Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1371

Search results for: real power

1371 Design of Direct Power Controller for a High Power Neutral Point Clamped Converter Using Real Time Simulator

Authors: Amin Zabihinejad, Philippe Viarouge

Abstract:

In this paper, a direct power control (DPC) strategies have been investigated in order to control a high power AC/DC converter with time variable load. This converter is composed of a three level three phase neutral point clamped (NPC) converter as rectifier and an H-bridge four quadrant current control converter. In the high power application, controller not only must adjust the desire outputs but also decrease the level of distortions which are injected to the network from the converter. Regarding to this reason and nonlinearity of the power electronic converter, the conventional controllers cannot achieve appropriate responses. In this research, the precise mathematical analysis has been employed to design the appropriate controller in order to control the time variable load. A DPC controller has been proposed and simulated using Matlab/ Simulink. In order to verify the simulation result, a real time simulator- OPAL-RT- has been employed. In this paper, the dynamic response and stability of the high power NPC with variable load has been investigated and compared with conventional types using a real time simulator. The results proved that the DPC controller is more stable and has more precise outputs in comparison with conventional controller.

Keywords: Direct Power Control, Three Level Rectifier, Real Time Simulator, High Power Application.

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1370 Simultaneous Tuning of Static Var Compensator and Power System Stabilizer Employing Real- Coded Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S. Panda, N. P. Patidar, R. Singh

Abstract:

Power system stability enhancement by simultaneous tuning of a Power System Stabilizer (PSS) and a Static Var Compensator (SVC)-based controller is thoroughly investigated in this paper. The coordination among the proposed damping stabilizers and the SVC internal voltage regulators has also been taken into consideration. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem with a time-domain simulation-based objective function and Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. The proposed stabilizers are tested on a weakly connected power system with different disturbances and loading conditions. The nonlinear simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control schemes over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances. Further, the proposed design approach is found to be robust and improves stability effectively even under small disturbance and unbalanced fault conditions.

Keywords: Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), Static Var Compensator (SVC), Power System Stabilizer (PSS), Low Frequency Oscillations, Power System Stability.

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1369 UPFC Supplementary Controller Design Using Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Damping Low Frequency Oscillations in Power Systems

Authors: A.K. Baliarsingh, S. Panda, A.K. Mohanty, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents a systematic approach for designing Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) based supplementary damping controllers for damping low frequency oscillations in a single-machine infinite-bus power system. Detailed investigations have been carried out considering the four alternatives UPFC based damping controller namely modulating index of series inverter (mB), modulating index of shunt inverter (mE), phase angle of series inverter (δB ) and phase angle of the shunt inverter (δE ). The design problem of the proposed controllers is formulated as an optimization problem and Real- Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed to optimize damping controller parameters. Simulation results are presented and compared with a conventional method of tuning the damping controller parameters to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach.

Keywords: Power System Oscillations, Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), Damping Controller.

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1368 Concept, Design and Implementation of Power System Component Simulator Based on Thyristor Controlled Transformer and Power Converter

Authors: B. Kędra, R. Małkowski

Abstract:

This paper presents information on Power System Component Simulator – a device designed for LINTE^2 laboratory owned by Gdansk University of Technology in Poland. In this paper, we first provide an introductory information on the Power System Component Simulator and its capabilities. Then, the concept of the unit is presented. Requirements for the unit are described as well as proposed and introduced functions are listed. Implementation details are given. Hardware structure is presented and described. Information about used communication interface, data maintenance and storage solution, as well as used Simulink real-time features are presented. List and description of all measurements is provided. Potential of laboratory setup modifications is evaluated. Lastly, the results of experiments performed using Power System Component Simulator are presented. This includes simulation of under frequency load shedding, frequency and voltage dependent characteristics of groups of load units, time characteristics of group of different load units in a chosen area.

Keywords: Power converter, Simulink real-time, MATLAB, load, tap controller.

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1367 Estimation of Real Power Transfer Allocation Using Intelligent Systems

Authors: H. Shareef, A. Mohamed, S. A. Khalid, Aziah Khamis

Abstract:

This paper presents application artificial intelligent (AI) techniques, namely artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy interface system (ANFIS), to estimate the real power transfer between generators and loads. Since these AI techniques adopt supervised learning, it first uses modified nodal equation method (MNE) to determine real power contribution from each generator to loads. Then the results of MNE method and load flow information are utilized to estimate the power transfer using AI techniques. The 25-bus equivalent system of south Malaysia is utilized as a test system to illustrate the effectiveness of both AI methods compared to that of the MNE method. The mean squared error of the estimate of ANN and ANFIS power transfer allocation methods are 1.19E-05 and 2.97E-05, respectively. Furthermore, when compared to MNE method, ANN and ANFIS methods computes generator contribution to loads within 20.99 and 39.37msec respectively whereas the MNE method took 360msec for the calculation of same real power transfer allocation. 

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Power tracing, Artificial neural network, ANFIS, Power system deregulation.

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1366 Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Robust Power System Stabilizer Design

Authors: Sidhartha Panda, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Power system stabilizers (PSS) are now routinely used in the industry to damp out power system oscillations. In this paper, real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) optimization technique is applied to design robust power system stabilizer for both singlemachine infinite-bus (SMIB) and multi-machine power system. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and RCGA is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. By minimizing the time-domain based objective function, in which the deviation in the oscillatory rotor speed of the generator is involved; stability performance of the system is improved. The non-linear simulation results are presented under wide range of operating conditions; disturbances at different locations as well as for various fault clearing sequences to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller and their ability to provide efficient damping of low frequency oscillations.

Keywords: Particle swarm optimization, power system stabilizer, low frequency oscillations, power system stability.

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1365 Application of Universal Distribution Factors for Real-Time Complex Power Flow Calculation

Authors: Abdullah M. Alodhaiani, Yasir A. Alturki, Mohamed A. Elkady

Abstract:

Complex power flow distribution factors, which relate line complex power flows to the bus injected complex powers, have been widely used in various power system planning and analysis studies. In particular, AC distribution factors have been used extensively in the recent power and energy pricing studies in free electricity market field. As was demonstrated in the existing literature, many of the electricity market related costing studies rely on the use of the distribution factors. These known distribution factors, whether the injection shift factors (ISF’s) or power transfer distribution factors (PTDF’s), are linear approximations of the first order sensitivities of the active power flows with respect to various variables. This paper presents a novel model for evaluating the universal distribution factors (UDF’s), which are appropriate for an extensive range of power systems analysis and free electricity market studies. These distribution factors are used for the calculations of lines complex power flows and its independent of bus power injections, they are compact matrix-form expressions with total flexibility in determining the position on the line at which line flows are measured. The proposed approach was tested on IEEE 9-Bus system. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed approach is very accurate compared with exact method.

Keywords: Distribution Factors, Power System, Sensitivity Factors, Electricity Market.

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1364 Automation System for Optimization of Electrical and Thermal Energy Production in Cogenerative Gas Power Plants

Authors: Ion Miciu

Abstract:

The system is made with main distributed components: First Level: Industrial Computers placed in Control Room (monitors thermal and electrical processes based on the data provided by the second level); Second Level: PLCs which collects data from process and transmits information on the first level; also takes commands from this level which are further, passed to execution elements from third level; Third Level: field elements consisting in 3 categories: data collecting elements; data transfer elements from the third level to the second; execution elements which take commands from the second level PLCs and executes them after which transmits the confirmation of execution to them. The purpose of the automatic functioning is the optimization of the co-generative electrical energy commissioning in the national energy system and the commissioning of thermal energy to the consumers. The integrated system treats the functioning of all the equipments and devices as a whole: Gas Turbine Units (GTU); MT 20kV Medium Voltage Station (MVS); 0,4 kV Low Voltage Station (LVS); Main Hot Water Boilers (MHW); Auxiliary Hot Water Boilers (AHW); Gas Compressor Unit (GCU); Thermal Agent Circulation Pumping Unit (TPU); Water Treating Station (WTS).

Keywords: Automation System, Cogenerative Power Plant, Control, Monitoring, Real Time

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1363 PSS with Multiple FACTS Controllers Coordinated Design and Real-Time Implementation Using Advanced Adaptive PSO

Authors: Rajendraprasad Narne, P. C. Panda

Abstract:

In this article, coordinated tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) with static var compensator (SVC) and thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) in multi-machine power system is proposed. The design of proposed coordinated damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem and the controller gains are optimized instantaneously using advanced adaptive particle swarm optimization (AAPSO). The objective function is framed with the inter-area speed deviations of the generators and it is minimized using AAPSO to improve the dynamic stability of power system under severe disturbance. The proposed coordinated controller performance is evaluated under a wide range of system operating conditions with three-phase fault disturbance. Using time domain simulations the damping characteristics of proposed controller is compared with individually tuned PSS, SVC and TCSC controllers. Finally, the real-time simulations are carried out in Opal-RT hardware simulator to synchronize the proposed controller performance in the real world.

Keywords: Advanced adaptive particle swarm optimization, Coordinated design, Power system stabilizer, Real-time implementation, static var compensator, Thyristor controlled series capacitor.

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1362 Design of Static Synchronous Series Compensator Based Damping Controller Employing Real Coded Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S.C.Swain, A.K.Balirsingh, S. Mahapatra, S. Panda

Abstract:

This paper presents a systematic approach for designing Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) based supplementary damping controllers for damping low frequency oscillations in a single-machine infinite-bus power system. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and RCGA is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. By minimizing the time-domain based objective function, in which the deviation in the oscillatory rotor speed of the generator is involved; stability performance of the system is improved. Simulation results are presented and compared with a conventional method of tuning the damping controller parameters to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach.

Keywords: Low frequency Oscillations, Phase CompensationTechnique, Real Coded Genetic Algorithm, Single-machine InfiniteBus Power System, Static Synchronous Series Compensator.

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1361 A Real Time Expert System for Decision Support in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Andressa dos Santos Nicolau, João P. da S.C Algusto, Claudio Márcio do N. A. Pereira, Roberto Schirru

Abstract:

In case of abnormal situations, the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators must follow written procedures to check the condition of the plant and to classify the type of emergency. In this paper, we proposed a Real Time Expert System in order to improve operator’s performance in case of transient or accident with reactor shutdown. The expert system’s knowledge is based on the sequence of events (SoE) of known accident and two emergency procedures of the Brazilian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) NPP and uses two kinds of knowledge representation: rule and logic trees. The results show that the system was able to classify the response of the automatic protection systems, as well as to evaluate the conditions of the plant, diagnosing the type of occurrence, recovery procedure to be followed, indicating the shutdown root cause, and classifying the emergency level.

Keywords: Emergence procedure, expert system, operator support, PWR nuclear power plant.

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1360 Optimal Supplementary Damping Controller Design for TCSC Employing RCGA

Authors: S. Panda, S. C. Swain, A. K. Baliarsingh, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Optimal supplementary damping controller design for Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) is presented in this paper. For the proposed controller design, a multi-objective fitness function consisting of both damping factors and real part of system electromachanical eigenvalue is used and Real- Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed for the optimal supplementary controller parameters. The performance of the designed supplementary TCSC-based damping controller is tested on a weakly connected power system with different disturbances and loading conditions with parameter variations. Simulation results are presented and compared with a conventional power system stabilizer and also with the TCSC-based supplementary controller when the controller parameters are not optimized to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances.

Keywords: Power System Oscillations, Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC), Damping Controller, Power System Stabilizer.

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1359 Analysis and Research of Two-Level Scheduling Profile for Open Real-Time System

Authors: Yongxian Jin, Jingzhou Huang

Abstract:

In an open real-time system environment, the coexistence of different kinds of real-time and non real-time applications makes the system scheduling mechanism face new requirements and challenges. One two-level scheduling scheme of the open real-time systems is introduced, and points out that hard and soft real-time applications are scheduled non-distinctively as the same type real-time applications, the Quality of Service (QoS) cannot be guaranteed. It has two flaws: The first, it can not differentiate scheduling priorities of hard and soft real-time applications, that is to say, it neglects characteristic differences between hard real-time applications and soft ones, so it does not suit a more complex real-time environment. The second, the worst case execution time of soft real-time applications cannot be predicted exactly, so it is not worth while to cost much spending in order to assure all soft real-time applications not to miss their deadlines, and doing that may cause resource wasting. In order to solve this problem, a novel two-level real-time scheduling mechanism (including scheduling profile and scheduling algorithm) which adds the process of dealing with soft real-time applications is proposed. Finally, we verify real-time scheduling mechanism from two aspects of theory and experiment. The results indicate that our scheduling mechanism can achieve the following objectives. (1) It can reflect the difference of priority when scheduling hard and soft real-time applications. (2) It can ensure schedulability of hard real-time applications, that is, their rate of missing deadline is 0. (3) The overall rate of missing deadline of soft real-time applications can be less than 1. (4) The deadline of a non-real-time application is not set, whereas the scheduling algorithm that server 0 S uses can avoid the “starvation" of jobs and increase QOS. By doing that, our scheduling mechanism is more compatible with different types of applications and it will be applied more widely.

Keywords: Hard real-time, two-level scheduling profile, open real-time system, non-distinctive schedule, soft real-time

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1358 Research on Weakly Hard Real-Time Constraints and Their Boolean Combination to Support Adaptive QoS

Authors: Xiangbin Zhu

Abstract:

Advances in computing applications in recent years have prompted the demand for more flexible scheduling models for QoS demand. Moreover, in practical applications, partly violated temporal constraints can be tolerated if the violation meets certain distribution. So we need extend the traditional Liu and Lanland model to adapt to these circumstances. There are two extensions, which are the (m, k)-firm model and Window-Constrained model. This paper researches on weakly hard real-time constraints and their combination to support QoS. The fact that a practical application can tolerate some violations of temporal constraint under certain distribution is employed to support adaptive QoS on the open real-time system. The experiment results show these approaches are effective compared to traditional scheduling algorithms.

Keywords: Weakly Hard Real-Time, Real-Time, Scheduling, Quality of Service.

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1357 Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) as an Index Measurement for Power Transmission Grid Performance

Authors: Ahmad Abubakar Sadiq, Mark N. Nwohu, Jacob Tsado, Ahmad A. Ashraf, Agbachi E. Okenna, Enesi E. Yahaya, Ambafi James Garba

Abstract:

Transmission system performance analysis is vital to proper planning and operations of power systems in the presence of deregulation. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are often used as measure of degree of performance. This paper gives a novel method to determine the transmission efficiency by evaluating the ratio of real power losses incurred from a specified transfer direction. Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) expresses the percentage of real power received resulting from inter-area available power transfer. The Tie line (Rated system path) performance is seen to differ from system wide (Network response) performance and ATTE values obtained are transfer direction specific. The required sending end quantities with specified receiving end ATC and the receiving end power circle diagram are obtained for the tie line analysis. The amount of real power loss load relative to the available transfer capability gives a measure of the transmission grid efficiency.

Keywords: Available transfer capability, efficiency performance, real power, transmission system.

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1356 Real Power Generation Scheduling to Improve Steady State Stability Limit in the Java-Bali 500kV Interconnection Power System

Authors: Indar Chaerah Gunadin, Adi Soeprijanto, Ontoseno Penangsang

Abstract:

This paper will discuss about an active power generator scheduling method in order to increase the limit level of steady state systems. Some power generator optimization methods such as Langrange, PLN (Indonesian electricity company) Operation, and the proposed Z-Thevenin-based method will be studied and compared in respect of their steady state aspects. A method proposed in this paper is built upon the thevenin equivalent impedance values between each load respected to each generator. The steady state stability index obtained with the REI DIMO method. This research will review the 500kV-Jawa-Bali interconnection system. The simulation results show that the proposed method has the highest limit level of steady state stability compared to other optimization techniques such as Lagrange, and PLN operation. Thus, the proposed method can be used to create the steady state stability limit of the system especially in the peak load condition.

Keywords: generation scheduling, steady-state stability limit, REI Dimo, margin stability

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1355 Methods of Estimating the Equilibrium Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER)

Authors: Pavla Ruzickova, Petr Teply

Abstract:

There are many debates now regarding undervalued and overvalued currencies currently traded on the world financial market. This paper contributes to these debates from a theoretical point of view. We present the three most commonly used methods of estimating the equilibrium real effective exchange rate (REER): macroeconomic balance approach, external sustainability approach and equilibrium real effective exchange rate approach in the reduced form. Moreover, we discuss key concepts of the calculation of the real exchange rate (RER) based on applied explanatory variables: nominal exchange rates, terms of trade and tradable and non-tradable goods. Last but not least, we discuss the three main driving forces behind real exchange rates movements which include terms of trade, relative productivity growth and the interest rate differential.

Keywords: real exchange rate, real effective exchange rate, foreign exchange, terms of trade

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1354 Payment for Pain: Differences between Hypothetical and Real Preferences

Authors: J. Trarbach, S. Schosser, B. Vogt

Abstract:

Decision-makers tend to prefer the first alternative over subsequent alternatives which is called the primacy effect. To reliably measure this effect, we conducted an experiment with real consequences for preference statements. Therefore, we elicit preferences of subjects using a rating scale, i.e. hypothetical preferences, and willingness to pay, i.e. real preferences, for two sequences of pain. Within these sequences, both overall intensity and duration of pain are identical. Hence, a rational decision-maker should be indifferent, whereas the primacy effect predicts a stronger preference for the first sequence. What we see is a primacy effect only for hypothetical preferences. This effect vanishes for real preferences.

Keywords: Decision making, primacy effect, real incentives, willingness to pay.

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1353 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani

Abstract:

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: Power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor.

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1352 Factors Having Impact on Marketing and Improvement Measures in the Real Estate Sector of Turkey

Authors: Ali Ihtiyar, Serdar Durdyev, Syuhaida Ismail

Abstract:

Marketing is an essential issue to the survival of any real estate company in Turkey. There are some factors which are constraining the achievements of the marketing and sales strategies in the Turkey real estate industry. This study aims to identify and prioritise the most significant constraints to marketing in real estate sector and new strategies based on those constraints. This study is based on survey method, where the respondents such as credit counsellors, real estate investors, consultants, academicians and marketing representatives in Turkey were asked to rank forty seven sub-factors according to their levels of impact. The results of Multiattribute analytical technique indicated that the main subcomponents having impact on marketing in real estate sector are interest rates, real estate credit availability, accessibility, company image and consumer real income, respectively. The identified constraints are expected to guide the marketing team in a sales-effective way.

Keywords: Marketing, marketing constraints, Real estate marketing, Turkey real estate sector

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1351 Tracking Activity of Real Individuals in Web Logs

Authors: Sándor Juhász, Renáta Iváncsy

Abstract:

This paper describes an enhanced cookie-based method for counting the visitors of web sites by using a web log processing system that aims to cope with the ambitious goal of creating countrywide statistics about the browsing practices of real human individuals. The focus is put on describing a new more efficient way of detecting human beings behind web users by placing different identifiers on the client computers. We briefly introduce our processing system designed to handle the massive amount of data records continuously gathered from the most important content providers of the Hungary. We conclude by showing statistics of different time spans comparing the efficiency of multiple visitor counting methods to the one presented here, and some interesting charts about content providers and web usage based on real data recorded in 2007 will also be presented.

Keywords: Cookie based identification, real data, user activitytracking, web auditing, web log processing

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1350 Some New Bounds for a Real Power of the Normalized Laplacian Eigenvalues

Authors: Ayşe Dilek Maden

Abstract:

For a given a simple connected graph, we present some new bounds via a new approach for a special topological index given by the sum of the real number power of the non-zero normalized Laplacian eigenvalues. To use this approach presents an advantage not only to derive old and new bounds on this topic but also gives an idea how some previous results in similar area can be developed.

Keywords: Degree Kirchhoff index, normalized Laplacian eigenvalue, spanning tree.

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1349 Real E-Government, Real Convenience

Authors: M. Kargar, F.Fartash, T. Saderi, M. Abdar-e Bakhshayesh

Abstract:

In this paper we have suggested a new system for egovernment. In this method a government can design a precise and perfect system to control people and organizations by using five major documents. These documents contain the important information of each member of a society and help all organizations to do their informatics tasks through them. This information would be available by only a national code and a secure program would support it. The suggested system can give a good awareness to the society and help it be managed correctly.

Keywords: E-Government, Internet, Web-Based System, Society.

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1348 Real-Time Data Stream Partitioning over a Sliding Window in Real-Time Spatial Big Data

Authors: Sana Hamdi, Emna Bouazizi, Sami Faiz

Abstract:

In recent years, real-time spatial applications, like location-aware services and traffic monitoring, have become more and more important. Such applications result dynamic environments where data as well as queries are continuously moving. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of real-time spatial data generated every day. The growth of the data volume seems to outspeed the advance of our computing infrastructure. For instance, in real-time spatial Big Data, users expect to receive the results of each query within a short time period without holding in account the load of the system. But with a huge amount of real-time spatial data generated, the system performance degrades rapidly especially in overload situations. To solve this problem, we propose the use of data partitioning as an optimization technique. Traditional horizontal and vertical partitioning can increase the performance of the system and simplify data management. But they remain insufficient for real-time spatial Big data; they can’t deal with real-time and stream queries efficiently. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel data partitioning approach for real-time spatial Big data named VPA-RTSBD (Vertical Partitioning Approach for Real-Time Spatial Big data). This contribution is an implementation of the Matching algorithm for traditional vertical partitioning. We find, firstly, the optimal attribute sequence by the use of Matching algorithm. Then, we propose a new cost model used for database partitioning, for keeping the data amount of each partition more balanced limit and for providing a parallel execution guarantees for the most frequent queries. VPA-RTSBD aims to obtain a real-time partitioning scheme and deals with stream data. It improves the performance of query execution by maximizing the degree of parallel execution. This affects QoS (Quality Of Service) improvement in real-time spatial Big Data especially with a huge volume of stream data. The performance of our contribution is evaluated via simulation experiments. The results show that the proposed algorithm is both efficient and scalable, and that it outperforms comparable algorithms.

Keywords: Real-Time Spatial Big Data, Quality Of Service, Vertical partitioning, Horizontal partitioning, Matching algorithm, Hamming distance, Stream query.

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1347 Sensitivity Analysis of Real-Time Systems

Authors: Benjamin Gorry, Andrew Ireland, Peter King

Abstract:

Verification of real-time software systems can be expensive in terms of time and resources. Testing is the main method of proving correctness but has been shown to be a long and time consuming process. Everyday engineers are usually unwilling to adopt formal approaches to correctness because of the overhead associated with developing their knowledge of such techniques. Performance modelling techniques allow systems to be evaluated with respect to timing constraints. This paper describes PARTES, a framework which guides the extraction of performance models from programs written in an annotated subset of C.

Keywords: Performance Modelling, Real-time, SensitivityAnalysis.

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1346 On the Verification of Power Nap Associated with Stage 2 Sleep and Its Application

Authors: Jetsada Arnin, Yodchanan Wongsawat

Abstract:

One of the most important causes of accidents is driver fatigue. To reduce the accidental rate, the driver needs a quick nap when feeling sleepy. Hence, searching for the minimum time period of nap is a very challenging problem. The purpose of this paper is twofold, i.e. to investigate the possible fastest time period for nap and its relationship with stage 2 sleep, and to develop an automatic stage 2 sleep detection and alarm device. The experiment for this investigation is designed with 21 subjects. It yields the result that waking up the subjects after getting into stage 2 sleep for 3-5 minutes can efficiently reduce the sleepiness. Furthermore, the automatic stage 2 sleep detection and alarm device yields the real-time detection accuracy of approximately 85% which is comparable with the commercial sleep lab system.

Keywords: Stage 2 sleep, nap, sleep detection, real-time, EEG

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1345 A Real-time 4M Collecting Method for Production Information System

Authors: Seung Woo Lee, So Jeong Nam, Jai-Kyung Lee

Abstract:

It can be said that the business sector is faced with a range of challenges–a rapidly changing business environment, an increase and diversification of customers- demands and the consequent need for quick response–for having in place flexible management and production info systems. As a matter of fact, many manufacturers have adopted production info management systems such as MES and ERP. Nevertheless, managers are having difficulties obtaining ever-changing production process information in real time, or responding quickly to any change in production related needs on the basis of such information. This is because they rely on poor production info systems which are not capable of providing real-time factory settings. If the manufacturer doesn-t have a capacity for collecting or digitalizing the 4 Ms (Man, Machine, Material, Method), which are resources for production, on a real time basis, it might to difficult to effectively maintain the information on production process. In this regard, this paper will introduce some new alternatives to the existing methods of collecting the 4 Ms in real time, which are currently comprise the production field.

Keywords: 4M, Acquisition of Data on shop-floor, Real-time machine interface

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1344 A Real Options Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment Competition in a News Uncertain Environment

Authors: J. Zambujal-Oliveira

Abstract:

The relation between taxation states and foreign direct investment has been studied for several perspectives and with states of different levels of development. Usually it's only considered the impact of tax level on the foreign direct investment volume. This paper enhances this view by assuming that multinationals companies (MNC) can use transfer prices systems and have got investment timing flexibility. Thus, it evaluates the impact of the use of international transfer pricing systems on the states- policy and on the investment timing of the multinational companies. In uncertain business environments (with periodical release of news), the investment can increase if MNC detain investment delay options. This paper shows how tax differentials can attract foreign direct investments (FDI) and influence MNC behavior. The equilibrium is set in a global environment where MNC can shift their profits between states depending on the corporate tax rates. Assuming the use of transfer pricing schemes, this paper confirms the relationship between MNC behavior and the release of new business news.

Keywords: Corporate Taxation, International Profit Shifting, Real Options

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1343 Energy and Exergy Performance Optimization on a Real Gas Turbine Power Plant

Authors: Farhat Hajer, Khir Tahar, Cherni Rafik, Dakhli Radhouen, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

This paper presents the energy and exergy optimization of a real gas turbine power plant performance of 100 MW of power, installed in the South East of Tunisia. A simulation code is established using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. The parameters considered are those of the actual operating conditions of the gas turbine thermal power station under study. The results show that thermal and exergetic efficiency decreases with the increase of the ambient temperature. Air excess has an important effect on the thermal efficiency. The emission of NOx rises in the summer and decreases in the winter. The obtained rates of NOx are compared with measurements results.

Keywords: Efficiency, exergy, gas turbine, temperature.

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1342 Intelligent Agent Approach to the Control of Critical Infrastructure Networks

Authors: James D. Gadze, Niki Pissinou, Kia Makki

Abstract:

In this paper we propose an intelligent agent approach to control the electric power grid at a smaller granularity in order to give it self-healing capabilities. We develop a method using the influence model to transform transmission substations into information processing, analyzing and decision making (intelligent behavior) units. We also develop a wireless communication method to deliver real-time uncorrupted information to an intelligent controller in a power system environment. A combined networking and information theoretic approach is adopted in meeting both the delay and error probability requirements. We use a mobile agent approach in optimizing the achievable information rate vector and in the distribution of rates to users (sensors). We developed the concept and the quantitative tools require in the creation of cooperating semiautonomous subsystems which puts the electric grid on the path towards intelligent and self-healing system.

Keywords: Mobile agent, power system operation and control, real time, wireless communication.

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