Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: radial distribution system

16 SVC and DSTATCOM Comparison for Voltage Improvement in RDS Using ANFIS

Authors: U. Ramesh Babu, V. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, S. Tara Kalyani

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance comparison of SVC (Static VAR Compensator) and DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator) to improve voltage stability in Radial Distribution System (RDS) which are efficient FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) devices that are capable of controlling the active and reactive power flows in a power system line by appropriately controlling parameters using ANFIS. Simulations are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment for the IEEE-4 bus system to test the ability of increasing load. It is found that these controllers significantly increase the margin of load in the power systems.

Keywords: SVC, DSTATCOM, voltage improvement, ANFIS.

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15 Power Flow Analysis for Radial Distribution System Using Backward/Forward Sweep Method

Authors: J. A. Michline Rupa, S. Ganesh

Abstract:

This paper proposes a backward/forward sweep method to analyze the power flow in radial distribution systems. The distribution system has radial structure and high R/X ratios. So the newton-raphson and fast decoupled methods are failed with distribution system. The proposed method presents a load flow study using backward/forward sweep method, which is one of the most effective methods for the load-flow analysis of the radial distribution system. By using this method, power losses for each bus branch and voltage magnitudes for each bus node are determined. This method has been tested on IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system and effective results are obtained using MATLAB.

Keywords: Backward/Forward sweep method, Distribution system, Load flow analysis.

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14 Network Reconfiguration for Load Balancing in Distribution System with Distributed Generation and Capacitor Placement

Authors: T. Lantharthong, N. Rugthaicharoencheep

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient algorithm for optimization of radial distribution systems by a network reconfiguration to balance feeder loads and eliminate overload conditions. The system load-balancing index is used to determine the loading conditions of the system and maximum system loading capacity. The index value has to be minimum in the optimal network reconfiguration of load balancing. A method based on Tabu search algorithm, The Tabu search algorithm is employed to search for the optimal network reconfiguration. The basic idea behind the search is a move from a current solution to its neighborhood by effectively utilizing a memory to provide an efficient search for optimality. It presents low computational effort and is able to find good quality configurations. Simulation results for a radial 69-bus system with distributed generations and capacitors placement. The study results show that the optimal on/off patterns of the switches can be identified to give the best network reconfiguration involving balancing of feeder loads while respecting all the constraints.

Keywords: Network reconfiguration, Distributed generation Capacitor placement, Load balancing, Optimization technique

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13 A Novel Method to Evaluate Line Loadability for Distribution Systems with Realistic Loads

Authors: K. Nagaraju, S. Sivanagaraju, T. Ramana, V. Ganesh

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple method for estimation of additional load as a factor of the existing load that may be drawn before reaching the point of line maximum loadability of radial distribution system (RDS) with different realistic load models at different substation voltages. The proposed method involves a simple line loadability index (LLI) that gives a measure of the proximity of the present state of a line in the distribution system. The LLI can use to assess voltage instability and the line loading margin. The proposed method also compares with the existing method of maximum loadability index [10]. The simulation results show that the LLI can identify not only the weakest line/branch causing system instability but also the system voltage collapse point when it is near one. This feature enables us to set an index threshold to monitor and predict system stability on-line so that a proper action can be taken to prevent the system from collapse. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on two bus and 69 bus RDS.

Keywords: line loadability index, line loading margin, maximum line loadability, system stability, radial distribution system

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12 Optimal Allocation of DG Units for Power Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement of Distribution Networks using PSO Algorithm

Authors: K. Varesi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based technique for the optimal allocation of Distributed Generation (DG) units in the power systems. In this paper our aim is to decide optimal number, type, size and location of DG units for voltage profile improvement and power loss reduction in distribution network. Two types of DGs are considered and the distribution load flow is used to calculate exact loss. Load flow algorithm is combined appropriately with PSO till access to acceptable results of this operation. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB software. Test results indicate that PSO method can obtain better results than the simple heuristic search method on the 30-bus and 33- bus radial distribution systems. It can obtain maximum loss reduction for each of two types of optimally placed multi-DGs. Moreover, voltage profile improvement is achieved.

Keywords: Distributed Generation (DG), Optimal Allocation, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Power Loss Minimization, Voltage Profile Improvement.

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11 Capacitor Placement in Radial Distribution System for Loss Reduction Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method which applies an artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for capacitor placement in distribution systems with an objective of improving the voltage profile and reduction of power loss. The ABC algorithm is a new population based meta heuristic approach inspired by intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarm. The advantage of ABC algorithm is that it does not require external parameters such as cross over rate and mutation rate as in case of genetic algorithm and differential evolution and it is hard to determine these parameters in prior. The other advantage is that the global search ability in the algorithm is implemented by introducing neighborhood source production mechanism which is a similar to mutation process. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on 69-bus system and compared the results with the other approach available in the literature. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution and computational efficiency.

Keywords: Distribution system, Capacitor Placement, Loss reduction, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm.

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10 Optimal Capacitor Allocation for loss reduction in Distribution System Using Fuzzy and Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents a new and efficient approach for capacitor placement in radial distribution systems that determine the optimal locations and size of capacitor with an objective of improving the voltage profile and reduction of power loss. The solution methodology has two parts: in part one the loss sensitivity factors are used to select the candidate locations for the capacitor placement and in part two a new algorithm that employs Plant growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA) is used to estimate the optimal size of capacitors at the optimal buses determined in part one. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require any external control parameters. The other advantage is that it handles the objective function and the constraints separately, avoiding the trouble to determine the barrier factors. The proposed method is applied to 9 and 34 bus radial distribution systems. The solutions obtained by the proposed method are compared with other methods. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution.

Keywords: Distribution systems, Capacitor allocation, Loss reduction, Fuzzy, PGSA.

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9 A Simple Approach of Three phase Distribution System Modeling for Power Flow Calculations

Authors: J. B. V. Subrahmanyam, C. Radhakrishna

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple three phase power flow method for solution of three-phase unbalanced radial distribution system (RDN) with voltage dependent loads. It solves a simple algebraic recursive expression of voltage magnitude, and all the data are stored in vector form. The algorithm uses basic principles of circuit theory and can be easily understood. Mutual coupling between the phases has been included in the mathematical model. The proposed algorithm has been tested with several unbalanced radial distribution networks and the results are presented in the article. 8- bus and IEEE 13 bus unbalanced radial distribution system results are in agreements with the literature and show that the proposed model is valid and reliable.

Keywords: radial distribution networks, load flow, circuitmodel, three-phase four-wire, unbalance.

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8 A New Distribution Network Reconfiguration Approach using a Tree Model

Authors: E. Dolatdar, S. Soleymani, B. Mozafari

Abstract:

Power loss reduction is one of the main targets in power industry and so in this paper, the problem of finding the optimal configuration of a radial distribution system for loss reduction is considered. Optimal reconfiguration involves the selection of the best set of branches to be opened ,one each from each loop, for reducing resistive line losses , and reliving overloads on feeders by shifting the load to adjacent feeders. However ,since there are many candidate switching combinations in the system ,the feeder reconfiguration is a complicated problem. In this paper a new approach is proposed based on a simple optimum loss calculation by determining optimal trees of the given network. From graph theory a distribution network can be represented with a graph that consists a set of nodes and branches. In fact this problem can be viewed as a problem of determining an optimal tree of the graph which simultaneously ensure radial structure of each candidate topology .In this method the refined genetic algorithm is also set up and some improvements of algorithm are made on chromosome coding. In this paper an implementation of the algorithm presented by [7] is applied by modifying in load flow program and a comparison of this method with the proposed method is employed. In [7] an algorithm is proposed that the choice of the switches to be opened is based on simple heuristic rules. This algorithm reduce the number of load flow runs and also reduce the switching combinations to a fewer number and gives the optimum solution. To demonstrate the validity of these methods computer simulations with PSAT and MATLAB programs are carried out on 33-bus test system. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than [7] method and also other methods.

Keywords: Distribution System, Reconfiguration, Loss Reduction , Graph Theory , Optimization , Genetic Algorithm

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7 A New Heuristic Approach for Optimal Network Reconfiguration in Distribution Systems

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, S. V. L. Narasimham

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach for optimal reconfiguration of radial distribution systems. Optimal reconfiguration involves the selection of the best set of branches to be opened, one each from each loop, such that the resulting radial distribution system gets the desired performance. In this paper an algorithm is proposed based on simple heuristic rules and identified an effective switch status configuration of distribution system for the minimum loss reduction. This proposed algorithm consists of two parts; one is to determine the best switching combinations in all loops with minimum computational effort and the other is simple optimum power loss calculation of the best switching combination found in part one by load flows. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on 33-bus system. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of the other methods.

Keywords: Distribution system, network reconfiguration, powerloss reduction, radial network, heuristic technique.

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6 Distributed Generator Placement and Sizing in Unbalanced Radial Distribution System

Authors: J. B. V. Subrahmanyam, C. Radhakrishna

Abstract:

To minimize power losses, it is important to determine the location and size of local generators to be placed in unbalanced power distribution systems. On account of some inherent features of unbalanced distribution systems, such as radial structure, large number of nodes, a wide range of X/R ratios, the conventional techniques developed for the transmission systems generally fail on the determination of optimum size and location of distributed generators (DGs). This paper presents a simple method for investigating the problem of contemporaneously choosing best location and size of DG in three-phase unbalanced radial distribution system (URDS) for power loss minimization and to improve the voltage profile of the system. Best location of the DG is determined by using voltage index analysis and size of DG is computed by variational technique algorithm according to available standard size of DGs. This paper presents the results of simulations for 25-bus and IEEE 37- bus Unbalanced Radial Distribution system.

Keywords: Distributed generator, unbalanced radial distributionsystem, voltage index analysis, variational algorithm.

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5 Feeder Reconfiguration for Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ganesh. Vulasala, Sivanagaraju. Sirigiri, Ramana. Thiruveedula

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient approach to feeder reconfiguration for power loss reduction and voltage profile imprvement in unbalanced radial distribution systems (URDS). In this paper Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain solution for reconfiguration of radial distribution systems to minimize the losses. A forward and backward algorithm is used to calculate load flows in unbalanced distribution systems. By simulating the survival of the fittest among the strings, the optimum string is searched by randomized information exchange between strings by performing crossover and mutation. Results have shown that proposed algorithm has advantages over previous algorithms The proposed method is effectively tested on 19 node and 25 node unbalanced radial distribution systems.

Keywords: Distribution system, Load flows, Reconfiguration, Genetic Algorithm.

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4 An Optimal Load Shedding Approach for Distribution Networks with DGs considering Capacity Deficiency Modelling of Bulked Power Supply

Authors: A. R. Malekpour, A.R. Seifi

Abstract:

This paper discusses a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimal load shedding that can apply for electrical distribution networks with and without dispersed generators (DG). Also, the proposed method has the ability for considering constant and variable capacity deficiency caused by unscheduled outages in the bulked generation and transmission system of bulked power supply. The genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search for the optimal load shedding strategy in distribution networks considering DGs in two cases of constant and variable modelling of bulked power supply of distribution networks. Electrical power distribution systems have a radial network and unidirectional power flows. With the advent of dispersed generations, the electrical distribution system has a locally looped network and bidirectional power flows. Therefore, installed DG in the electrical distribution systems can cause operational problems and impact on existing operational schemes. Introduction of DGs in electrical distribution systems has introduced many new issues in operational and planning level. Load shedding as one of operational issue has no exempt. The objective is to minimize the sum of curtailed load and also system losses within the frame-work of system operational and security constraints. The proposed method is tested on a radial distribution system with 33 load points for more practical applications.

Keywords: DG, Load shedding, Optimization, Capacity Deficiency Modelling.

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3 Optimal Capacitor Placement in a Radial Distribution System using Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, S. V. L. Narasimham

Abstract:

This paper presents a new and efficient approach for capacitor placement in radial distribution systems that determine the optimal locations and size of capacitor with an objective of improving the voltage profile and reduction of power loss. The solution methodology has two parts: in part one the loss sensitivity factors are used to select the candidate locations for the capacitor placement and in part two a new algorithm that employs Plant growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA) is used to estimate the optimal size of capacitors at the optimal buses determined in part one. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require any external control parameters. The other advantage is that it handles the objective function and the constraints separately, avoiding the trouble to determine the barrier factors. The proposed method is applied to 9, 34, and 85-bus radial distribution systems. The solutions obtained by the proposed method are compared with other methods. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution.

Keywords: Distribution systems, Capacitor placement, loss reduction, Loss sensitivity factors, PGSA.

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2 A Simplified Approach for Load Flow Analysis of Radial Distribution Network

Authors: K. Vinoth Kumar, M.P. Selvan

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple approach for load flow analysis of a radial distribution network. The proposed approach utilizes forward and backward sweep algorithm based on Kirchoff-s current law (KCL) and Kirchoff-s voltage law (KVL) for evaluating the node voltages iteratively. In this approach, computation of branch current depends only on the current injected at the neighbouring node and the current in the adjacent branch. This approach starts from the end nodes of sub lateral line, lateral line and main line and moves towards the root node during branch current computation. The node voltage evaluation begins from the root node and moves towards the nodes located at the far end of the main, lateral and sub lateral lines. The proposed approach has been tested using four radial distribution systems of different size and configuration and found to be computationally efficient.

Keywords: constant current load, constant impedance load, constant power load, forward–backward sweep, load flow analysis, radial distribution system.

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1 High Impedance Fault Detection using LVQ Neural Networks

Authors: Abhishek Bansal, G. N. Pillai

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method to detect high impedance faults in radial distribution systems. Magnitudes of third and fifth harmonic components of voltages and currents are used as a feature vector for fault discrimination. The proposed methodology uses a learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network as a classifier for identifying high impedance arc-type faults. The network learns from the data obtained from simulation of a simple radial system under different fault and system conditions. Compared to a feed-forward neural network, a properly tuned LVQ network gives quicker response.

Keywords: Fault identification, distribution networks, high impedance arc-faults, feature vector, LVQ networks.

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