Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: protease

20 Expression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Signal Peptides Targeting for Delivery to Apoplast, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Cytosol Spaces

Authors: Sadegh Lotfieblisofla, Arash Khodabakhshi

Abstract:

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a serine protease plays an important role in the fibrinolytic system and the dissolution of fibrin clots in human body. The production of this drug in plants such as tobacco could reduce its production costs. In this study, expression of tPA gene and protein targeting to different plant cell compartments, using various signal peptides has been investigated. For high level of expression, Kozak sequence was used after CaMV35S in the beginning of the gene. In order to design the final construction, Extensin, KDEL (amino acid sequence including Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) and SP (γ-zein signal peptide coding sequence) were used as leader signals to conduct this protein into apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol spaces, respectively. Cloned human tPA gene under the CaMV (Cauliflower mosaic virus) 35S promoter and NOS (Nopaline Synthase) terminator into pBI121 plasmid was transferred into tobacco explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. The presence and copy number of genes in transgenic tobacco was proved by Southern blotting. Enzymatic activity of the rt-PA protein in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants was confirmed by Zymography assay. The presence and amount of rt-PA recombinant protein in plants was estimated by ELISA analysis on crude protein extract of transgenic tobacco using a specific antibody. The yield of recombinant tPA in transgenic tobacco for SP, KDEL, Extensin signals were counted 0.50, 0.68, 0.69 microgram per milligram of total soluble proteins.

Keywords: Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, plant cell comportment, leader signals, transgenic tobacco

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19 Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Calpain1 Gene and Meat Tenderness Traits in Different Genotypes of Chicken: Malaysian Native and Commercial Broiler Line

Authors: Abtehal Y. Anaas, Mohd. Nazmi Bin Abd. Manap

Abstract:

Meat Tenderness is one of the most important factors affecting consumers' assessment of meat quality. Variation in meat tenderness is genetically controlled and varies among breeds, and it is also influenced by environmental factors that can affect its creation during rigor mortis and postmortem. The final postmortem meat tenderization relies on the extent of proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins caused by the endogenous activity of the proteolytic calpain system. This calpain system includes different calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, and an inhibitor, calpastatin. It is widely accepted that in farm animals including chickens, the μ-calpain gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for meat tenderness. This study aimed to identify the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the CAPN1 gene with the tenderness of chicken breast meat from two Malaysian native and commercial broiler breed crosses. Ten, five months old native chickens and ten, 42 days commercial broilers were collected from the local market and breast muscles were removed two hours after slaughter, packed separately in plastic bags and kept at -20ºC for 24 h. The tenderness phenotype for all chickens’ breast meats was determined by Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF). Thawing and cooking losses were also measured in the same breast samples before using in WBSF determination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the previously reported C7198A and G9950A SNPs in the CAPN1 gene and assess their associations with meat tenderness in the two breeds. The broiler breast meat showed lower shear force values and lower thawing loss rates than the native chickens (p<0.05), whereas there were similar in the rates of cooking loss. The study confirms some previous results that the markers CAPN1 C7198A and G9950A were not significantly associated with the variation in meat tenderness in chickens. Therefore, further study is needed to confirm the functional molecular mechanism of these SNPs and evaluate their associations in different chicken populations.

Keywords: Chicken, Meat Quality, SNPs, CAPNl, meat tenderness

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18 Comparative Analysis of Soil Enzyme Activities between Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

Soil enzyme activities in Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) were examined to determine levels of mineralization and metabolism. Samples were selected from the soil surrounding laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Carpinus japonica (BB-2 and Pw) trees for analysis. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and protease activities were higher in BB-1 samples those in BB-2 samples. These activity levels corresponded to the distribution of cellulose and hemicellulose in the soil horizons. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and chymotrypsin activities were higher in soil from the Pw forest than in that from the BB-2 forest. The relationships between the soil enzymes calculated by Spearman’s rank correlation indicate that the interactions between enzymes in BB-2 samples were more complex than those in Pw samples.

Keywords: Enzyme Activities, Forest Soil, Comparative Analysis, Spearman’s rank correlation

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17 Papain Immobilized Polyurethane Film as Antimicrobial Food Package

Authors: M. Cynthya, V. Prabhawathi, D. Mukesh

Abstract:

Food contamination occurs during post process handling. This leads to spoilage and growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the food, thereby reducing its shelf life or spreading of food borne diseases. Several methods are tried and one of which is use of antimicrobial packaging. Here, papain, a protease enzyme, is covalently immobilized with the help of glutarldehyde on polyurethane and used as a food wrap to protect food from microbial contamination. Covalent immobilization of papain was achieved at a pH of 7.4; temperature of 4°C; glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5%; incubation time of 24h; and 50mg of papain. The formation of -C=Nobserved in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed the immobilization of the enzyme on the polymer. Immobilized enzyme retained higher activity than the native free enzyme. The modified polyurethane showed better reduction of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm than bare polymer film (eight folds reduction in live colonies, two times reduction in protein and 6 times reduction in carbohydrates). The efficacy of this was studied by wrapping it over S. aureus contaminated cottage cheese (paneer) and cheese and stored at a temperature of 4°C for 7days. The modified film reduced the bacterial contamination by eight folds when compared to the bare film. FTIR also indicated reduction in lipids, sugars and proteins in the biofilm.

Keywords: cheese, papain, polyurethane, Staphylococcus aureus

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16 Isolation and Identification Fibrinolytic Protease Endophytic Fungi from Hibiscus Leaves in Shah Alam

Authors: Mohd Sidek Ahmad, Zainon Mohd Noor, Zaidah Zainal Ariffin

Abstract:

Fibrin degradation is an important part in prevention or treatment of intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Plasmin like fibrinolytic enzymes has given new hope to patient with cardiovascular diseases by treating fibrin aggregation related diseases with traditional plasminogen activator which have many side effects. Various researches involving wide range of sources for production of fibrinolytic proteases, from bacteria, fungi, insects and fermented foods. But few have looked into endophytic fungi as a potential source. Sixteen (16) endophytic fungi were isolated from Hibiscus sp. leaves from six different locations in Shah Alam, Selangor. Only two endophytic fungi, FH3 and S13 showed positive fibrinolytic protease activities. FH3 produced 5.78cm and S13 produced 4.48cm on Skim Milk Agar after 4 days of incubation at 27°C. Fibrinolytic activity was observed; 3.87cm and 1.82cm diameter clear zone on fibrin plate of FH3 and S13 respectively. 18srRNA was done for identification of the isolated fungi with positive fibrinolytic protease. S13 had the highest similarity (100%) to that of Penicillium citrinum strain TG2 and FH3 had the highest similarity (99%) to that of Fusarium sp. FW2PhC1, Fusarium sp. 13002, Fusarium sp. 08006, Fusarium equiseti strain Salicorn 8 and Fungal sp. FCASAn-2. Media composition variation showed the effects of carbon nitrogen on protein concentration, where the decrement of 50% of media composition caused drastic decrease in protease of FH3 from 1.081 to 0.056 and also S13 from 2.946 to 0.198.

Keywords: Identification, Isolation, fibrinolytic protease, endophytic fungi, Hibiscus leaves

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15 New Kinetic Approach to the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Proteins – A Case of Thermolysin-Catalyzed Albumin

Authors: Anna Trusek-Holownia, Andrzej Noworyta

Abstract:

Using an enzyme of known specificity the hydrolysis of protein was carried out in a controlled manner. The aim was to obtain oligopeptides being the so-called active peptides or their direct precursors. An original way of expression of the protein hydrolysis kinetics was introduced. Peptide bonds contained in the protein were recognized as a diverse-quality substrate for hydrolysis by the applied protease. This assumption was positively verified taking as an example the hydrolysis of albumin by thermolysin. Peptide linkages for this system should be divided into at least four groups. One of them is a group of bonds non-hydrolyzable by this enzyme. These that are broken are hydrolyzed at a rate that differs even by tens of thousands of times. Designated kinetic constants were k'F = 10991.4 L/g.h, k'M = 14.83L/g.h, k'S about 10-1 L/g.h for fast, medium and slow bonds, respectively. Moreover, a procedure for unfolding of the protein, conducive to the improved susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (approximately three-fold increase in the rate) was proposed.

Keywords: Kinetics, Biologically Active Peptides, peptide bond hydrolysis, enzyme specificity

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14 Study of the Efficacy of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Alone or Combined with Praziquantel as Chemotherapy for Mice Schistosomiasis mansoni

Authors: Farid A., Ismail A., Rabee I., Zalat R. El Amir A.

Abstract:

This study was designed for assessment of 3 types of Cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) fluromethylketone (FMK), vinyl sulfone (VS) and sodium nitro prussid (SNP), to define which of them is the best for curing S. mansoni infection in mice? In vitro, treated S. mansoni adult worms recorded a mortality rate after 1 hr of exposure to 500 ppm of FMK, VS and SNP as 75, 70 and 60%, respectively. FMK+PZQ treatment recorded the maximum reduction in worm burden (97.2% at 5 wk PI). VS treatment alone or combined with PZQ increases IgM, total IgG, IgG2 and IgG4 levels. In EM study, the completely implanted spines were reported in the degenerated tegument of adult worms in all groups treated with CPIs. VS+PZQ Treatment increased Igs levels but, its effect was different on worm reduction. So, it is not enough to eliminate the infection and FMK+PZQ considered the antischistosomicidal drug of choice.

Keywords: praziquantel, fluromethylketone, vinyl sulfone, sodium nitro prussid

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13 Immobilization of Aspergillus awamori 1-8 for Subsequent Pectinase Production

Authors: Zh. B. Suleimenova, Zh. K. Rakhmetova, R. K. Blieva, A. E. Nurlybayeva

Abstract:

The overall objective of this research is a strain improvement technology for efficient pectinase production. A novel cells cultivation technology by immobilization of fungal cells has been studied in long time continuous fermentations. Immobilization was achieved by using of new material for absorption of stores of immobilized cultures which was for the first time used for immobilization of microorganisms. Effects of various conditions of nitrogen and carbon nutrition on the biosynthesis of pectolytic enzymes in Aspergillus awamori 1-8 strain were studied. Proposed cultivation technology along with optimization of media components for pectinase overproduction led to increased pectinase productivity in Aspergillus awamori 1-8 from 7 to 8 times. Proposed technology can be applied successfully for production of major industrial enzymes such as α-amylase, protease, collagenase etc.

Keywords: immobilization, Aspergillus awamori, pectolytic enzymes

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12 Production of WGHs and AFPHs using Protease Combinations at High and Ambient Pressure

Authors: Namsoo Kim, So-Hee Son, Jin-Soo Maeng, Yong-Jin Cho, Chul-Jin Kim, Chong-Tai Kim

Abstract:

Wheat gluten hydrolyzates (WGHs) and anchovy fine powder hydrolyzates (AFPHs) were produced at 300 MPa using combinations of Flavourzyme 500MG (F), Alcalase 2.4L (A), Marugoto E (M) and Protamex (P), and then were compared to those produced at ambient pressure concerning the contents of soluble solid (SS), soluble nitrogen and electrophoretic profiles. The contents of SS in the WGHs and AFPHs increased up to 87.2% according to the increase in enzyme number both at high and ambient pressure. Based on SS content, the optimum enzyme combinations for one-, two-, three- and four-enzyme hydrolysis were determined as F, FA, FAM and FAMP, respectively. Similar trends were found for the contents of total soluble nitrogen (TSN) and TCA-soluble nitrogen (TCASN). The contents of SS, TSN and TCASN in the hydrolyzates together with electrophoretic mobility maps indicates that the high-pressure treatment of this study accelerated protein hydrolysis compared to ambient-pressure treatment.

Keywords: Production, Wheat gluten hydrolyzates, Anchovy fine powder hydrolyzates, Protease combinations

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11 Chikungunya Protease Domain–High Throughput Virtual Screening

Authors: Surender Singh Jadav, Venkatesan Jayaprakash, Arijit Basu, Barij Nayan Sinha

Abstract:

Chikungunya virus (CHICKV) is an arboviruses belonging to family Tagoviridae and is transmitted to human through by mosquito (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) bite. A large outbreak of chikungunya has been reported in India between 2006 and 2007, along with several other countries from South-East Asia and for the first time in Europe. It was for the first time that the CHICKV outbreak has been reported with mortality from Reunion Island and increased mortality from Asian countries. CHICKV affects all age groups, and currently there are no specific drugs or vaccine to cure the disease. The need of antiviral agents for the treatment of CHICKV infection and the success of virtual screening against many therapeutically valuable targets led us to carry out the structure based drug design against Chikungunya nSP2 protease (PDB: 3TRK). Highthroughput virtual screening of publicly available databases, ZINC12 and BindingDB, has been carried out using the Openeye tools and Schrodinger LLC software packages. Openeye Filter program has been used to filter the database and the filtered outputs were docked using HTVS protocol implemented in GLIDE package of Schrodinger LLC. The top HITS were further used for enriching the similar molecules from the database through vROCS; a shape based screening protocol implemented in Openeye. The approach adopted has provided different scaffolds as HITS against CHICKV protease. Three scaffolds: Indole, Pyrazole and Sulphone derivatives were selected based on the docking score and synthetic feasibility. Derivatives of Pyrazole were synthesized and submitted for antiviral screening against CHICKV.

Keywords: Chikungunya, docking, active site, HTVS, nsP2 protease, ADME filter

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10 Prevention of Biofilm Formation in Urinary Catheter by Coating Enzymes/ Gentamycin/ EDTA

Authors: Niraj A. Ghanwate, P V Thakare, P R Bhise, Ashish Dhanke, Shubhangi Apotikar

Abstract:

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) account for an estimated 25-40% nosocomial infection, out of which 90% are associated with urinary catheter, called Catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The microbial populations within CAUTI frequently develop as biofilms. In the present study, microbial contamination of indwelling urinary catheters was investigated. Biofilm forming ability of the isolates was determined by tissue culture plate method. Prevention of biofilm formation in the urinary catheter by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also determined by coating the catheter with some enzymes, gentamycin and EDTA. It was found that 64% of the urinary catheters get contaminated during the course of catheterization. Of the total 6 isolates, biofilm formation was seen in 100% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli, 90% in Enterococci, 80% in Klebsiella and 66% in S. aureus. It was noted that the biofilm production by Pseudomonas was prolonged by 7 days in amylase, 8 days in protease, 6 days in lysozyme, 7days in gentamycin and 5 days in EDTA treated catheter.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Biofilm, Enzymes, EDTA, CAUTI

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9 Gene Expressions Associated with Ultrastructural Changes in Vascular Endothelium of Atherosclerotic Lesion

Authors: M. Maimunah, G.A. Froemming, H. Nawawi, M.I. Nafeeza, O. Effat, M.R. Rohayu Izanwati, M.S. Mohamed Saifulaman

Abstract:

Attachment of the circulating monocytes to the endothelium is the earliest detectable events during formation of atherosclerosis. The adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix proteases genes were identified to be expressed in atherogenesis. Expressions of these genes may influence structural integrity of the luminal endothelium. The aim of this study is to relate changes in the ultrastructural morphology of the aortic luminal surface and gene expressions of the endothelial surface, chemokine and MMP-12 in normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Luminal endothelial surface from rabbit aortic tissue was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using low vacuum mode to ascertain ultrastructural changes in development of atherosclerotic lesion. Gene expression of adhesion molecules, MCP-1 and MMP-12 were studied by Real-time PCR. Ultrastructural observations of the aortic luminal surface exhibited changes from normal regular smooth intact endothelium to irregular luminal surface including marked globular appearance and ruptures of the membrane layer. Real-time PCR demonstrated differentially expressed of studied genes in atherosclerotic tissues. The appearance of ultrastructural changes in aortic tissue of hypercholesterolemic rabbits is suggested to have relation with underlying changes of endothelial surface molecules, chemokine and MMP-12 gene expressions.

Keywords: real-time PCR, Ultrastructure of luminal endothelial surface, Macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12)

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8 Characterization and Evaluation of the Activity of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV from the Black-Bellied Hornet Vespa basalis

Authors: Feng Chia Hsieh, Sheng Kuo Hsieh, Tzyy Rong Jinn

Abstract:

Characterization and evaluation of the activity of Vespa basalis DPP-IV, which expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda 21 cells. The expression of rDPP-IV was confirmed by SDS–PAGE, Western blot analyses, LC-MS/MS and measurement of its peptidase specificity. One-step purification by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and the total amount of rDPP-IV recovered was approximately 6.4mg per liter from infected culture medium; an equivalent amount would be produced by 1x109 infected Sf21 insect cells. Through the affinity purification led to highly stable rDPP-IV enzyme was recovered and with significant peptidase activity. The rDPP-IV exhibited classical Michaelis–Menten kinetics, with kcat/Km in the range of 10-500 mM-1×S-1 for the five synthetic substrates and optimum substrate is Ala-Pro-pNA. As expected in inhibition assay, the enzymatic activity of rDPP-IV was significantly reduced by 80 or 60% in the presence of sitagliptin (a DPP-IV inhibitor) or PMSF (a serine protease inhibitor), but was not apparently affected by iodoacetamide (a cysteine protease inhibitor).

Keywords: sitagliptin, Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV, Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride; Serine protease, Vespa basalis

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7 An Adaptive Memetic Algorithm With Dynamic Population Management for Designing HIV Multidrug Therapies

Authors: Hassan Zarei, Ali Vahidian Kamyad, Sohrab Effati

Abstract:

In this paper, a mathematical model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is utilized and an optimization problem is proposed, with the final goal of implementing an optimal 900-day structured treatment interruption (STI) protocol. Two type of commonly used drugs in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) and protease inhibitors (PI), are considered. In order to solving the proposed optimization problem an adaptive memetic algorithm with population management (AMAPM) is proposed. The AMAPM uses a distance measure to control the diversity of population in genotype space and thus preventing the stagnation and premature convergence. Moreover, the AMAPM uses diversity parameter in phenotype space to dynamically set the population size and the number of crossovers during the search process. Three crossover operators diversify the population, simultaneously. The progresses of crossover operators are utilized to set the number of each crossover per generation. In order to escaping the local optima and introducing the new search directions toward the global optima, two local searchers assist the evolutionary process. In contrast to traditional memetic algorithms, the activation of these local searchers is not random and depends on both the diversity parameters in genotype space and phenotype space. The capability of AMAPM in finding optimal solutions compared with three popular metaheurestics is introduced.

Keywords: Memetic algorithms, HIV therapy design, adaptivealgorithms, nonlinear integer programming

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6 Synthesis of Peptide Amides using Sol-Gel Immobilized Alcalase in Batch and Continuous Reaction System

Authors: L. N. Corîci, A. E. Frissen, D -J. Van Zoelen, I. F. Eggen, F. Peter, C. M. Davidescu, C. G. Boeriu

Abstract:

Two commercial proteases from Bacillus licheniformis (Alcalase 2.4 L FG and Alcalase 2.5 L, Type DX) were screened for the production of Z-Ala-Phe-NH2 in batch reaction. Alcalase 2.4 L FG was the most efficient enzyme for the C-terminal amidation of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe using ammonium carbamate as ammonium source. Immobilization of protease has been achieved by the sol-gel method, using dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) as precursors (unpublished results). In batch production, about 95% of Z-Ala-Phe-NH2 was obtained at 30°C after 24 hours of incubation. Reproducibility of different batches of commercial Alcalase 2.4 L FG preparations was also investigated by evaluating the amidation activity and the entrapment yields in the case of immobilization. A packed-bed reactor (0.68 cm ID, 15.0 cm long) was operated successfully for the continuous synthesis of peptide amides. The immobilized enzyme retained the initial activity over 10 cycles of repeated use in continuous reactor at ambient temperature. At 0.75 mL/min flow rate of the substrate mixture, the total conversion of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe was achieved after 5 hours of substrate recycling. The product contained about 90% peptide amide and 10% hydrolysis byproduct.

Keywords: protease, packed-bed reactor, peptide amide, sol-gel immobilization

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5 Determination of Alkaline Protease Production In Serratia Marcescens Sp7 Using Agro Wastes As Substrate Medium, Optimization Of Production Parameters And Purification Of The Enzyme

Authors: Baby Joseph, Sankarganesh Palaniyandi

Abstract:

The enzyme alkaline protease production was determined under solid state fermentation using the soil bacteria Serratia marcescens sp7. The maximum production was obtained from wheat bran medium than ground nut shell and chemically defined medium. The physiological fermentation factors such as pH of the medium (pH 8), Temperature (40oC) and incubation time (48 hrs) played a vital role in alkaline protease production in all the above. 100Mm NaCl has given better resolution during elution of the enzymes. The enzyme production was found to be associated with growth of the bacterial culture.

Keywords: Serratia marcescens, Alkaline protease, Wheat bran, Ground nut shell

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4 Optimization of Growth Conditions for Acidic Protease Production from Rhizopus oligosporus through Solid State Fermentation of Sunflower Meal

Authors: Abdul Rauf, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Nadeem, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal

Abstract:

Rhizopus oligosporus was used in the present study for the production of protease enzyme under SSF. Sunflower meal was used as by-product of oil industry incorporated with organic salts was employed for the production of protease enzyme. The main purpose of the present was to study different parameters of protease productivity, its yields and to optimize basal fermentation conditions. The optimal conditions found for protease production using sunflower meal as a substrate in the present study were inoculum size (1%), substrate (Sunflower meal), substrate concentration (20 g), pH (3), cultivation period (72 h), incubation temperature (35oC), substrate to diluent-s ratio (1:2) and tween 81 (1 mL). The maximum production of protease in the presence of cheaper substrate at low concentration and stability at acidic pH, these characteristics make the strain and its enzymes useful in different industry.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Acidic protease, Rhizopus oligosporus, Mediaoptimization

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3 SDS-induced Serine Protease Activity of an Antiviral Red Fluorescent Protein

Authors: Kalyankumar M. Matti, Chandrashekhar J. Savanurmath, Shivayogeppa B. Hinchigeri

Abstract:

A rare phenomenon of SDS-induced activation of a latent protease activity associated with the purified silkworm excretory red fluorescent protein (SE-RFP) was noticed. SE-RFP aliquots incubated with SDS for different time intervals indicated that the protein undergoes an obligatory breakdown into a number of subunits which exhibit autoproteolytic (acting upon themselves) and/or heteroproteolytic (acting on other proteins) activities. A strong serine protease activity of SE-RFP subunits on Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) polyhedral protein was detected by zymography technique. A complete inhibition of BmNPV infection to silkworms was observed by the oral administration assay of the SE-RFP. Here, it is proposed that the SE-RFP prevents the initial infection of BmNPV to silkworms by obliterating the polyhedral protein. This is the first report on a silkworm red fluorescent protein that exhibits a protease activity on exposure to SDS. The present studies would help in understanding the antiviral mechanism of silkworm red fluorescent proteins.

Keywords: BmNPV, polyhedra, SE-RFP, SDS-induced protease activity, zymography

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2 The Potential of Strain M Protease in Degradations of Protein in Natural Rubber Latex

Authors: Norlin Pauzi, Ahmad R.M. Yahya, Zairossani Nor, Amirul A. Abdullah

Abstract:

Strain M was isolated from the latex of Hevea brasiliensis that grow in the rubber farm area of Malaysia Rubber Board. Strain M was tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. Strain M demonstrated high protease production at pH 9, and this was suitable to be applied in rubber processing that was in alkaline conditions. The right and suitable proportion to be used in applying supernatant into the latex was two parts of latex and one part of enzyme. In this proportion, the latex was stable throughout the 72 hours of treatment. The potential of strain M to degrade protein in the natural rubber latex was proven with the reduction of 79.3% nitrogen in 24 hours treatment. Centrifugation process of the latex before undergoing the treatment had increased the protein degradation in latex. Although the centrifugation process did not achieve zero nitrogen content, it had improved the performance of protein denaturing in the natural rubber.

Keywords: protease, latex, Bacillus sp, Hevea brasiliensis

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1 Production of Milk Clotting Protease by Rhizopus Stolonifer through Optimization of Culture Conditions

Authors: S. Gais, F. Fazouane, A. Mechakra

Abstract:

The present study describes the biosynthesis of a milkclotting protease by solid state fermentation (SSF) of a locally isolated mould, Rhizopus stolonifer. The production medium was prepared using wheat bran at 50% (w/v). The production conditions are optimized by varying 7 parameters: carbon and nitrogen sources, medium moisture, temperature, pH, fermentation time and inoculum-s size. The maximum enzyme synthesis was measured after 96 h of incubation time at temperature of 28°C. The optimum pH determined was 6 and the inoculum size was 3.106spores/ml. The optimum initial moisture content is comprised between 50 to 70%. The formation of milk clotting protease is enhanced when galactose and peptone are used at 10% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) concentrations respectively. The maximum production of milk clotting protease is 120 US/ml.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Milk clotting activity, protease production, Rhizopus stolonifer

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