Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 226

Search results for: real-time tracking

226 Realtime Lip Contour Tracking For Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Applications

Authors: Mehran Yazdi, Mehdi Seyfi, Amirhossein Rafati, Meghdad Asadi

Abstract:

Detection and tracking of the lip contour is an important issue in speechreading. While there are solutions for lip tracking once a good contour initialization in the first frame is available, the problem of finding such a good initialization is not yet solved automatically, but done manually. We have developed a new tracking solution for lip contour detection using only few landmarks (15 to 25) and applying the well known Active Shape Models (ASM). The proposed method is a new LMS-like adaptive scheme based on an Auto regressive (AR) model that has been fit on the landmark variations in successive video frames. Moreover, we propose an extra motion compensation model to address more general cases in lip tracking. Computer simulations demonstrate a fair match between the true and the estimated spatial pixels. Significant improvements related to the well known LMS approach has been obtained via a defined Frobenius norm index.

Keywords: Lip contour, Tracking, LMS-Like

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225 Semi-Automated Tracking of Vibrissal Movements in Free-Moving Rodents Captured by High-Speed Videos

Authors: Hyun June Kim, Tailong Shi, Seden Akdagli, Sam Most, Yuling Yan

Abstract:

Quantitative analyses of whisker movements provide a means to study functional recovery and regeneration of mouse facial nerve after an injury. However, accurate tracking of the mouse whisker movement is challenging. Most methods for whisker tracking require manual intervention, e.g. fixing the head of the mouse during a study. Here we describe a semi-automated image processing method, which is applied to high-speed video recordings of free-moving mice to track the whisker movements. We first track the head movement of a mouse by delineating the lower head contour frame-by-frame that allows for detection of the location and orientation of the head. Then, a region of interest is identified for each frame; the subsequent application of a mask and the Hough transform detects the selected whiskers on each side of the head. Our approach is used to examine the functional recovery of damaged facial nerves in mice over a course of 21 days.

Keywords: Mystacial macrovibrissae, whisker tracking, head tracking, facial nerve recovery.

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224 Validation of Contemporary Physical Activity Tracking Technologies through Exercise in a Controlled Environment

Authors: Reem I. Altamimi, Geoff D. Skinner

Abstract:

Extended periods engaged in sedentary behavior increases the risk of becoming overweight and/or obese which is linked to other health problems. Adding technology to the term ‘active living’ permits its inclusion in promoting and facilitating habitual physical activity. Technology can either act as a barrier to, or facilitate this lifestyle, depending on the chosen technology. Physical Activity Monitoring Technologies (PAMTs) are a popular example of such technologies. Different contemporary PAMTs have been evaluated based on customer reviews; however, there is a lack of published experimental research into the efficacy of PAMTs. This research aims to investigate the reliability of four PAMTs: two wristbands (Fitbit Flex and Jawbone UP), a waist-clip (Fitbit One), and a mobile application (iPhone Health Application) for recording a specific distance walked on a treadmill (1.5km) at constant speed. Physical activity tracking technologies are varied in their recordings, even while performing the same activity. This research demonstrates that Jawbone UP band recorded the most accurate distance compared to Fitbit One, Fitbit Flex, and iPhone Health Application.

Keywords: Fitbit, Jawbone UP, mobile tracking applications, physical activity tracking technologies.

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223 The Performance Improvement of the Target Position Determining System in Laser Tracking Based on 4Q Detector using Neural Network

Authors: A. Salmanpour, Sh. Mohammad Nejad

Abstract:

One of the methods for detecting the target position error in the laser tracking systems is using Four Quadrant (4Q) detectors. If the coordinates of the target center is yielded through the usual relations of the detector outputs, the results will be nonlinear, dependent on the shape, target size and its position on the detector screen. In this paper we have designed an algorithm with using neural network that coordinates of the target center in laser tracking systems is calculated by using detector outputs obtained from visual modeling. With this method, the results except from the part related to the detector intrinsic limitation, are linear and dependent from the shape and target size.

Keywords: four quadrant detector, laser tracking system, rangefinder, tracking sensor

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222 Probabilistic Center Voting Method for Subsequent Object Tracking and Segmentation

Authors: Suryanto, Hyo-Kak Kim, Sang-Hee Park, Dae-Hwan Kim, Sung-Jea Ko

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm for object tracking in video sequence. In order to represent the object to be tracked, we propose a spatial color histogram model which encodes both the color distribution and spatial information. The object tracking from frame to frame is accomplished via center voting and back projection method. The center voting method has every pixel in the new frame to cast a vote on whereabouts the object center is. The back projection method segments the object from the background. The segmented foreground provides information on object size and orientation, omitting the need to estimate them separately. We do not put any assumption on camera motion; the proposed algorithm works equally well for object tracking in both static and moving camera videos.

Keywords: center voting, back projection, object tracking, size adaptation, non-stationary camera tracking.

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221 Stereo Motion Tracking

Authors: Yudhajit Datta, Jonathan Bandi, Ankit Sethia, Hamsi Iyer

Abstract:

Motion Tracking and Stereo Vision are complicated, albeit well-understood problems in computer vision. Existing softwares that combine the two approaches to perform stereo motion tracking typically employ complicated and computationally expensive procedures. The purpose of this study is to create a simple and effective solution capable of combining the two approaches. The study aims to explore a strategy to combine the two techniques of two-dimensional motion tracking using Kalman Filter; and depth detection of object using Stereo Vision. In conventional approaches objects in the scene of interest are observed using a single camera. However for Stereo Motion Tracking; the scene of interest is observed using video feeds from two calibrated cameras. Using two simultaneous measurements from the two cameras a calculation for the depth of the object from the plane containing the cameras is made. The approach attempts to capture the entire three-dimensional spatial information of each object at the scene and represent it through a software estimator object. In discrete intervals, the estimator tracks object motion in the plane parallel to plane containing cameras and updates the perpendicular distance value of the object from the plane containing the cameras as depth. The ability to efficiently track the motion of objects in three-dimensional space using a simplified approach could prove to be an indispensable tool in a variety of surveillance scenarios. The approach may find application from high security surveillance scenes such as premises of bank vaults, prisons or other detention facilities; to low cost applications in supermarkets and car parking lots.

Keywords: Kalman Filter, Stereo Vision, Motion Tracking, Matlab, Object Tracking, Camera Calibration, Computer Vision System Toolbox.

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220 Aiming at Optimization of Tracking Technology through Seasonally Tilted Sun Trackers: An Indian Perspective

Authors: Sanjoy Mukherjee

Abstract:

Discussions on concepts of Single Axis Tracker (SAT) are becoming more and more apt for developing countries like India not just as an advancement in racking technology but due to the utmost necessity of reaching at the lowest Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) targets. With this increasing competition and significant fall in feed-in tariffs of solar PV projects, developers are under constant pressure to secure investment for their projects and eventually earn profits from them. Moreover, being the second largest populated country, India suffers from scarcity of land because of higher average population density. So, to mitigate the risk of this dual edged sword with reducing trend of unit (kWh) cost at one side and utilization of land on the other, tracking evolved as the call of the hour. Therefore, the prime objectives of this paper are not only to showcase how STT proves to be an effective mechanism to get more gain in Global Incidence in collector plane (Ginc) with respect to traditional mounting systems but also to introduce Seasonally Tilted Tracker (STT) technology as a possible option for high latitude locations.

Keywords: Tracking system, grid-connected PV systems, cost reduction.

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219 Face Tracking using a Polling Strategy

Authors: Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava

Abstract:

The colors of the human skin represent a special category of colors, because they are distinctive from the colors of other natural objects. This category is found as a cluster in color spaces, and the skin color variations between people are mostly due to differences in the intensity. Besides, the face detection based on skin color detection is a faster method as compared to other techniques. In this work, we present a system to track faces by carrying out skin color detection in four different color spaces: HSI, YCbCr, YES and RGB. Once some skin color regions have been detected for each color space, we label each and get some characteristics such as size and position. We are supposing that a face is located in one the detected regions. Next, we compare and employ a polling strategy between labeled regions to determine the final region where the face effectively has been detected and located.

Keywords: Tracking, face detection, image processing, colorspaces.

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218 Trajectory Tracking Using Artificial Potential Fields

Authors: Krishna S. Raghuwaiya, Shonal Singh, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

In this paper, the trajectory tracking problem for carlike mobile robots have been studied. The system comprises of a leader and a follower robot. The purpose is to control the follower so that the leader-s trajectory is tracked with arbitrary desired clearance to avoid inter-robot collision while navigating in a terrain with obstacles. A set of artificial potential field functions is proposed using the Direct Method of Lyapunov for the avoidance of obstacles and attraction to their designated targets. Simulation results prove the efficiency of our control technique.

Keywords: Control, Trajectory Tracking, Lyapunov.

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217 Three-Level Tracking Method for Animating a 3D Humanoid Character

Authors: Tainchi Lu, Chochih Lin

Abstract:

With a rapid growth in 3D graphics technology over the last few years, people are desired to see more flexible reacting motions of a biped in animations. In particular, it is impossible to anticipate all reacting motions of a biped while facing a perturbation. In this paper, we propose a three-level tracking method for animating a 3D humanoid character. First, we take the laws of physics into account to attach physical attributes, such as mass, gravity, friction, collision, contact, and torque, to bones and joints of a character. The next step is to employ PD controller to follow a reference motion as closely as possible. Once the character cannot tolerate a strong perturbation to prevent itself from falling down, we are capable of tracking a desirable falling-down action to avoid any falling condition inaccuracy. From the experimental results, we demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed method in comparison with conventional data-driven approaches.

Keywords: Character Animation, Forward Dynamics, Motion Tracking, PD Control.

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216 Detecting and Tracking Vehicles in Airborne Videos

Authors: Hsu-Yung Cheng, Chih-Chang Yu

Abstract:

In this work, we present an automatic vehicle detection system for airborne videos using combined features. We propose a pixel-wise classification method for vehicle detection using Dynamic Bayesian Networks. In spite of performing pixel-wise classification, relations among neighboring pixels in a region are preserved in the feature extraction process. The main novelty of the detection scheme is that the extracted combined features comprise not only pixel-level information but also region-level information. Afterwards, tracking is performed on the detected vehicles. Tracking is performed using efficient Kalman filter with dynamic particle sampling. Experiments were conducted on a wide variety of airborne videos. We do not assume prior information of camera heights, orientation, and target object sizes in the proposed framework. The results demonstrate flexibility and good generalization abilities of the proposed method on a challenging dataset.

Keywords: Vehicle Detection, Airborne Video, Tracking, Dynamic Bayesian Networks

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215 An Integrated Framework for the Realtime Investigation of State Space Exploration

Authors: Jörg Lassig, Stefanie Thiem

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is the introduction to a unified optimization framework for research and education. The OPTILIB framework implements different general purpose algorithms for combinatorial optimization and minimum search on standard continuous test functions. The preferences of this library are the straightforward integration of new optimization algorithms and problems as well as the visualization of the optimization process of different methods exploring the search space exclusively or for the real time visualization of different methods in parallel. Further the usage of several implemented methods is presented on the basis of two use cases, where the focus is especially on the algorithm visualization. First it is demonstrated how different methods can be compared conveniently using OPTILIB on the example of different iterative improvement schemes for the TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM. A second study emphasizes how the framework can be used to find global minima in the continuous domain.

Keywords: Global Optimization Heuristics, Particle Swarm Optimization, Ensemble Based Threshold Accepting, Ruin and Recreate

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214 Multiple Moving Talker Tracking by Integration of Two Successive Algorithms

Authors: Kenji Suyama, Masahiro Oshida, Noboru Owada

Abstract:

In this paper, an estimation accuracy of multiple moving talker tracking using a microphone array is improved. The tracking can be achieved by the adaptive method in which two algorithms are integrated, namely, the PAST (Projection Approximation Subspace Tracking) algorithm and the IPLS (Interior Point Least Square) algorithm. When either talker begins to speak again after a silent period, an appropriate feasible region for an evaluation function of the IPLS algorithm might not be set. Then, the tracking fails due to the incorrect updating. Therefore, if an increment of the number of active talkers is detected, the feasible region must be reset. Then, a low cost realization is required for the high speed tracking and a high accuracy realization is desired for the precise tracking. In this paper, the directions roughly estimated using the delayed-sum-array method are used for the resetting. Several results of experiments performed in an actual room environment show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: moving talkers tracking, microphone array, signal subspace

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213 Design of Tracking Controllers for Medical Equipment Holders Using AHRS and MEMS Sensors

Authors: Seung You Na, Joo Hyun Jung, Jin Young Kim, Mohammad AhangarKiasari

Abstract:

There are various kinds of medical equipment which requires relatively accurate positional adjustments for successful treatment. However, patients tend to move without notice during a certain span of operations. Therefore, it is common practice that accompanying operators adjust the focus of the equipment. In this paper, tracking controllers for medical equipment are suggested to replace the operators. The tracking controllers use AHRS sensor information to recognize the movements of patients. Sensor fusion is applied to reducing the error magnitudes through linear Kalman filters. The image processing of optical markers is included to adjust the accumulation errors of gyroscope sensor data especially for yaw angles. The tracking controller reduces the positional errors between the current focus of a device and the target position on the body of a patient. Since the sensing frequencies of AHRS sensors are very high compared to the physical movements, the control performance is satisfactory. The typical applications are, for example, ESWT or rTMS, which have the error ranges of a few centimeters.

Keywords: AHRS, Sensor fusion, Tracking control, Position and posture.

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212 Providing On-Demand Path and Arrival Time Information Considering Realtime Delays of Buses

Authors: Yoshifumi Ishizaki, Naoki Kanatani, Masaki Ito, Toshihiko Sasama, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the bus location system for the route bus through the experiment in the real environment. A bus location system is a system that provides information such as the bus delay and positions. This system uses actual services and positions data of buses, and those information should match data on the database. The system has two possible problems. One, the system could cost high in preparing devices to get bus positions. Two, it could be difficult to match services data of buses. To avoid these problems, we have developed this system at low cost and short time by using the smart phone with GPS and the bus route system. This system realizes the path planning considering bus delay and displaying position of buses on the map. The bus location system was demonstrated on route buses with smart phones for two months.

Keywords: Route Bus, Path Planning System, GPS, Smart Phone.

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211 Real-Time Visualization Using GPU-Accelerated Filtering of LiDAR Data

Authors: Sašo Pečnik, Borut Žalik

Abstract:

This paper presents a real-time visualization technique and filtering of classified LiDAR point clouds. The visualization is capable of displaying filtered information organized in layers by the classification attribute saved within LiDAR datasets. We explain the used data structure and data management, which enables real-time presentation of layered LiDAR data. Real-time visualization is achieved with LOD optimization based on the distance from the observer without loss of quality. The filtering process is done in two steps and is entirely executed on the GPU and implemented using programmable shaders.

Keywords: Filtering, graphics, level-of-details, LiDAR, realtime visualization.

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210 A Novel Tracking Method Using Filtering and Geometry

Authors: Sang Hoon Lee, Jong Sue Bae, Taewan Kim, Jin Mo Song, Jong Ju Kim

Abstract:

Image target detection and tracking methods based on target information such as intensity, shape model, histogram and target dynamics have been proven to be robust to target model variations and background clutters as shown by recent researches. However, no definitive answer has been given to occluded target by counter measure or limited field of view(FOV). In this paper, we will present a novel tracking method using filtering and computational geometry. This paper has two central goals: 1) to deal with vulnerable target measurements; and 2) to maintain target tracking out of FOV using non-target-originated information. The experimental results, obtained with airborne images, show a robust tracking ability with respect to the existing approaches. In exploring the questions of target tracking, this paper will be limited to consideration of airborne image.

Keywords: Tracking, Computational geometry, Homography, Filter

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209 Two Degree of Freedom Spherical Mechanism Design for Exact Sun Tracking

Authors: Osman Acar

Abstract:

Sun tracking systems are the systems following the sun ray by a right angle or by predetermined certain angle. In this study, we used theoretical trajectory of sun for latitude of central Anatolia in Turkey. A two degree of freedom spherical mechanism was designed to have a large workspace able to follow the sun's theoretical motion by the right angle during the whole year. An inverse kinematic analysis was generated to find the positions of mechanism links for the predicted trajectory. Force and torque analysis were shown for the first day of the year.

Keywords: Sun tracking, theoretical sun trajectory, spherical mechanism, inverse kinematic analysis.

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208 Dynamic Ultrasound Scatterer Simulation Model Using Field-II and FEM for Speckle Tracking

Authors: Aws Al-azawi, John Soraghan

Abstract:

There is a growing interest in the use of ultrasonic speckle tracking for biomedical image formation of tissue deformation. Speckle tracking is angle independent and has an ability to differentiate soft tissue into benign and malignant regions. In this paper a simulation model for dynamic ultrasound scatterer is presented. The model composes Field-II ultrasonic scatterers and FEM (ANSYS-11) nodes as a regional tissue deformation. A performance evaluation is presented on axial displacement and strain fields estimation of a uniformly elastic model, using speckle tracking based 1D cross-correlation of optimally segmented pre and post-deformation frames. Optimum correlation window length is investigated in terms of highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a selected region of interest of a smoothed displacement field. Finally, gradient based strain field of both smoothed and non-smoothed displacement fields are compared. Simulation results from the model are shown to compare favorably with FEM results.

Keywords: Speckle tracking, tissue deformation, ultrasonic simulation.

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207 Routing in Mobile Wireless Networks for Realtime Multimedia Applications- Reuse of Virtual Circuits

Authors: A.Khaja Kamaluddin, B.Muhammed Yousoof

Abstract:

Routing places an important role in determining the quality of service in wireless networks. The routing methods adopted in wireless networks have many drawbacks. This paper aims to review the current routing methods used in wireless networks. This paper proposes an innovative solution to overcome the problems in routing. This solution is aimed at improving the Quality of Service. This solution is different from others as it involves the resuage of the part of the virtual circuits. This improvement in quality of service is important especially in propagation of multimedia applications like video, animations etc. So it is the dire need to propose a new solution to improve the quality of service in ATM wireless networks for multimedia applications especially during this era of multimedia based applications.

Keywords: Packet buffering, Routing Table, Virtual Circuits (VC)

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206 Real-time Target Tracking Using a Pan and Tilt Platform

Authors: Moulay A. Akhloufi

Abstract:

In recent years, we see an increase of interest for efficient tracking systems in surveillance applications. Many of the proposed techniques are designed for static cameras environments. When the camera is moving, tracking moving objects become more difficult and many techniques fail to detect and track the desired targets. The problem becomes more complex when we want to track a specific object in real-time using a moving Pan and Tilt camera system to keep the target within the image. This type of tracking is of high importance in surveillance applications. When a target is detected at a certain zone, the possibility of automatically tracking it continuously and keeping it within the image until action is taken is very important for security personnel working in very sensitive sites. This work presents a real-time tracking system permitting the detection and continuous tracking of targets using a Pan and Tilt camera platform. A novel and efficient approach for dealing with occlusions is presented. Also a new intelligent forget factor is introduced in order to take into account target shape variations and avoid learning non desired objects. Tests conducted in outdoor operational scenarios show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Tracking, surveillance, target detection, Pan and tilt.

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205 Motion-Based Detection and Tracking of Multiple Pedestrians

Authors: A. Harras, A. Tsuji, K. Terada

Abstract:

Tracking of moving people has gained a matter of great importance due to rapid technological advancements in the field of computer vision. The objective of this study is to design a motion based detection and tracking multiple walking pedestrians randomly in different directions. In our proposed method, Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to determine moving persons in image sequences. It reacts to changes that take place in the scene like different illumination; moving objects start and stop often, etc. Background noise in the scene is eliminated through applying morphological operations and the motions of tracked people which is determined by using the Kalman filter. The Kalman filter is applied to predict the tracked location in each frame and to determine the likelihood of each detection. We used a benchmark data set for the evaluation based on a side wall stationary camera. The actual scenes from the data set are taken on a street including up to eight people in front of the camera in different two scenes, the duration is 53 and 35 seconds, respectively. In the case of walking pedestrians in close proximity, the proposed method has achieved the detection ratio of 87%, and the tracking ratio is 77 % successfully. When they are deferred from each other, the detection ratio is increased to 90% and the tracking ratio is also increased to 79%.

Keywords: Automatic detection, tracking, pedestrians.

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204 Enhanced Planar Pattern Tracking for an Outdoor Augmented Reality System

Authors: L. Yu, W. K. Li, S. K. Ong, A. Y. C. Nee

Abstract:

In this paper, a scalable augmented reality framework for handheld devices is presented. The presented framework is enabled by using a server-client data communication structure, in which the search for tracking targets among a database of images is performed on the server-side while pixel-wise 3D tracking is performed on the client-side, which, in this case, is a handheld mobile device. Image search on the server-side adopts a residual-enhanced image descriptors representation that gives the framework a scalability property. The tracking algorithm on the client-side is based on a gravity-aligned feature descriptor which takes the advantage of a sensor-equipped mobile device and an optimized intensity-based image alignment approach that ensures the accuracy of 3D tracking. Automatic content streaming is achieved by using a key-frame selection algorithm, client working phase monitoring and standardized rules for content communication between the server and client. The recognition accuracy test performed on a standard dataset shows that the method adopted in the presented framework outperforms the Bag-of-Words (BoW) method that has been used in some of the previous systems. Experimental test conducted on a set of video sequences indicated the real-time performance of the tracking system with a frame rate at 15-30 frames per second. The presented framework is exposed to be functional in practical situations with a demonstration application on a campus walk-around.

Keywords: Augmented reality framework, server-client model, vision-based tracking, image search.

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203 Multiple Sensors and JPDA-IMM-UKF Algorithm for Tracking Multiple Maneuvering Targets

Authors: Wissem Saidani, Yacine Morsly, Mohand Saïd Djouadi

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the problem of tracking multiple maneuvering targets using switching multiple target motion models. With this paper, we aim to contribute in solving the problem of model-based body motion estimation by using data coming from visual sensors. The Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm is specially designed to track accurately targets whose state and/or measurement (assumed to be linear) models changes during motion transition. However, when these models are nonlinear, the IMM algorithm must be modified in order to guarantee an accurate track. In this paper we propose to avoid the Extended Kalman filter because of its limitations and substitute it with the Unscented Kalman filter which seems to be more efficient especially according to the simulation results obtained with the nonlinear IMM algorithm (IMMUKF). To resolve the problem of data association, the JPDA approach is combined with the IMM-UKF algorithm, the derived algorithm is noted JPDA-IMM-UKF.

Keywords: Estimation, Kalman filtering, Multi-Target Tracking, Visual servoing, data association.

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202 Non-contact Gaze Tracking with Head Movement Adaptation based on Single Camera

Authors: Ying Huang, Zhiliang Wang, An Ping

Abstract:

With advances in computer vision, non-contact gaze tracking systems are heading towards being much easier to operate and more comfortable for use, the technique proposed in this paper is specially designed for achieving these goals. For the convenience in operation, the proposal aims at the system with simple configuration which is composed of a fixed wide angle camera and dual infrared illuminators. Then in order to enhance the usability of the system based on single camera, a self-adjusting method which is called Real-time gaze Tracking Algorithm with head movement Compensation (RTAC) is developed for estimating the gaze direction under natural head movement and simplifying the calibration procedure at the same time. According to the actual evaluations, the average accuracy of about 1° is achieved over a field of 20×15×15 cm3.

Keywords: computer vision, gaze tracking, human-computer interaction.

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201 A Study on Algorithm Fusion for Recognition and Tracking of Moving Robot

Authors: Jungho Choi, Youngwan Cho

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm for the recognition and tracking of moving objects, 1/10 scale model car is used to verify performance of the algorithm. Presented algorithm for the recognition and tracking of moving objects in the paper is as follows. SURF algorithm is merged with Lucas-Kanade algorithm. SURF algorithm has strong performance on contrast, size, rotation changes and it recognizes objects but it is slow due to many computational complexities. Processing speed of Lucas-Kanade algorithm is fast but the recognition of objects is impossible. Its optical flow compares the previous and current frames so that can track the movement of a pixel. The fusion algorithm is created in order to solve problems which occurred using the Kalman Filter to estimate the position and the accumulated error compensation algorithm was implemented. Kalman filter is used to create presented algorithm to complement problems that is occurred when fusion two algorithms. Kalman filter is used to estimate next location, compensate for the accumulated error. The resolution of the camera (Vision Sensor) is fixed to be 640x480. To verify the performance of the fusion algorithm, test is compared to SURF algorithm under three situations, driving straight, curve, and recognizing cars behind the obstacles. Situation similar to the actual is possible using a model vehicle. Proposed fusion algorithm showed superior performance and accuracy than the existing object recognition and tracking algorithms. We will improve the performance of the algorithm, so that you can experiment with the images of the actual road environment.

Keywords: SURF, Optical Flow Lucas-Kanade, Kalman Filter, object recognition, object tracking.

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200 Optical Fish Tracking in Fishways using Neural Networks

Authors: Alvaro Rodriguez, Maria Bermudez, Juan R. Rabuñal, Jeronimo Puertas

Abstract:

One of the main issues in Computer Vision is to extract the movement of one or several points or objects of interest in an image or video sequence to conduct any kind of study or control process. Different techniques to solve this problem have been applied in numerous areas such as surveillance systems, analysis of traffic, motion capture, image compression, navigation systems and others, where the specific characteristics of each scenario determine the approximation to the problem. This paper puts forward a Computer Vision based algorithm to analyze fish trajectories in high turbulence conditions in artificial structures called vertical slot fishways, designed to allow the upstream migration of fish through obstructions in rivers. The suggested algorithm calculates the position of the fish at every instant starting from images recorded with a camera and using neural networks to execute fish detection on images. Different laboratory tests have been carried out in a full scale fishway model and with living fishes, allowing the reconstruction of the fish trajectory and the measurement of velocities and accelerations of the fish. These data can provide useful information to design more effective vertical slot fishways.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Neural Network, Fishway, Fish Trajectory, Tracking

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199 Driver Fatigue State Recognition with Pixel Based Caveat Scheme Using Eye-Tracking

Authors: K. Thulasimani, K. G. Srinivasagan

Abstract:

Driver fatigue is an important factor in the increasing number of road accidents. Dynamic template matching method was proposed to address the problem of real-time driver fatigue detection system based on eye-tracking. An effective vision based approach was used to analyze the driver’s eye state to detect fatigue. The driver fatigue system consists of Face detection, Eye detection, Eye tracking, and Fatigue detection. Initially frames are captured from a color video in a car dashboard and transformed from RGB into YCbCr color space to detect the driver’s face. Canny edge operator was used to estimating the eye region and the locations of eyes are extracted. The extracted eyes were considered as a template matching for eye tracking. Edge Map Overlapping (EMO) and Edge Pixel Count (EPC) matching function were used for eye tracking which is used to improve the matching accuracy. The pixel of eyeball was tracked from the eye regions which are used to determine the fatigue state of the driver.

Keywords: Driver fatigue detection, Driving safety, Eye tracking, Intelligent transportation system, Template matching.

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198 Visual Object Tracking in 3D with Color Based Particle Filter

Authors: Pablo Barrera, Jose M. Canas, Vicente Matellan

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of determining the current 3D location of a moving object and robustly tracking it from a sequence of camera images. The approach presented here uses a particle filter and does not perform any explicit triangulation. Only the color of the object to be tracked is required, but not any precisemotion model. The observation model we have developed avoids the color filtering of the entire image. That and the Monte Carlotechniques inside the particle filter provide real time performance.Experiments with two real cameras are presented and lessons learned are commented. The approach scales easily to more than two cameras and new sensor cues.

Keywords: Monte Carlo sampling, multiple view, particle filters, visual tracking.

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197 Slug Tracking Simulation of Severe Slugging Experiments

Authors: Tor Kindsbekken Kjeldby, Ruud Henkes, Ole Jørgen Nydal

Abstract:

Experimental data from an atmospheric air/water terrain slugging case has been made available by the Shell Amsterdam research center, and has been subject to numerical simulation and comparison with a one-dimensional two-phase slug tracking simulator under development at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The code is based on tracking of liquid slugs in pipelines by use of a Lagrangian grid formulation implemented in Cµ by use of object oriented techniques. An existing hybrid spatial discretization scheme is tested, in which the stratified regions are modelled by the two-fluid model. The slug regions are treated incompressible, thus requiring a single momentum balance over the whole slug. Upon comparison with the experimental data, the period of the simulated severe slugging cycle is observed to be sensitive to slug generation in the horizontal parts of the system. Two different slug initiation methods have been tested with the slug tracking code, and grid dependency has been investigated.

Keywords: Hydrodynamic initiation, slug tracking, terrain slugging, two-fluid model, two-phase flow.

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