101% of compressive strength value (34.7 MPa) after 28 days of hardening in comparison with the reference sample (34.4 MPa). The lowest strength after 28 days of hardening (27.42 MPa) was obtained for sample consisting of recycled concrete in proportion of 40% for 4/8 fraction and 100% for 8/16 fraction of recycled concrete.

Keywords: Recycled concrete aggregate, re-use, workability, compressive strength.

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5 Recycling of Aggregates from Construction Demolition Wastes in Concrete: Study of Physical and Mechanical Properties

Authors: M. Saidi, F. Ait-Medjber, B. Safi, M. Samar

Abstract:

This work is focused on the study of valuation of recycled concrete aggregates, by measuring certain properties of concrete in the fresh and hardened state. In this study, rheological tests and physic-mechanical characterization on concretes and mortars were conducted with recycled concrete whose geometric properties were identified aggregates. Mortars were elaborated with recycled fine aggregate (0/5mm) and concretes were manufactured using recycled coarse aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm). First, a study of the mortars was conducted to determine the effectiveness of polycarboxylate superplasticizer on the workability of these and their action deflocculating of the recycled sand. The rheological behavior of mortars based on fine aggregate recycled was characterized. The results confirm that the mortars composed of different fractions of recycled sand (0 /5) have a better mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength) compared to normal mortar. Also, the mechanical strengths of concretes made with recycled aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm), are comparable to those of conventional concrete with conventional aggregates, provided that the implementation can be improved by the addition of a superplasticizer.

Keywords: Demolition wastes, recycled coarse aggregate, concrete, workability, mechanical strength, porosity/water absorption.

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4 Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Construction and Demolition Waste Produced in Greece

Authors: C. Alexandridou, G. N. Angelopoulos, F. A. Coutelieris

Abstract:

Construction industry in Greece consumes annually more than 25 million tons of natural aggregates originating mainly from quarries. At the same time, more than 2 million tons of construction and demolition waste are deposited every year, usually without control, therefore increasing the environmental impact of this sector. A potential alternative for saving natural resources and minimize landfilling, could be the recycling and re-use of Concrete and Demolition Waste (CDW) in concrete production. Moreover, in order to conform to the European legislation, Greece is obliged to recycle non-hazardous construction and demolition waste to a minimum of 70% by 2020. In this paper characterization of recycled materials - commercially and laboratory produced, coarse and fine, Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) - has been performed. Namely, X-Ray Fluorescence and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used for chemical and mineralogical analysis respectively. Physical properties such as particle density, water absorption, sand equivalent and resistance to fragmentation were also determined. This study, first time made in Greece, aims at outlining the differences between RCA and natural aggregates and evaluating their possible influence in concrete performance. Results indicate that RCA’s chemical composition is enriched in Si, Al, and alkali oxides compared to natural aggregates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses results indicated the presence of calcite, quartz and minor peaks of mica and feldspars. From all the evaluated physical properties of coarse RCA, only water absorption and resistance to fragmentation seem to have a direct influence on the properties of concrete. Low Sand Equivalent and significantly high water absorption values indicate that fine fractions of RCA cannot be used for concrete production unless further processed. Chemical properties of RCA in terms of water soluble ions are similar to those of natural aggregates. Four different concrete mixtures were produced and examined, replacing natural coarse aggregates with RCA by a ratio of 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% respectively. Results indicate that concrete mixtures containing recycled concrete aggregates have a minor deterioration of their properties (3-9% lower compression strength at 28 days) compared to conventional concrete containing the same cement quantity.

Keywords: Chemical and physical characterization, compressive strength, mineralogical analysis, recycled concrete aggregates, waste management.

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3 Effect of Different Moisture States of Surface-Treated Recycled Concrete Aggregate on Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete

Authors: Sallehan Ismail, Mahyuddin Ramli

Abstract:

This study examined the properties of fresh and hardened concretes as influenced by the moisture state of the coarse recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) after surface treatment. Surface treatment was performed by immersing the coarse RCA in a calcium metasilicate (CM) solution. The treated coarse RCA was maintained in three controlled moisture states, namely, air-dried, oven-dried, and saturated surface-dried (SSD), prior to its use in a concrete mix. The physical properties of coarse RCA were evaluated after surface treatment during the first phase of the experiment to determine the density and the water absorption characteristics of the RCA. The second phase involved the evaluation of the slump, slump loss, density, and compressive strength of the concretes that were prepared with different proportions of natural and treated coarse RCA. Controlling the moisture state of the coarse RCA after surface treatment was found to significantly influence the properties of the fresh and hardened concretes. 

Keywords: Moisture state, recycled concrete aggregate, surface treatment.

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2 Treatment of Recycled Concrete Aggregates by Si-Based Polymers

Authors: V. Spaeth, A. Djerbi-Tegguer

Abstract:

The recycling of concrete, bricks and masonry rubble as concrete aggregates is an important way to contribute to a sustainable material flow. However, there are still various uncertainties limiting the widespread use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA). The fluctuations in the composition of grade recycled aggregates and their influence on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete are of particular concern regarding the use of RCA. Most of problems occurring while using recycled concrete aggregates as aggregates are due to higher porosity and hence higher water absorption, lower mechanical strengths, residual impurities on the surface of the RCA forming weaker bond between cement paste and aggregate. So, the reuse of RCA is still limited. Efficient polymer based treatment is proposed in order to reuse RCA easier. The silicon-based polymer treatments of RCA were carried out and were compared. This kind of treatment can improve the properties of RCA such as the rate of water absorption on treated RCA is significantly reduced.

Keywords: Recycled concrete aggregates, water absorption, silicon-based agent and polymer.

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1 The Improvement of 28-day Compressive Strength of Self Compacting Concrete Made by Different Percentages of Recycled Concrete Aggregates using Nano-Silica

Authors: S. Salkhordeh, P. Golbazi, H. Amini

Abstract:

In this study two series of self compacting concrete mixtures were prepared with 100% coarse recycled concrete aggregates and different percentages of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% fine recycled concrete aggregates. In series I and II the water to binder ratios were 0.50 and 0.45, respectively. The cement content was kept 350 3 m kg for those mixtures that don't have any Nano-Silica. To improve the compressive strength of samples, Nano- Silica replaced with 10% of cement weight in concrete mixtures. By doing the tests, the results showed that, adding Nano-silica to the samples with less percentage of fine recycled concrete aggregates, lead to more increase on the compressive strength.

Keywords: Compressive Strength, Nano-Silica, RecycledConcrete Aggregates, Self Compacting Concrete.

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