Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: radio propagation

6 Effect of Geographical Co-Ordinates on the Parameters in the Rain Rate Model for Radio Propagation Applications

Authors: Olatinwo M. O., Oyeleke Olaosebikan, David Henry O.

Abstract:

Rain attenuation plays a lot of roles in the design of satellite and terrestrial microwave radio links, hence a good knowledge of its effect is of great interest to Engineers and scientists in that it is often required to give a high level of accuracy of the rainrate distribution that expresses rainrate from the lowest value to the highest. This study proposes a model to express rainrate parameters alpha (α) and beta (β) as a function of geographical location at 0.01% of the time. The tropical locations used in the development of the effect were Ilorin, Ile-Ife, Douala, Dar-es-Selam, Nairobi, Lusaka, and Brazilia.

This expression clearly confirms the variability of rainfall from place to place. When consistency test was carried out using the expression to generate rainrate for each location examined, the result obtained was reliable for rain intensities between 5mm/h and 200mm/h. The variability of α and β with latitude also shows that different latitudes have different cumulative rain distribution. The model proposed in this study would be one of the useful tools to Radio Engineers since the precipitation effect in the design of satellite and terrestrial microwave radio links is among the factors to consider when designing communication systems.

Keywords: Rain rate, attenuation, geographical location.

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5 Effects of Signaling on the Performance of Directed Diffusion Routing Protocol

Authors: Apidet Booranawong

Abstract:

In an original directed diffusion routing protocol, a sink requests sensing data from a source node by flooding interest messages to the network. Then, the source finds the sink by sending exploratory data messages to all nodes that generate incoming interest messages. This protocol signaling can cause heavy traffic in the network, an interference of the radio signal, collisions, great energy consumption of sensor nodes, etc. According to this research problem, this paper investigates the effect of sending interest and exploratory data messages on the performance of directed diffusion routing protocol. We demonstrate the research problem occurred from employing directed diffusion protocol in mobile wireless environments. For this purpose, we perform a set of experiments by using NS2 (network simulator 2). The radio propagation models; Two-ray ground reflection with and without shadow fading are included to investigate the effect of signaling. The simulation results show that the number of times of sent and received protocol signaling in the case of sending interest and exploratory data messages are larger than the case of sending other protocol signals, especially in the case of shadowing model. Additionally, the number of exploratory data message is largest in one round of the protocol procedure.

Keywords: Directed diffusion, Flooding, Interest message, Exploratory data message, Radio propagation model.

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4 Investigating Simple Multipath Compensation for Frequency Modulated Signals at Lower Frequencies

Authors: Lusungu Ndovi

Abstract:

Radio propagation from point-to-point is affected by the physical channel in many ways. A signal arriving at a destination travels through a number of different paths which are referred to as multi-paths. Research in this area of wireless communications has progressed well over the years with the research taking different angles of focus. By this is meant that some researchers focus on ways of reducing or eluding Multipath effects whilst others focus on ways of mitigating the effects of Multipath through compensation schemes. Baseband processing is seen as one field of signal processing that is cardinal to the advancement of software defined radio technology. This has led to wide research into the carrying out certain algorithms at baseband. This paper considers compensating for Multipath for Frequency Modulated signals. The compensation process is carried out at Radio frequency (RF) and at Quadrature baseband (QBB) and the results are compared. Simulations are carried out using MatLab so as to show the benefits of working at lower QBB frequencies than at RF.

Keywords: Quadrature baseband, Radio frequency, MultipathCompensation, Frequency modulation, Signal Processing.

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3 Improving Multi-storey Building Sensor Network with an External Hub

Authors: Malka N. Halgamuge, Toong-Khuan Chan, Priyan Mendis

Abstract:

Monitoring and automatic control of building environment is a crucial application of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in which maximizing network lifetime is a key challenge. Previous research into the performance of a network in a building environment has been concerned with radio propagation within a single floor. We investigate the link quality distribution to obtain full coverage of signal strength in a four-storey building environment, experimentally. Our results indicate that the transitional region is of particular concern in wireless sensor network since it accommodates high variance unreliable links. The transitional region in a multi-storey building is mainly due to the presence of reinforced concrete slabs at each storey and the fac┬©ade which obstructs the radio signal and introduces an additional absorption term to the path loss.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, radio propagation, building monitoring

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2 Performance of Soft Handover Algorithm in Varied Propagation Environments

Authors: N. P. Singh, Brahmjit Singh

Abstract:

CDMA cellular networks support soft handover, which guarantees the continuity of wireless services and enhanced communication quality. Cellular networks support multimedia services under varied propagation environmental conditions. In this paper, we have shown the effect of characteristic parameters of the cellular environments on the soft handover performance. We consider path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadow fading and correlation coefficient of shadow fading as the characteristic parameters of the radio propagation environment. A very useful statistical measure for characterizing the performance of mobile radio system is the probability of outage. It is shown through numerical results that above parameters have decisive effect on the probability of outage and hence the overall performance of the soft handover algorithm.

Keywords: CDMA, Correlation coefficient, Path loss exponent, Probability of outage, Soft handover.

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1 Issues in Deploying Smart Antennas in Mobile Radio Networks

Authors: Rameshwar Kawitkar

Abstract:

With the exponentially increasing demand for wireless communications the capacity of current cellular systems will soon become incapable of handling the growing traffic. Since radio frequencies are diminishing natural resources, there seems to be a fundamental barrier to further capacity increase. The solution can be found in smart antenna systems. Smart or adaptive antenna arrays consist of an array of antenna elements with signal processing capability, that optimize the radiation and reception of a desired signal, dynamically. Smart antennas can place nulls in the direction of interferers via adaptive updating of weights linked to each antenna element. They thus cancel out most of the co-channel interference resulting in better quality of reception and lower dropped calls. Smart antennas can also track the user within a cell via direction of arrival algorithms. This implies that they are more advantageous than other antenna systems. This paper focuses on few issues about the smart antennas in mobile radio networks.

Keywords: Smart/Adaptive Antenna, Multipath fading, Beamforming, Radio propagation.

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