**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**1113

# Search results for: process reaction curve

##### 1113 Ziegler Nichols Based Integral Proportional Controller for Superheated Steam Temperature Control System

**Authors:**
Amil Daraz,
Suheel Abdullah Malik,
Tahir Saleem,
Sajid Ali Bhati

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Superheated steam,
process reaction curve,
PI and I-P controller,
Ziegler-Nichols tuning.

##### 1112 Simultaneous Reaction-Separation in a Microchannel Reactor with the Aid of a Guideline Structure

**Authors:**
Salah Aljbour,
Hiroshi Yamada,
Tomohiko Tagawa

**Abstract:**

A microchannel with two inlets and two outlets was tested as a potential reactor to carry out two-phase catalytic phase transfer reaction with phase separation at the exit of the microchannel. The catalytic phase transfer reaction between benzyl chloride and sodium sulfide was chosen as a model reaction. The effect of operational time on the conversion was studied. By utilizing a multiphase parallel flow inside the microchannel reactor with the aid of a guideline structure, the catalytic phase reaction followed by phase separation could be ensured. The organic phase could be separated completely from one exit and part of the aqueous phase was separated purely and could be reused with slightly affecting the catalytic phase transfer reaction.

**Keywords:**
Green engineering,
microchannel reactor,
multiphase reaction,
process intensification.

##### 1111 Nanostructured Pt/MnO2 Catalysts and Their Performance for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Air Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell

**Authors:**
Maksudur Rahman Khan,
Kar Min Chan,
Huei Ruey Ong,
Chin Kui Cheng,
Wasikur Rahman

**Abstract:**

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a promising technology for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment. Catalysts are significant portions of the cost of microbial fuel cell cathodes. Many materials have been tested as aqueous cathodes, but air-cathodes are needed to avoid energy demands for water aeration. The sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) rate at air cathode necessitates efficient electrocatalyst such as carbon supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C) which is very costly. Manganese oxide (MnO2) was a representative metal oxide which has been studied as a promising alternative electrocatalyst for ORR and has been tested in air-cathode MFCs. However the single MnO2 has poor electric conductivity and low stability. In the present work, the MnO2 catalyst has been modified by doping Pt nanoparticle. The goal of the work was to improve the performance of the MFC with minimum Pt loading. MnO2 and Pt nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal and sol gel methods, respectively. Wet impregnation method was used to synthesize Pt/MnO2 catalyst. The catalysts were further used as cathode catalysts in air-cathode cubic MFCs, in which anaerobic sludge was inoculated as biocatalysts and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was used as the substrate in the anode chamber. The asprepared Pt/MnO2 was characterized comprehensively through field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) where its surface morphology, crystallinity, oxidation state and electrochemical activity were examined, respectively. XPS revealed Mn (IV) oxidation state and Pt (0) nanoparticle metal, indicating the presence of MnO2 and Pt. Morphology of Pt/MnO2 observed from FESEM shows that the doping of Pt did not cause change in needle-like shape of MnO2 which provides large contacting surface area. The electrochemical active area of the Pt/MnO2 catalysts has been increased from 276 to 617 m2/g with the increase in Pt loading from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%. The CV results in O2 saturated neutral Na2SO4 solution showed that MnO2 and Pt/MnO2 catalysts could catalyze ORR with different catalytic activities. MFC with Pt/MnO2 (0.4 wt% Pt) as air cathode catalyst generates a maximum power density of 165 mW/m3, which is higher than that of MFC with MnO2 catalyst (95 mW/m3). The open circuit voltage (OCV) of the MFC operated with MnO2 cathode gradually decreased during 14 days of operation, whereas the MFC with Pt/MnO2 cathode remained almost constant throughout the operation suggesting the higher stability of the Pt/MnO2 catalyst. Therefore, Pt/MnO2 with 0.4 wt% Pt successfully demonstrated as an efficient and low cost electrocatalyst for ORR in air cathode MFC with higher electrochemical activity, stability and hence enhanced performance.

**Keywords:**
Microbial fuel cell,
oxygen reduction reaction,
Pt/MnO2,
palm oil mill effluent,
polarization curve.

##### 1110 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

**Authors:**
Lívia B. Meirelles,
Erika C. A. N. Chrisman,
Flávia B. de Andrade,
Lilian C. M. de Oliveira

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Distillation curve,
petroleum distillation,
simulation,
true boiling point curve.

##### 1109 An Approach to Polynomial Curve Comparison in Geometric Object Database

**Authors:**
Chanon Aphirukmatakun,
Natasha Dejdumrong

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bezier curve,
Said-Ball curve,
Wang-Ball curve,
DP curve,
CAGD,
comparison,
geometric object database.

##### 1108 Simulation of a Multi-Component Transport Model for the Chemical Reaction of a CVD-Process

**Abstract:**

In this paper we present discretization and decomposition methods for a multi-component transport model of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. CVD processes are used to manufacture deposition layers or bulk materials. In our transport model we simulate the deposition of thin layers. The microscopic model is based on the heavy particles, which are derived by approximately solving a linearized multicomponent Boltzmann equation. For the drift-process of the particles we propose diffusionreaction equations as well as for the effects of heat conduction. We concentrate on solving the diffusion-reaction equation with analytical and numerical methods. For the chemical processes, modelled with reaction equations, we propose decomposition methods and decouple the multi-component models to simpler systems of differential equations. In the numerical experiments we present the computational results of our proposed models.

**Keywords:**
Chemical reactions,
chemical vapor deposition,
convection-diffusion-reaction equations,
decomposition methods,
multi-component transport.

##### 1107 Study on the Effect of Weight Percentage Variation and Size Variation of Magnesium Ferrosilicon Added, Gating System Design and Reaction Chamber Design on Inmold Process

**Authors:**
A. Miss May Thu Zar Myint,
B. Dr. Kay Thi Lwin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
ductile iron,
inmold process,
magnesiumtreatment,
microstructural characteristics.

##### 1106 A Simple Method for Tracing PV Curve of a Radial Transmission Line

**Authors:**
Asfar Ali Khan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Power Transfer,
PV Curve,
Voltage Stability.

##### 1105 The Control Vector Scheme for Design of Planar Primitive PH curves

**Authors:**
Ching-Shoei Chiang,
Sheng-Hsin Tsai,
James Chen

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
PH curve,
hodograph,
Bézier curve.

##### 1104 Optimized Calculation of Hourly Price Forward Curve (HPFC)

**Authors:**
Ahmed Abdolkhalig

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Forward curve,
furrier series,
regression,
radial basic
function neural networks.

##### 1103 Developing of Fragility Curve for Two-Span Simply Supported Concrete Bridge in Near-Fault Area

**Authors:**
S. Shirazian,
M.R. Ghayamghamian,
G.R. Nouri

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Fragility curve,
Seismic behavior,
Time historyanalysis,
Transportation Network.

##### 1102 Investigation of Monochromatization Light Effect at Molecular/Atomic Level in Electronegative-Electropositive Gas Mixtures Plasma

**Authors:**
L.C. Ciobotaru

**Abstract:**

In electronegative-electropositive gas mixtures plasma, at a total pressure varying in the range of ten to hundred Torr, the appearance of a quasi-mochromatization effect of the emitted radiation was reported. This radiation could be the result of the generating mechanisms at molecular level, which is the case of the excimer radiation but also at atomic level. Thus, in the last case, in (Ne+1%Ar/Xe+H2) gas mixtures plasma in a dielectric barrier discharge, this effect, called M-effect, consists in the reduction of the discharge emission spectrum practice at one single, strong spectral line with λ = 585.3 nm. The present paper is concerned with the characteristics comparative investigation of the principal reaction mechanisms involved in the quasi-monochromatization effect existence in the case of the excimer radiation, respectively of the Meffect. Also, the paper points out the role of the metastable electronegative atoms in the appearance of the monochromatization – effect at atomic level.

**Keywords:**
Colombian forces,
Direct Harpoon reaction,
Monochromatization – effect,
Resonant polar three-body reaction.

##### 1101 A New Implementation of Miura-Arita Algorithm for Miura Curves

**Authors:**
A. Basiri,
S. Rahmany,
D. Khatibi

**Abstract:**

The aim of this paper is to review some of standard fact on Miura curves. We give some easy theorem in number theory to define Miura curves, then we present a new implementation of Arita algorithm for Miura curves.

**Keywords:**
Miura curve,
discrete logarithm problem,
algebraic curve cryptography,
Jacobian group.

##### 1100 Artificial Neural Network Prediction for Coke Strength after Reaction and Data Analysis

**Authors:**
Sulata Maharana,
B Biswas,
Adity Ganguly,
Ashok Kumar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Artificial Neural Networks,
backpropagation,
CokeStrength after Reaction,
Multilayer Perceptron.

##### 1099 Design and Control of an Integrated Plant for Simultaneous Production of γ-Butyrolactone and 2-Methyl Furan

**Authors:**
Ahtesham Javaid,
Costin S. Bildea

**Abstract:**

The design and plantwide control of an integrated plant where the endothermic 1,4-butanediol dehydrogenation and the exothermic furfural hydrogenation is simultaneously performed in a single reactor is studied. The reactions can be carried out in an adiabatic reactor using small hydrogen excess and with reduced parameter sensitivity. The plant is robust and flexible enough to allow different production rates of γ-butyrolactone and 2-methyl furan, keeping high product purities. Rigorous steady state and dynamic simulations performed in AspenPlus and AspenDynamics to support the conclusions.

**Keywords:**
Dehydrogenation and hydrogenation,
Reaction
coupling,
Design and control,
Process integration.

##### 1098 Approximating Maximum Speed on Road from Curvature Information of Bezier Curve

**Authors:**
M. Y. Misro,
A. Ramli,
J. M. Ali

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Speed estimation,
path constraints,
reference
trajectory,
Bezier curve.

##### 1097 Efficient Hardware Implementation of an Elliptic Curve Cryptographic Processor Over GF (2 163)

**Authors:**
Massoud Masoumi,
Hosseyn Mahdizadeh

**Abstract:**

A new and highly efficient architecture for elliptic curve scalar point multiplication which is optimized for a binary field recommended by NIST and is well-suited for elliptic curve cryptographic (ECC) applications is presented. To achieve the maximum architectural and timing improvements we have reorganized and reordered the critical path of the Lopez-Dahab scalar point multiplication architecture such that logic structures are implemented in parallel and operations in the critical path are diverted to noncritical paths. With G=41, the proposed design is capable of performing a field multiplication over the extension field with degree 163 in 11.92 s with the maximum achievable frequency of 251 MHz on Xilinx Virtex-4 (XC4VLX200) while 22% of the chip area is occupied, where G is the digit size of the underlying digit-serial finite field multiplier.

**Keywords:**
Elliptic curve cryptography,
FPGA implementation,
scalar point multiplication.

##### 1096 Reaction to the Fire of a Composite Material the Base of Scrapes of Tires End Latex for Thermal Isolation

**Authors:**
E. T. L. Cöuras Ford,
V. A. C. Vale,
J. U. L. Mendes,
R. M. Nascimento

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Composite,
Latex,
Reaction to the fire.

##### 1095 Fuzzy Inference Based Modelling of Perception Reaction Time of Drivers

**Authors:**
U. Chattaraj,
K. Dhusiya,
M. Raviteja

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Driver,
fuzzy logic,
perception reaction time,
premise variable.

##### 1094 A Bathtub Curve from Nonparametric Model

**Authors:**
Eduardo C. Guardia,
Jose W. M. Lima,
Afonso H. M. Santos

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a nonparametric method to obtain the hazard rate “Bathtub curve” for power system components. The model is a mixture of the three known phases of a component life, the decreasing failure rate (DFR), the constant failure rate (CFR) and the increasing failure rate (IFR) represented by three parametric Weibull models. The parameters are obtained from a simultaneous fitting process of the model to the Kernel nonparametric hazard rate curve. From the Weibull parameters and failure rate curves the useful lifetime and the characteristic lifetime were defined. To demonstrate the model the historic time-to-failure of distribution transformers were used as an example. The resulted “Bathtub curve” shows the failure rate for the equipment lifetime which can be applied in economic and replacement decision models.

**Keywords:**
Bathtub curve,
failure analysis,
lifetime estimation,
parameter estimation,
Weibull distribution.

##### 1093 Cryptography Over Elliptic Curve Of The Ring Fq[e], e4 = 0

**Authors:**
Chillali Abdelhakim

**Abstract:**

Groups where the discrete logarithm problem (DLP) is believed to be intractable have proved to be inestimable building blocks for cryptographic applications. They are at the heart of numerous protocols such as key agreements, public-key cryptosystems, digital signatures, identification schemes, publicly verifiable secret sharings, hash functions and bit commitments. The search for new groups with intractable DLP is therefore of great importance.The goal of this article is to study elliptic curves over the ring Fq[], with Fq a finite field of order q and with the relation n = 0, n ≥ 3. The motivation for this work came from the observation that several practical discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems, such as ElGamal, the Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems . In a first time, we describe these curves defined over a ring. Then, we study the algorithmic properties by proposing effective implementations for representing the elements and the group law. In anther article we study their cryptographic properties, an attack of the elliptic discrete logarithm problem, a new cryptosystem over these curves.

**Keywords:**
Elliptic Curve Over Ring,
Discrete Logarithm Problem.

##### 1092 Estimating Reaction Rate Constants with Neural Networks

**Authors:**
Benedek Kovacs,
Janos Toth

**Abstract:**

Solutions are proposed for the central problem of estimating the reaction rate coefficients in homogeneous kinetics. The first is based upon the fact that the right hand side of a kinetic differential equation is linear in the rate constants, whereas the second one uses the technique of neural networks. This second one is discussed deeply and its advantages, disadvantages and conditions of applicability are analyzed in the mirror of the first one. Numerical analysis carried out on practical models using simulated data, and our programs written in Mathematica.

**Keywords:**
Neural networks,
parameter estimation,
linear regression,
kinetic models,
reaction rate coefficients.

##### 1091 Influence of Garbage Leachate on Soil Reaction,Salinity and Soil Organic Matter in East of Isfahan

**Authors:**
Ebrahim Panahpour,
Ali Gholami,
Amir Hossein Davami

**Abstract:**

During this day a considerable amount of Leachate is produced with high amounts of organic material and nutrients needed plants. This study has done in order to scrutinize the effect of Leachate compost on the pH, EC and organic matter percentage in the form of statistical Factorial plan through randomizing block design with three main and two minor treatments and also three replications during three six month periods. Major treatments include N: Irrigation with the region-s well water as a control, I: Frequent irrigation with well water and Leachate, C: Mixing Leachate and water well (25 percent leachate + 75 percent ordinary well water) and secondary treatments, include DI: surface drip irrigation and SDI: sub surface drip irrigation. Results of this study indicated significant differences between treatments and also there were mixing up with the control treatment in the reduction of pH, increasing soluble salts and also increasing the organic matter percentage. This increase is proportional to the amount of added Leachate and in the treatment also proportional to higher mixture of frequent treatment. Therefore, since creating an acidic pH increases the ability to absorb some nutrient elements such as phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper and manganese are increased and the other hand, organic materials also improve many physical and chemical properties of soil are used in Leachate trash Consider health issues as refined in the green belts around cities as a liquid fertilizer recommended.

**Keywords:**
Leachate,
compost,
drip irrigation,
liquid fertilizer,
soil reaction.

##### 1090 Modeling and Simulating Reaction-Diffusion Systems with State-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients

**Authors:**
Paola Lecca,
Lorenzo Dematte,
Corrado Priami

**Abstract:**

The present models and simulation algorithms of intracellular stochastic kinetics are usually based on the premise that diffusion is so fast that the concentrations of all the involved species are homogeneous in space. However, recents experimental measurements of intracellular diffusion constants indicate that the assumption of a homogeneous well-stirred cytosol is not necessarily valid even for small prokaryotic cells. In this work a mathematical treatment of diffusion that can be incorporated in a stochastic algorithm simulating the dynamics of a reaction-diffusion system is presented. The movement of a molecule A from a region i to a region j of the space is represented as a first order reaction Ai k- ! Aj , where the rate constant k depends on the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficients are modeled as function of the local concentration of the solutes, their intrinsic viscosities, their frictional coefficients and the temperature of the system. The stochastic time evolution of the system is given by the occurrence of diffusion events and chemical reaction events. At each time step an event (reaction or diffusion) is selected from a probability distribution of waiting times determined by the intrinsic reaction kinetics and diffusion dynamics. To demonstrate the method the simulation results of the reaction-diffusion system of chaperoneassisted protein folding in cytoplasm are shown.

**Keywords:**
Reaction-diffusion systems,
diffusion coefficient,
stochastic simulation algorithm.

##### 1089 Numerical Study of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction in Eccentrically Loaded Circular Footing Resting

**Authors:**
Seyed Abolhasan Naeini,
Mohammad Hossein Zade

**Abstract:**

This article is an attempt to present a numerically study of the behaviour of an eccentrically loaded circular footing resting on sand to determine its ultimate bearing capacity. A surface circular footing of diameter 12 cm (D) was used as shallow foundation. For this purpose, three dimensional models consist of foundation, and medium sandy soil was modelled by ABAQUS software. Bearing capacity of footing was evaluated and the effects of the load eccentricity on bearing capacity, its settlement, and modulus of subgrade reaction were studied. Three different values of load eccentricity with equal space from inside the core on the core boundary and outside the core boundary, which were respectively e=0.75, 1.5, and 2.25 cm, were considered. The results show that by increasing the load eccentricity, the ultimate load and the modulus of subgrade reaction decreased.

**Keywords:**
Circular foundation,
eccentric loading,
sand,
modulus of subgrade reaction.

##### 1088 Porous Carbon Nanoparticles Co-Doped with Nitrogen and Iron as an Efficient Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

**Authors:**
Bita Bayatsarmadi,
Shi-Zhang Qiao

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Electro-catalyst,
mesopore structure,
oxygen
reduction reaction,
soft-template.

##### 1087 The Influence of using Compost Leachate on Soil Reaction

**Authors:**
Ali Gholami,
Shahram Ahmadi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Compost Leachate,
Drop irrigation,
Soil Reaction

##### 1086 Integrating Security Indifference Curve to Formal Decision Evaluation

**Authors:**
Anon Yantarasri,
Yachai Limpiyakorn

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Decision Analysis and Resolution,
Indifference
Curve,
Multi-criteria Decision Making.

##### 1085 Impact of the Operation and Infrastructure Parameters to the Railway Track Capacity

**Authors:**
Martin Kendra,
Jaroslav Mašek,
Juraj Čamaj,
Matej Babin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Curve radius,
maximum curve speed,
track mass
capacity,
reconstruction.

##### 1084 Cost and Productivity Experiences of Pakistan with Aggregate Learning Curve

**Authors:**
Jamshaid ur Rehman,
Shahida Wizarat

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cost,
Inflection Point,
Learning Curve,
Minima,
Maxima,
and Productivity