Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: radioactivity dose

48 Natural Radioactivity Measurements of Basalt Rocks in Sidakan District Northeastern of Kurdistan Region-Iraq

Authors: Ali A. Ahmed, Mohammed I. Hussein

Abstract:

The amounts of radioactivity in the igneous rocks have been investigated; samples were collected from the total of eight basalt rock types in the northeastern of Kurdistan region/Iraq. The activity concentration of 226Ra (238U) series, 228Ac (232Th) series, 40K and 137Cs were measured using Planar HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors. Along the study area the radium equivalent activities Raeq in Bq/Kg of samples under investigation were found in the range of 22.16 to 77.31 Bq/Kg with an average value of 44.8 Bq/Kg, this value is much below the internationally accepted value of 370 Bq/Kg. To estimate the health effects of this natural radioactive composition, the average values of absorbed gamma dose rate D (55 nGyh-1), Indoor and outdoor annual effective dose rates Eied (0.11 mSvy-1) . and Eoed (0.03 mSvy-1), External hazard index Hex (0.138) and internal hazard index Hin(0.154), and representative level index Iγr (0.386) have been calculated and found to be lower than the worldwide average values.

Keywords: Absorbed dose, activity concentration, igneousrocks, HPGe, NaI(TI), Natural Radioactivity.

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47 Natural Radioactivity in Foods Consumed in Turkey

Authors: E. Kam, G. Karahan, H. Aslıyuksek, A. Bozkurt

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the natural radioactivity levels in some foodstuffs produced in Turkey. For this purpose, 48 different foods samples were collected from different land parcels throughout the country. All samples were analyzed to designate both gross alpha and gross beta radioactivities and the radionuclides’ concentrations. The gross alpha radioactivities were measured as below 1 Bq kg-1 in most of the samples, some of them being due to the detection limit of the counting system. The gross beta radioactivity levels ranged from 1.8 Bq kg-1 to 453 Bq kg-1, larger levels being observed in leguminous seeds while the highest level being in haricot bean. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the foodstuffs were investigated by the method of gamma spectroscopy. High levels of 40K were measured in all the samples, the highest activities being again in leguminous seeds. Low concentrations of 238U and 226Ra were found in some of the samples, which are comparable to the reported results in the literature. Based on the activity concentrations obtained in this study, average annual effective dose equivalents for the radionuclides 226Ra, 238U, and 40K were calculated as 77.416 µSv y-1, 0.978 µSv y-1, and 140.55 µSv y-1, respectively.

Keywords: Foods, radioactivity, gross alpha, gross beta, annual equivalent dose, Turkey.

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46 Radon in Drinking Water in Novi Sad

Authors: J. Nikolov, N. Todorovic, S. Forkapic, I. Bikit, D. Mrdja

Abstract:

Exposure to radon occurs when breathing airborne radon while using water: showering, washing dishes, cooking, and drinking water that contain radon. The results of radon activity measurements in water from public drinking fountain in city of Novi Sad, Serbia is presented in this paper. Radon level in some samples exceeded EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) recommendation for maximum contaminant level (MCL) for radon in drinking water of 11.1 Bq/l.

Keywords: radon, radioactivity dose, public drink fountain.

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45 Radioactivity of the Agricultural Soil in Northern Province of Serbia, Vojvodina

Authors: I. Bikit, S. Forkapic, J. Nikolov, N. Todorovic, D. Mrdja

Abstract:

During the year 1999, Serbia (ex Yugoslavia) and their northern province, Vojvodina, has been bombarded. Because of that general public believe is that this region was contaminated by depleted uranium and that there is a potential contaminant of agricultural products due to soil radioactivity. This paper presents the repeated analysis of agricultural soil samples in Vojvodina. The same investigation was carried out during the year 2001, and it was concluded that, based on the gamma-spectrometric analysis of 50 soil samples taken from the region of Vojvodina, there haven-t been registered any increase of radioactivity that could endanger the food production. We continue with the monitoring of this region. The comparison between those two sets of results is presented.

Keywords: gamma spectrometry analysis, radioactivity of theagricultural soil.

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44 Radiation Dose Distribution for Workers in South Korean Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: B. I. Lee, S. I. Kim, D. H. Suh, J. I. Kim, Y. K. Lim

Abstract:

A total of 33,680 nuclear power plants (NPPs) workers were monitored and recorded from 1990 to 2007. According to the record, the average individual radiation dose has been decreasing continually from it 3.20 mSv/man in 1990 to 1.12 mSv/man at the end of 2007. After the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 60 recommendation was generalized in South Korea, no nuclear power plant workers received above 20 mSv radiation, and the numbers of relatively highly exposed workers have been decreasing continuously. The age distribution of radiation workers in nuclear power plants was composed of mainly 20-30- year-olds (83%) for 1990 ~ 1994 and 30-40-year-olds (75%) for 2003 ~ 2007. The difference in individual average dose by age was not significant. Most (77%) of NPP radiation exposures from 1990 to 2007 occurred mostly during the refueling period. With regard to exposure type, the majority of exposures were external exposures, representing 95% of the total exposures, while internal exposures represented only 5%. External effective dose was affected mainly by gamma radiation exposure, with an insignificant amount of neutron exposure. As for internal effective dose, tritium (3H) in the pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) was the biggest cause of exposure.

Keywords: Dose distribution, External exposure, Nuclear powerplant, Occupational radiation dose

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43 Effective Dose and Size Specific Dose Estimation with and without Tube Current Modulation for Thoracic Computed Tomography Examinations: A Phantom Study

Authors: S. Gharbi, S. Labidi, M. Mars, M. Chelli, F. Ladeb

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to reduce radiation dose for chest CT examination by including Tube Current Modulation (TCM) to a standard CT protocol. A scan of an anthropomorphic male Alderson phantom was performed on a 128-slice scanner. The estimation of effective dose (ED) in both scans with and without mAs modulation was done via multiplication of Dose Length Product (DLP) to a conversion factor. Results were compared to those measured with a CT-Expo software. The size specific dose estimation (SSDE) values were obtained by multiplication of the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) with a conversion size factor related to the phantom’s effective diameter. Objective assessment of image quality was performed with Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) measurements in phantom. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results showed including CARE Dose 4D; ED was lowered by 48.35% and 51.51% using DLP and CT-expo, respectively. In addition, ED ranges between 7.01 mSv and 6.6 mSv in case of standard protocol, while it ranges between 3.62 mSv and 3.2 mSv with TCM. Similar results are found for SSDE; dose was higher without TCM of 16.25 mGy and was lower by 48.8% including TCM. The SNR values calculated were significantly different (p=0.03<0.05). The highest one is measured on images acquired with TCM and reconstructed with Filtered back projection (FBP). In conclusion, this study proves the potential of TCM technique in SSDE and ED reduction and in conserving image quality with high diagnostic reference level for thoracic CT examinations.

Keywords: Anthropomorphic phantom, computed tomography, CT-expo, radiation dose.

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42 Workplace Monitoring During Interventional Cardiology Procedures

Authors: N. Todorovic, I. Bikit, J. Nikolov, S. Forkapic, D. Mrdja, S. Todorovic

Abstract:

Interventional cardiologists are at greater risk from radiation exposure as a result of the procedures they undertake than most other medical specialists. A study was performed to evaluate operator dose during interventional cardiology procedures and to establish methods of operator dose reduction with a radiation protective device. Different procedure technique and use of protective tools can explain big difference in the annual equivalent dose received by the professionals. Strategies to prevent and monitor radiation exposure, advanced protective shielding and effective radiation monitoring methods should be applied.

Keywords: absorbed dose rate measurements, annualequivalent dose, protective device.

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41 Effect of Dose Rate of Irradiation on Ultrastructure of Duodenal Mucosa

Authors: L. Labéjof, I. Mororó, P. Galle, G. Barbosa, M.I. Severo, A.H. de Oliveira

Abstract:

Ultrastructure of duodenum mucosa of irradiated rat was studied versus dose rate of irradiation following exposure to gamma rays from 60-Cobalt source. The animals were whole body irradiated at two dose rates (1 Gy.mn-1 and 1 Gy.h-1) and three total doses (1, 2 or 4 Gy) for each dose rate. 24 or 48 h after irradiation, their small intestine was removed and samples of duodenum were processed for observations under a transmission electron microscopy. Samples of duodenum mucosa of control rats were processed in the same way. For the lower dose rate of 1 Gy.h-1, main lesions characteristic of apoptosis were detected within irradiated enterocytes at a total dose of 2 Gy and 24 h after exposure. Necrosis was noted in the samples, 48 h after exposition. For the higher dose rate of 1 Gy.mn-1, fewer changes were detected at all total doses 24 or 48 h irradiation. Thus, it was shown that the appearance of radiationinduced alterations varies not only with increasing total dose and post-irradiation time but especially with decreasing dose rate.

Keywords: Dose rate, Radiation Inury, Apoptosis, SmallBowel

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40 Experimental and Analytical Dose Assessment of Patient's Family Members Treated with I-131

Authors: Marzieh Ebrahimi, Vahid Changizi, Mohammad Reza Kardan, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini Pooya, Parham Geramifar

Abstract:

Radiation exposure to the patient's family members is one of the major concerns during thyroid cancer radionuclide therapy. The aim of this study was to measure the total effective dose of the family members by means of thermoluminescence personal dosimeter, and compare with those calculated by analytical methods. Eighty-five adult family members of fifty-one patients volunteered to participate in this research study. Considering the minimum and maximum range of dose rate from 15 µsv/h to 120 µsv/h at patients' release time, the calculated mean and median dose values of family members were 0.45 mSv and 0.28 mSv, respectively. Moreover, almost all family members’ doses were measured to be less than the dose constraint of 5 mSv recommended by Basic Safety Standards. Considering the influence parameters such as patient dose rate and administrated activity, the total effective doses of family members were calculated by TEDE and NRC formulas and compared with those of experimental results. The results indicated that, it is fruitful to use the quantitative calculations for releasing patients treated with I-131 and correct estimation of patients' family doses.

Keywords: Effective dose, thermoluminescence, I-131, Thyroid cancer.

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39 Estimated Human Absorbed Dose of 111In-BPAMD as a New Bone-Seeking SPECT-Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

An early diagnosis of bone metastasis is very important for making a right decision on a subsequent therapy. One of the most important steps to be taken initially, for developing a new radiopharmaceutical is the measurement of organ radiation exposure dose. In this study, the dosimetric studies of a novel agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis, 111In-(4- {[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}7,10bis(carboxymethyl) -1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (111In-BPAMD) complex, have been carried out to estimate the dose in human organs based on the data derived from mice. The radiolabeled complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity in the optimal conditions. Biodistribution studies of the complex was investigated in the male Syrian mice at the selected times after injection (2, 4, 24 and 48 h). The human absorbed dose estimation of the complex was made based on data derived from the mice by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. 111In-BPAMD complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity >95% (ITLC) and specific activities of 2.85 TBq/mmol. Total body effective absorbed dose for 111In-BPAMD was 0.205 mSv/MBq. This value is comparable to the other 111In clinically used complexes. The results show that the dose with respect to the critical organs is satisfactory within the acceptable range for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Generally, 111In-BPAMD has interesting characteristics and it can be considered as a viable agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis in the near future.

Keywords: In-111, BPAMD, absorbed dose, RADAR.

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38 Dose due the Incorporation of Radionuclides Using Teeth as Bioindicators nearby Caetité Uranium Mines

Authors: Viviane S. Guimarães, Ícaro M. M. Brasil, Simara S. Campos, Roseli F. Gennari, Márcia R. P. Attie, Susana O. Souza.

Abstract:

Uranium mining and processing in Brazil occur in a northeastern area near to Caetité-BA. Several Non-Governmental Organizations claim that uranium mining in this region is a pollutant causing health risks to the local population,but those in charge of the complex extraction and production of“yellow cake" for generating fuel to the nuclear power plants reject these allegations. This study aimed at identifying potential problems caused by mining to the population of Caetité. In this, work,the concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K radioisotopes in the teeth of the Caetité population were determined by ICP-MS. Teeth are used as bioindicators of incorporated radionuclides. Cumulative radiation doses in the skeleton were also determined. The concentration values were below 0.008 ppm, and annual effective dose due to radioisotopes are below to the reference values. Therefore, it is not possible to state that the mining process in Caetité increases pollution or radiation exposure in a meaningful way.

Keywords: bioindicators, radiation dose, radioisotopesincorporation, uranium.

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37 Estimation of Human Absorbed Dose Using Compartmental Model

Authors: M. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, H. Yousefnia, F. Abbasi-Davani, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

Dosimetry is an indispensable and precious factor in patient treatment planning to minimize the absorbed dose in vital tissues. In this study, compartmental model was used in order to estimate the human absorbed dose of 177Lu-DOTATOC from the biodistribution data in wild type rats. For this purpose, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared under optimized conditions and its biodistribution was studied in male Syrian rats up to 168 h. Compartmental model was applied to mathematical description of the drug behaviour in tissue at different times. Dosimetric estimation of the complex was performed using radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR). The biodistribution data showed high accumulation in the adrenal and pancreas as the major expression sites for somatostatin receptor (SSTR). While kidneys as the major route of excretion receive 0.037 mSv/MBq, pancreas and adrenal also obtain 0.039 and 0.028 mSv/MBq. Due to the usage of this method, the points of accumulated activity data were enhanced, and further information of tissues uptake was collected that it will be followed by high (or improved) precision in dosimetric calculations.

Keywords: Compartmental modeling, human absorbed dose, 177Lu-DOTATOC, Syrian rats.

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36 Absorbed Dose Measurement in Gonads Menduring Abdominal and Pelvicradiotherapy

Authors: Sadegh Masoudi, Ali Asghar Yousefi, Somayeh Nourollahi, Fatemeh Noughani

Abstract:

Two different testicular tissues have to be distinguished in regard to radiation damage: first the seminiferous tubules, corresponding to the sites of spermatogenesis, which are extremely radiosensitive. Second the testosterone secreting Leydig cells, which are considered to be less radiosensitive. This study aims to estimate testicular dose and the associated risks for infertility and hereditary effects from Abdominal and pelvic irradiation. Radiotherapy was simulated on a humanoid phantom using a 15 MV photon beam. Testicular dose was measured for various field sizes and tissue thicknesses along beam axis using an ionization chamber and TLD. For transmission Factor Also common method of measuring the absorbed dose distribution and electron contamination in the build-up region of high-energy beams for radiation therapy is by means of parallel-plate Ionisation chambers. Gonadal dose was reduced by placing lead cups around the testes supplemented by a field edge block. For a tumor dose of 100 cGy, testicular dose was 2.96-8.12 cGy depending upon the field size and the distance from the inferior field edge. The treatment at parameters, the presence of gonad shield and the somatometric characteristics determine whether testicular dose can exceed 1 Gy which allows a complete recovery of spermatogenesis.

Keywords: Absorbed Dose, Abdominal and pelvic, gonads men, Radiotherapy.

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35 Estimating the Absorbed Dose to THYROID during Chest wall Radiotherapy

Authors: Seid Ali Asghar Terohid, Vahid Fayaz

Abstract:

Thyroid cancer-s overall contribution to the worldwide cancer burden is relatively small, but incidence rates have increased over the last three decades throughout the world. This trend has been hypothesised to reflect a combination of technological advances enabling increased detection, but also changes in environmental factors, including population exposure to ionising radiation from fallout, diagnostic tests and treatment for benign and malignant conditions. The Thyroid dose received apparently shielded by cerrobend blocks was about 8cGy in 100cGy Expose

Keywords: Absorbed Dose, Thyroid, Radiotherapy

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34 Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, Y. Chiang

Abstract:

In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).

Keywords: RADionuclide, transport, removal, and dose estimation, RADTRAD, symbolic nuclear analysis package, SNAP, dose, PWR.

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33 Uniformity of Dose Distribution in Radiation Fields Surrounding the Spine using Film Dosimetry and Comparison with 3D Treatment Planning Software

Authors: Sadegh Masoudi , Vahid Fayaz , Hassan Zandi, Asieh Tavakol

Abstract:

The overall penumbra is usually defined as the distance, p20–80, separating the 20% and 80% of the dose on the beam axis at the depth of interest. This overall penumbra accounts also for the fact that some photons emitted by the distal parts of the source are only partially attenuated by the collimator. Medulloblastoma is the most common type of childhood brain tumor and often spreads to the spine. Current guidelines call for surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation of the brain and spinal cord, and finally treatment with chemotherapy. The purpose of this paper was to present results on an Uniformity of dose distribution in radiation fields surrounding the spine using film dosimetry and comparison with 3D treatment planning software.

Keywords: Absorbed Dose , Spine , Radiotherapy, 3D treatment planning software

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32 Development of EPID-based Real time Dose Verification for Dynamic IMRT

Authors: Todsaporn Fuangrod, Daryl J. O'Connor, Boyd MC McCurdy, Peter B. Greer

Abstract:

An electronic portal image device (EPID) has become a method of patient-specific IMRT dose verification for radiotherapy. Research studies have focused on pre and post-treatment verification, however, there are currently no interventional procedures using EPID dosimetry that measure the dose in real time as a mechanism to ensure that overdoses do not occur and underdoses are detected as soon as is practically possible. As a result, an EPID-based real time dose verification system for dynamic IMRT was developed and was implemented with MATLAB/Simulink. The EPID image acquisition was set to continuous acquisition mode at 1.4 images per second. The system defined the time constraint gap, or execution gap at the image acquisition time, so that every calculation must be completed before the next image capture is completed. In addition, the <=-evaluation method was used for dose comparison, with two types of comparison processes; individual image and cumulative dose comparison monitored. The outputs of the system are the <=-map, the percent of <=<1, and mean-<= versus time, all in real time. Two strategies were used to test the system, including an error detection test and a clinical data test. The system can monitor the actual dose delivery compared with the treatment plan data or previous treatment dose delivery that means a radiation therapist is able to switch off the machine when the error is detected.

Keywords: real-time dose verification, EPID dosimetry, simulation, dynamic IMRT

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31 Survey Gamma Radiation Measurements in Commercially-used Natural Tiling Rocks in Iran

Authors: A.Abbasi, F.Mirekhtiary

Abstract:

The gamma radiation in samples of a variety of natural tiling rocks (granites) produced and imported in Iran use in the building industry was measured, employing high-resolution Gamma-ray spectroscopy. The rock samples were pulverized, sealed in 0.5 liter plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory with an accumulating time between 50000 and 80000 second each. From the measured Gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 232Th (range from 6.5 to 172.2 Bq kg-1), 238U (from 7.5 to 178.1 Bq kg-1 ),226Ra( from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg-1 ) 40K (from 556.9 to 1539.2 Bq kg-1). From the 29 samples measured in this study, “Nehbndan ( Berjand )" appears to present the highest concentrations for 232Th,“Big Red Flower (China) "for 238U , “ Khoram dareh" for 226 Ra and “ Peranshahr" for 40K , respectively.

Keywords: activity concentration, natural radioactivity, tilingrocks (granites)

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30 Comparison of Statins Dose Intensity on HbA1c Control in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Ahmed A. Khamis, Abeer Kharshid, Nor Azizah Aziz

Abstract:

The effect of statins dose intensity (SDI) on glycemic control in patients with existing diabetes is unclear. Also, there are many contradictory findings were reported in the literature; thus, it is limiting the possibility to draw conclusions. This project was designed to compare the effect of SDI on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) control in outpatients with Type 2 diabetes in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, between July 2015 and August 2016. A prospective cohort study was conducted, where records of 345 patients with Type 2 diabetes (Moderate-SDI group 289 patients and high-SDI cohort 56 patients) were reviewed to identify demographics and laboratory tests. The target of glycemic control (HbA1c < 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated, and the results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 289 moderate-SDI cohorts with a mean age of 57.3 ± 12.4 years, only 86 (29.8%) cases were shown to have controlled glycemia, while there were 203 (70.2%) cases with uncontrolled glycemia with confidence interval (CI) of 95% (6.2–10.8). On the other hand, the high-SDI group of 56 patients with Type 2 diabetes with a mean age 57.7±12.4 years is distributed among 11 (19.6%) patients with controlled diabetes, and 45 (80.4%) of them had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (7.1–11.9). The study has demonstrated that the relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes that used high-SDI is 1.15, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) is 15%. The absolute risk (AR) is 10.2%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) is 10. Outpatients with Type 2 diabetes who use high-SDI of statin have a higher risk of uncontrolled glycemia than outpatients who had been treated with a moderate-SDI.

Keywords: Cohort study, diabetes control, dose intensity, HbA1c, Malaysia, statin, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled glycemia.

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29 Radiological Risk Assessment in Soil Samples of Western Haryana, India

Authors: R. Mehra

Abstract:

The measurements of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using gamma spectrometry and radon concentration and exhalation rates measurements using solid state nuclear track (LR-115, Type-II plastic) detectors are used to asses a first order exposure risk for the persons residing in Fatehbad and Hissar districts of Western Haryana, India. The concentration of Radium, Thorium and Potassium in the soil samples varies from 13.37 Bq m-3 to 24.67 Bq m-3, 34.67 Bq m-3 to 67.34 Bq m-3 and 298.78 Bq m-3 to 405.67 Bq m-3 respectively with average values of 18.78, 47.35 and 361.57 Bq m-3 respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) calculated for the same soil samples varies from 92.72 Bq m-3 to 140.6 Bq m-3 with an average value of 111.80 Bq m-3. The values of absorbed dose and annual effective dose (indoors and outdoors) are found to vary from 44.18 nGy h-1 to 65.23 nGy h-1, 0.22 mSv y-1 to 0.32 mSv y-1 and 0.05 mSv y-1 to 0.08 mSv y-1 respectively. The radon concentration and exhalation rates have also been reported. The radium equivalent activities in all the soil samples were found to be lower than the limit (370 Bq kg-1) set in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report and the value of Hex in all the samples is less than unity.

Keywords: Gamma ray spectrometry, dose, radon, exhalationrate.

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28 Human Absorbed Dose Estimation of a New IN-111 Imaging Agent Based on Rat Data

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

The measurement of organ radiation exposure dose is one of the most important steps to be taken initially, for developing a new radiopharmaceutical. In this study, the dosimetric studies of a novel agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis, 111In- 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10 tetraethylene phosphonic acid (111In-DOTMP) complex, have been carried out to estimate the dose in human organs based on the data derived from rats. The radiolabeled complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity in the optimal conditions. Biodistribution studies of the complex was investigated in the male Syrian rats at selected times after injection (2, 4, 24 and 48 h). The human absorbed dose estimation of the complex was made based on data derived from the rats by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. 111In-DOTMP complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity of >99% (ITLC). Total body effective absorbed dose for 111In- DOTMP was 0.061 mSv/MBq. This value is comparable to the other 111In clinically used complexes. The results show that the dose with respect to the critical organs is satisfactory within the acceptable range for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Generally, 111In- DOTMP has interesting characteristics and can be considered as a viable agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis in the near future.

Keywords: In-111, DOTMP, Internal Dosimetry, RADAR.

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27 Radon Concentration in the Water Samples of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

Authors: T. S. Shashikumar

Abstract:

Radon is a radioactive gas emitted from radium, a daughter product of uranium that occurs naturally in rocks and soil. Radon, together with its decay products, emits alpha particles that can damage lung tissue. The activity concentration of 222Ra has been analyzed in water samples collected from borewells and rivers in and around Hassan city, Karnataka State, India. The measurements were performed by Emanometry technique. The concentration of 222Rn in borewell waters varies from 18.49±1.89 to 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 with geometric mean 120.48±12.87 Bql-1 and in river waters it varies from 92.63±9.31 to 93.98±9.51 Bql-1 with geometric mean of 93.16±9.33 Bql-1. In the present study, the radon concentrations are higher in Adarshanagar and Viveka Nagar which are found to be 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 and 325.78±32.56 Bql-1. Most of the analysed samples show a 222Rn concentration more than 100 Bql-1 and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the ground waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristic. The average inhalation dose and ingestion dose in the borewell water are found to be 0.405 and 0.033 µSvy-1; and in river water it is found to be 0.234 and 0.019 µSvy-1, respectively. The average total effective dose rate in borewell waters and river waters are found to be 0.433 and 0.253 µSvy-1, which does not cause any health risk to the population of Hassan region.

Keywords: Borewell, effective dose, emanometry, 222Rn.

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26 Thyroids Dose Evaluation and Calculation of Backscatter Factors for Co-60 Irradiations

Authors: D. Kısınma, A. B. Tugrul

Abstract:

The aim of the study is evaluation of absorbed doses for thyroids by using neck phantoms. For this purpose, it was arranged the irradiation set with different phantoms. Three different materials were used for phantom materials as, water, parafine and wood. The phantoms were three different dimensions for simulation of different ages and human race for each material. Co-60 gammao source was used for irradiation and the experimental procedure applied rigorously with narrow beam geometry.  As the results of the experiments the relative radiation doses are evaluated for therapic applications for thyroids and backscattering factors were calculated and shown that water, parafine and wood can appropriate for phantom material with the converge values of backscattering factors.

Keywords: Co-60, Dosimetry, phantom, thyroids.

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25 Directionally-Sensitive Personal Wearable Radiation Dosimeter

Authors: Hai Huu Le, Paul Junor, Moshi Geso, Graeme O’Keefe

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors propose a personal wearable directionally-sensitive radiation dosimeter using multiple semiconductor CdZnTe detectors. The proposed dosimeter not only measures the real-time dose rate but also provide the direction of the radioactive source. A linear relationship between radioactive source direction and the radiation intensity measured by each detectors is established and an equation to determine the source direction is derived by the authors. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed dosimeter is verified by simulation using Geant4 package. Results have indicated that in a measurement duration of about 7 seconds, the proposed dosimeter was able to estimate the direction of a 10μCi 137/55Cs radioactive source to within 2 degrees.

Keywords: Dose rate, Geant4 package, radiation detectors, radioactive source direction.

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24 Determination of the Specific Activity of Soil and Fertilizers in Sergipe - Brazil

Authors: Leandro X. Cardoso, Susana O. Souza, Fernanda C. L. Ferreira, Orlando C. Ferreira, Elenilson Barboza, Carlos E. Alhanati

Abstract:

Measurements of radioactivity in the environment is of great importance to monitor and control the levels of radiation to which man is exposed directly or indirectly. It is necessary to show that regardless of working or being close to nuclear power plants, people are daily in contact with some amount of radiation from the actual environment and food that are ingested, contradicting the view of most of them. The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of natural and artificial radiation from radionuclides present in cement, soil and fertilizers used in Sergipe State – Brazil. The radionuclide activitiesmeasured all samples arebelow the Brazilian limit of the exclusion and exemption criteria from the requirement of radiation protection.It was detected Be-7 in organic fertilizers that means a short interval between the brewing processes for use in agriculture. It was also detected an unexpected Cs-137 in some samples; however its activities does not represent risk for the population. Th-231 was also found in samples of soil and cement in the state of Sergipe that is an unprecedented result.

Keywords: Cs-137, Be-7, Th-231 radiation dose, radio isotopes.

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23 The Risk Assessment of Cancer Risk during Normal Operation of Tehran Research Reactor Due to Radioactive Gas Emission

Authors: B. Salmasian, A. Rabiee, T. Yousefzadeh

Abstract:

In this research, the risk assessment of radiation hazard for the Research Nuclear Reactor has been studied. In the current study, the MCNPx computational code has been used and coupled with a developed program using MATLAB software to evaluate Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) and cancer risk according to the BEIR equations for various human organs. In this study, the risk assessment of cancer has been calculated for ten years after exposure, in each of body organs of different ages and sexes. Also, the risk assessment of cancer has been calculated in each of body organs of different ages and sexes due to exposure after the retirement of the reactor staff. According to obtained results, a conservative whole-body dose rate, during a year, is 0.261 Sv and the probability the cancer risk for women is more than men and for children is more than adults. It has been shown that thyroid cancer was more possible than others.

Keywords: MCNPx code, BEIR equation, equivalent dose, risk analysis.

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22 PET/CT Patient Dosage Assay

Authors: Gulten Yilmaz, A. Beril Tugrul, Mustafa Demir, Dogan Yasar, Bayram Demir, Bulent Buyuk

Abstract:

A Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a radioisotope imaging technique that illustrates the organs and the metabolisms of the human body. This technique is based on the simultaneous detection of 511 keV annihilation photons, annihilated as a result of electrons annihilating positrons that radiate from positron-emitting radioisotopes that enter biological active molecules in the body. This study was conducted on ten patients in an effort to conduct patient-related experimental studies. Dosage monitoring for the bladder, which was the organ that received the highest dose during PET applications, was conducted for 24 hours. Assessment based on measuring urination activities after injecting patients was also a part of this study. The MIRD method was used to conduct dosage calculations for results obtained from experimental studies. Results obtained experimentally and theoretically were assessed comparatively.

Keywords: PET/CT, TLD, MIRD, Dose measurement, Patient doses.

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21 Profile Calculation in Water Phantom of Symmetric and Asymmetric Photon Beam

Authors: N. Chegeni, M. J. Tahmasebi Birgani

Abstract:

Nowadays, in most radiotherapy departments, the commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) used to calculate dose distributions needs to be verified; therefore, quick, easy-to-use and low cost dose distribution algorithms are desirable to test and verify the performance of the TPS. In this paper, we put forth an analytical method to calculate the phantom scatter contribution and depth dose on the central axis based on the equivalent square concept. Then, this method was generalized to calculate the profiles at any depth and for several field shapes regular or irregular fields under symmetry and asymmetry photon beam conditions. Varian 2100 C/D and Siemens Primus Plus Linacs with 6 and 18 MV photon beam were used for irradiations. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured for a large number of square fields for both energies, and for 45º wedges which were employed to obtain the profiles in any depth. To assess the accuracy of the calculated profiles, several profile measurements were carried out for some treatment fields. The calculated and measured profiles were compared by gamma-index calculation. All γ–index calculations were based on a 3% dose criterion and a 3 mm dose-to-agreement (DTA) acceptance criterion. The γ values were less than 1 at most points. However, the maximum γ observed was about 1.10 in the penumbra region in most fields and in the central area for the asymmetric fields. This analytical approach provides a generally quick and fairly accurate algorithm to calculate dose distribution for some treatment fields in conventional radiotherapy.

Keywords: Dose distribution, equivalent field, asymmetric field, irregular field.

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20 Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a HPGe Detector Shield

Authors: M. Sharifi, M. Mirzaii, F. Bolourinovin, H. Yousefnia, M. Akbari, K. Yousefi-Mojir

Abstract:

A multilayer passive shield composed of low-activity lead (Pb), copper (Cu), tin (Sn) and iron (Fe) was designed and manufactured for a coaxial HPGe detector placed at a surface laboratory for reducing background radiation and radiation dose to the personnel. The performance of the shield was evaluated and efficiency curves of the detector were plotted by using of various standard sources in different distances. Monte Carlo simulations and a set of TLD chips were used for dose estimation in two distances of 20 and 40 cm. The results show that the shield reduced background spectrum and the personnel dose more than 95%.

Keywords: HPGe shield, background count, personnel dose, efficiency curve.

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19 Characterization of HD-V2 Gafchromic Film for Measurement of Spatial Dose Distribution from Alpha Particle of 5.5 MeV

Authors: A. Aydarous, M. El Ghazaly

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of the newly released Gafchromic HD-V2 film for alpha particle of 5.5 MeV. Gafchromic HD-V2 was exposed to alpha particles of energy 5 MeV from 241Am for different durations. Then the films were scanned with a flatbed scanner. The dose response curve up to 2200 Gy has been achieved. The film’s reproducibility and sensitivity were evaluated. The results obtained show that the net optical density increases almost exponentially with the increase in the exposure time, and it becomes saturated after prolonged exposure times. The red channel shows the highest sensitivity, with a value of 4 x 10-3 Gy-1 at netOD of 0.4. The inter-film reproducibility was measured and the relative uncertainty found was 1.7 %, 2.1 % and 2.3 % for grey, red and green channels, respectively.

Keywords: Alpha dosimetry, 241Am, Gafchromic film.

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