Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 111

Search results for: privacy

111 Students’ Perceptions of the Use of Social Media in Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Omar Alshehri, Vic Lally

Abstract:

This paper examined the attitudes of using social media tools to support learning at a university in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, it investigated the students’ current usage of these tools and examined the barriers they could face during the use of social media tools in the education process. Participants in this study were 42 university students. A web-based survey was used to collect data for this study. The results indicate that all of the students were familiar with social media and had used at least one type of social media for learning. It was found out that all students had very positive attitudes towards the use of social media and welcomed using these tools as a supplementary to the curriculum. However, the results indicated that the major barriers to using these tools in learning were distraction, opposing Islamic religious teachings, privacy issues, and cyberbullying. The study recommended that this study could be replicated at other Saudi universities to investigate factors and barriers that might affect Saudi students’ attitudes toward using social media to support learning.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, social media, benefits of social media use, barriers to social media use, higher education.

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110 Security of Internet of Things: Challenges, Requirements and Future Directions

Authors: Amjad F. Alharbi, Bashayer A. Alotaibi, Fahd S. Alotaibi

Abstract:

The emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides capabilities for a huge number of smart devices, services and people to be communicate with each other for exchanging data and information over existing network. While as IoT is progressing, it provides many opportunities for new ways of communications as well it introduces many security and privacy threats and challenges which need to be considered for the future of IoT development. In this survey paper, an IoT security issues as threats and current challenges are summarized. The security architecture for IoT are presented from four main layers. Based on these layers, the IoT security requirements are presented to insure security in the whole system. Furthermore, some researches initiatives related to IoT security are discussed as well as the future direction for IoT security are highlighted.

Keywords: Internet of Things, IoT, IoT security challenges, IoT security requirements, IoT security architecture.

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109 FPGA Implementation of the BB84 Protocol

Authors: Jaouadi Ikram, Machhout Mohsen

Abstract:

The development of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform is the subject of this paper. A quantum cryptographic protocol is designed based on the properties of quantum information and the characteristics of FPGAs. The proposed protocol performs key extraction, reconciliation, error correction, and privacy amplification tasks to generate a perfectly secret final key. We modeled the presence of the spy in our system with a strategy to reveal some of the exchanged information without being noticed. Using an FPGA card with a 100 MHz clock frequency, we have demonstrated the evolution of the error rate as well as the amounts of mutual information (between the two interlocutors and that of the spy) passing from one step to another in the key generation process.

Keywords: QKD, BB84, protocol, cryptography, FPGA, key, security, communication.

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108 Strengthening Legal Protection of Personal Data through Technical Protection Regulation in Line with Human Rights

Authors: Tomy Prihananto, Damar Apri Sudarmadi

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Indonesia recognizes the right to privacy as a human right. Indonesia provides legal protection against data management activities because the protection of personal data is a part of human rights. This paper aims to describe the arrangement of data management and data management in Indonesia. This paper is a descriptive research with qualitative approach and collecting data from literature study. Results of this paper are comprehensive arrangement of data that have been set up as a technical requirement of data protection by encryption methods. Arrangements on encryption and protection of personal data are mutually reinforcing arrangements in the protection of personal data. Indonesia has two important and immediately enacted laws that provide protection for the privacy of information that is part of human rights.

Keywords: Indonesia, protection, personal data, privacy, human rights, encryption.

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107 Application of PSK Modulation in ADS-B 1090 Extended Squitter Authentication

Authors: A-Q. Nguyen. A. Amrhar, J. Zambrano, G. Brown, O.A. Yeste-Ojeda, R. Jr. Landry

Abstract:

Since the presence of Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) has raised specific concerns related to the privacy and security, due to its vulnerable, low-level of security and limited payload. In this paper, the authors introduce and analyze the combination of Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation in conventional ADS-B, forming Secure ADS-B (SADS-B) avionics. In order to demonstrate the potential of this combination, Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation was used. The tests' results show that, on the one hand, SADS-B can offer five times the payload as its predecessor. This additional payload of SADS-B can be used in various applications, therefore enhancing the ability and efficiency of the current ADS-B. On the other hand, by using the extra phase modulated bits as a digital signature to authenticate ADS-B messages, SADS-B can increase the security of ADS-B, thus ensure a more secure aviation as well. More importantly, SADS-B is compatible with the current ADS-B In and Out. Hence, no significant modifications will be needed to implement this idea. As a result, SADS-B can be considered the most promising approach to enhance the capability and security of ADS-B.

Keywords: ADS-B authentication, ADS-B security, NextGen ADS-B, PSK signature, secure ADS-B.

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106 Intellectual Property Protection of CRISPR Related Technologies

Authors: Zheng Miao, Dennis Fernandez

Abstract:

CRISPR research has the potential to completely transform life science, agriculture, live-stock and the health care industry. The Intellectual Property derived from its research has raised significant attention in the academic as well as the biopharmaceutical industry culminating an urgent need for strategic IP protection. We review the rudimentary concepts and key competitors of CRISPR technologies as well as the paramount strategies for intellectual property protection. Further, we elaborate on prosecution issues related to CRISPR patents as well as possible solutions to various patent laws, interferences and litigation. Finally, we address how the bioinformatics of the CRISPR technology begs an inquiry into issues of privacy and a host of ethical concerns.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, CRISPR, biotechnology, intellectual property.

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105 High-Value Health System for All: Technologies for Promoting Health Education and Awareness

Authors: M. P. Sebastian

Abstract:

Health for all is considered as a sign of well-being and inclusive growth. New healthcare technologies are contributing to the quality of human lives by promoting health education and awareness, leading to the prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of the symptoms of diseases. Healthcare technologies have now migrated from the medical and institutionalized settings to the home and everyday life. This paper explores these new technologies and investigates how they contribute to health education and awareness, promoting the objective of high-value health system for all. The methodology used for the research is literature review. The paper also discusses the opportunities and challenges with futuristic healthcare technologies. The combined advances in genomics medicine, wearables and the IoT with enhanced data collection in electronic health record (EHR) systems, environmental sensors, and mobile device applications can contribute in a big way to high-value health system for all. The promise by these technologies includes reduced total cost of healthcare, reduced incidence of medical diagnosis errors, and reduced treatment variability. The major barriers to adoption include concerns with security, privacy, and integrity of healthcare data, regulation and compliance issues, service reliability, interoperability and portability of data, and user friendliness and convenience of these technologies.

Keywords: Bigdata, education, healthcare, ICT, patients, technologies.

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104 Secure E-Pay System Using Steganography and Visual Cryptography

Authors: K. Suganya Devi, P. Srinivasan, M. P. Vaishnave, G. Arutperumjothi

Abstract:

Today’s internet world is highly prone to various online attacks, of which the most harmful attack is phishing. The attackers host the fake websites which are very similar and look alike. We propose an image based authentication using steganography and visual cryptography to prevent phishing. This paper presents a secure steganographic technique for true color (RGB) images and uses Discrete Cosine Transform to compress the images. The proposed method hides the secret data inside the cover image. The use of visual cryptography is to preserve the privacy of an image by decomposing the original image into two shares. Original image can be identified only when both qualified shares are simultaneously available. Individual share does not reveal the identity of the original image. Thus, the existence of the secret message is hard to be detected by the RS steganalysis.

Keywords: Image security, random LSB, steganography, visual cryptography.

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103 Exploring the Spatial Characteristics of Mortality Map: A Statistical Area Perspective

Authors: Jung-Hong Hong, Jing-Cen Yang, Cai-Yu Ou

Abstract:

The analysis of geographic inequality heavily relies on the use of location-enabled statistical data and quantitative measures to present the spatial patterns of the selected phenomena and analyze their differences. To protect the privacy of individual instance and link to administrative units, point-based datasets are spatially aggregated to area-based statistical datasets, where only the overall status for the selected levels of spatial units is used for decision making. The partition of the spatial units thus has dominant influence on the outcomes of the analyzed results, well known as the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP). A new spatial reference framework, the Taiwan Geographical Statistical Classification (TGSC), was recently introduced in Taiwan based on the spatial partition principles of homogeneous consideration of the number of population and households. Comparing to the outcomes of the traditional township units, TGSC provides additional levels of spatial units with finer granularity for presenting spatial phenomena and enables domain experts to select appropriate dissemination level for publishing statistical data. This paper compares the results of respectively using TGSC and township unit on the mortality data and examines the spatial characteristics of their outcomes. For the mortality data between the period of January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2010 of the Taitung County, the all-cause age-standardized death rate (ASDR) ranges from 571 to 1757 per 100,000 persons, whereas the 2nd dissemination area (TGSC) shows greater variation, ranged from 0 to 2222 per 100,000. The finer granularity of spatial units of TGSC clearly provides better outcomes for identifying and evaluating the geographic inequality and can be further analyzed with the statistical measures from other perspectives (e.g., population, area, environment.). The management and analysis of the statistical data referring to the TGSC in this research is strongly supported by the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. An integrated workflow that consists of the tasks of the processing of death certificates, the geocoding of street address, the quality assurance of geocoded results, the automatic calculation of statistic measures, the standardized encoding of measures and the geo-visualization of statistical outcomes is developed. This paper also introduces a set of auxiliary measures from a geographic distribution perspective to further examine the hidden spatial characteristics of mortality data and justify the analyzed results. With the common statistical area framework like TGSC, the preliminary results demonstrate promising potential for developing a web-based statistical service that can effectively access domain statistical data and present the analyzed outcomes in meaningful ways to avoid wrong decision making.

Keywords: Mortality map, spatial patterns, statistical area, variation.

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102 Improving the Security of Internet of Things Using Encryption Algorithms

Authors: Amirhossein Safi

Abstract:

Internet of things (IOT) is a kind of advanced information technology which has drawn societies’ attention. Sensors and stimulators are usually recognized as smart devices of our environment. Simultaneously, IOT security brings up new issues. Internet connection and possibility of interaction with smart devices cause those devices to involve more in human life. Therefore, safety is a fundamental requirement in designing IOT. IOT has three remarkable features: overall perception, reliable transmission, and intelligent processing. Because of IOT span, security of conveying data is an essential factor for system security. Hybrid encryption technique is a new model that can be used in IOT. This type of encryption generates strong security and low computation. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid encryption algorithm which has been conducted in order to reduce safety risks and enhancing encryption's speed and less computational complexity. The purpose of this hybrid algorithm is information integrity, confidentiality, non-repudiation in data exchange for IOT. Eventually, the suggested encryption algorithm has been simulated by MATLAB software, and its speed and safety efficiency were evaluated in comparison with conventional encryption algorithm.

Keywords: Internet of things, security, hybrid algorithm, privacy.

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101 Analysis of Threats in Interoperability of Medical Devices

Authors: M. Sandhya, R. M. Madhumitha, Sharmila Sankar

Abstract:

Interoperable medical devices (IMDs) face threats due to the increased attack surface accessible by interoperability and the corresponding infrastructure. Initiating networking and coordination functionalities primarily modify medical systems' security properties. Understanding the threats is a vital first step in ultimately crafting security solutions for such systems. The key to this problem is coming up with some common types of threats or attacks with those of security and privacy, and providing this information as a roadmap. This paper analyses the security issues in interoperability of devices and presents the main types of threats that have to be considered to build a secured system.

Keywords: Interoperability, threats, attacks, medical devices.

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100 Detection of New Attacks on Ubiquitous Services in Cloud Computing and Countermeasures

Authors: L. Sellami, D. Idoughi, P. F. Tiako

Abstract:

Cloud computing provides infrastructure to the enterprise through the Internet allowing access to cloud services at anytime and anywhere. This pervasive aspect of the services, the distributed nature of data and the wide use of information make cloud computing vulnerable to intrusions that violate the security of the cloud. This requires the use of security mechanisms to detect malicious behavior in network communications and hosts such as intrusion detection systems (IDS). In this article, we focus on the detection of intrusion into the cloud sing IDSs. We base ourselves on client authentication in the computing cloud. This technique allows to detect the abnormal use of ubiquitous service and prevents the intrusion of cloud computing. This is an approach based on client authentication data. Our IDS provides intrusion detection inside and outside cloud computing network. It is a double protection approach: The security user node and the global security cloud computing.

Keywords: Cloud computing, intrusion detection system, privacy, trust.

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99 Analytics Model in a Telehealth Center Based on Cloud Computing and Local Storage

Authors: L. Ramirez, E. Guillén, J. Sánchez

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Some of the main goals about telecare such as monitoring, treatment, telediagnostic are deployed with the integration of applications with specific appliances. In order to achieve a coherent model to integrate software, hardware, and healthcare systems, different telehealth models with Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, artificial intelligence, etc. have been implemented, and their advantages are still under analysis. In this paper, we propose an integrated model based on IoT architecture and cloud computing telehealth center. Analytics module is presented as a solution to control an ideal diagnostic about some diseases. Specific features are then compared with the recently deployed conventional models in telemedicine. The main advantage of this model is the availability of controlling the security and privacy about patient information and the optimization on processing and acquiring clinical parameters according to technical characteristics.

Keywords: Analytics, telemedicine, internet of things, cloud computing.

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98 Privacy-Preserving Location Sharing System with Client/Server Architecture in Mobile Online Social Network

Authors: Xi Xiao, Chunhui Chen, Xinyu Liu, Guangwu Hu, Yong Jiang

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Location sharing is a fundamental service in mobile Online Social Networks (mOSNs), which raises significant privacy concerns in recent years. Now, most location-based service applications adopt client/server architecture. In this paper, a location sharing system, named CSLocShare, is presented to provide flexible privacy-preserving location sharing with client/server architecture in mOSNs. CSLocShare enables location sharing between both trusted social friends and untrusted strangers without the third-party server. In CSLocShare, Location-Storing Social Network Server (LSSNS) provides location-based services but do not know the users’ real locations. The thorough analysis indicates that the users’ location privacy is protected. Meanwhile, the storage and the communication cost are saved. CSLocShare is more suitable and effective in reality.

Keywords: Client/server architecture, location sharing, mobile online social networks, privacy-preserving.

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97 Towards a Proof Acceptance by Overcoming Challenges in Collecting Digital Evidence

Authors: Lilian Noronha Nassif

Abstract:

Cybercrime investigation demands an appropriated evidence collection mechanism. If the investigator does not acquire digital proofs in a forensic sound, some important information can be lost, and judges can discard case evidence because the acquisition was inadequate. The correct digital forensic seizing involves preparation of professionals from fields of law, police, and computer science. This paper presents important challenges faced during evidence collection in different perspectives of places. The crime scene can be virtual or real, and technical obstacles and privacy concerns must be considered. All pointed challenges here highlight the precautions to be taken in the digital evidence collection and the suggested procedures contribute to the best practices in the digital forensics field.

Keywords: Digital evidence, digital forensic processes and procedures, mobile forensics, cloud forensics.

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96 H.264 Video Privacy Protection Method Using Regions of Interest Encryption

Authors: Taekyun Doo, Cheongmin Ji, Manpyo Hong

Abstract:

Like a closed-circuit television (CCTV), video surveillance system is widely placed for gathering video from unspecified people to prevent crime, surveillance, or many other purposes. However, abuse of CCTV brings about concerns of personal privacy invasions. In this paper, we propose an encryption method to protect personal privacy system in H.264 compressed video bitstream with encrypting only regions of interest (ROI). There is no need to change the existing video surveillance system. In addition, encrypting ROI in compressed video bitstream is a challenging work due to spatial and temporal drift errors. For this reason, we propose a novel drift mitigation method when ROI is encrypted. The proposed method was implemented by using JM reference software based on the H.264 compressed videos, and experimental results show the verification of our proposed methods and its effectiveness.

Keywords: H.264/AVC, video encryption, privacy protection, post compression, region of interest.

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95 A Security Cloud Storage Scheme Based Accountable Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption without Key Escrow

Authors: Ming Lun Wang, Yan Wang, Ning Ruo Sun

Abstract:

With the development of cloud computing, more and more users start to utilize the cloud storage service. However, there exist some issues: 1) cloud server steals the shared data, 2) sharers collude with the cloud server to steal the shared data, 3) cloud server tampers the shared data, 4) sharers and key generation center (KGC) conspire to steal the shared data. In this paper, we use advanced encryption standard (AES), hash algorithms, and accountable key-policy attribute-based encryption without key escrow (WOKE-AKP-ABE) to build a security cloud storage scheme. Moreover, the data are encrypted to protect the privacy. We use hash algorithms to prevent the cloud server from tampering the data uploaded to the cloud. Analysis results show that this scheme can resist conspired attacks.

Keywords: Cloud storage security, sharing storage, attributes, Hash algorithm.

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94 A Proposal for Systematic Mapping Study of Software Security Testing, Verification and Validation

Authors: Adriano Bessa Albuquerque, Francisco Jose Barreto Nunes

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Software vulnerabilities are increasing and not only impact services and processes availability as well as information confidentiality, integrity and privacy, but also cause changes that interfere in the development process. Security test could be a solution to reduce vulnerabilities. However, the variety of test techniques with the lack of real case studies of applying tests focusing on software development life cycle compromise its effective use. This paper offers an overview of how a Systematic Mapping Study (MS) about security verification, validation and test (VVT) was performed, besides presenting general results about this study.

Keywords: Software test, software security verification validation and test, security test institutionalization, systematic mapping study.

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93 The Internet of Things Ecosystem: Survey of the Current Landscape, Identity Relationship Management, Multifactor Authentication Mechanisms, and Underlying Protocols

Authors: Nazli W. Hardy

Abstract:

A critical component in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is the need for secure and appropriate transmission, processing, and storage of the data. Our current forms of authentication, and identity and access management do not suffice because they are not designed to service cohesive, integrated, interconnected devices, and service applications. The seemingly endless opportunities of IoT are in fact circumscribed on multiple levels by concerns such as trust, privacy, security, loss of control, and related issues. This paper considers multi-factor authentication (MFA) mechanisms and cohesive identity relationship management (IRM) standards. It also surveys messaging protocols that are appropriate for the IoT ecosystem.

Keywords: Survey of internet of things ecosystem, protocols, identity relation management, multifactor authentication.

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92 Analytical Study of Applying the Account Aggregation Approach in E-Banking Services

Authors: A. Al Drees, A. Alahmari, R. Almuwayshir

Abstract:

The advanced information technology is becoming an important factor in the development of financial services industry, especially the banking industry. It has introduced new ways of delivering banking to the customer, such as Internet Banking. Banks began to look at electronic banking (e-banking) as a means to replace some of their traditional branch functions using the Internet as a new distribution channel. Some consumers have at least more than one account, and across banks, and access these accounts using e-banking services. To look at the current net worth position, customers have to login to each of their accounts and get the details and work on consolidation. This not only takes ample time but it is a repetitive activity at a specified frequency. To address this point, an account aggregation concept is added as a solution. E-banking account aggregation, as one of the e-banking types, appeared to build a stronger relationship with customers. Account Aggregation Service generally refers to a service that allows customers to manage their bank accounts maintained in different institutions through a common Internet banking operating a platform, with a high concern to security and privacy. This paper presents an overview of an e-banking account aggregation approach as a new service in the e-banking field.

Keywords: E-banking, security, account aggregation, enterprise application development.

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91 Evaluation and Analysis of the Secure E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Reem A. Al-Saidi, Ahmed H. Alsswey

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In this paper, we presented an evaluation and analysis of E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme (EV-APS). EV-APS applies some modified security aspects that enhance the security measures and adds a strong wall of protection, confidentiality, non-repudiation and authentication requirements. Some of these modified security aspects are Kerberos authentication protocol, PVID scheme, responder certificate validation, and the converted Ferguson e-cash protocol. Authentication and privacy requirements have been evaluated and proved. Authentication guaranteed only eligible and authorized voters were permitted to vote. Also, the privacy guaranteed that all votes will be kept secret. Evaluation and analysis of some of these security requirements have been given. These modified aspects will help in filtering the counter buffer from unauthorized votes by ensuring that only authorized voters are permitted to vote.

Keywords: E-Voting preparation stage, blind signature protocol, nonce based authentication scheme, Kerberos authentication protocol, pseudo voter identity scheme PVID.

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90 An Analysis of Innovative Cloud Model as Bridging the Gap between Physical and Virtualized Business Environments: The Customer Perspective

Authors: Asim Majeed, Rehan Bhana, Mak Sharma, Rebecca Goode, Nizam Bolia, Mike, Lloyd-Williams

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This study aims to investigate and explore the underlying causes of security concerns of customers emerged when WHSmith transformed its physical system to virtualized business model through NetSuite. NetSuite is essentially fully integrated software which helps transforming the physical system to virtualized business model. Modern organisations are moving away from traditional business models to cloud based models and consequently it is expected to have a better, secure and innovative environment for customers. The vital issue of the modern age race is the security when transforming virtualized through cloud based models and designers of interactive systems often misunderstand privacy and even often ignore it, thus causing concerns for users. The content analysis approach is being used to collect the qualitative data from 120 online bloggers including TRUSTPILOT. The results and finding provide useful new insights into the nature and form of security concerns of online users after they have used the WHSmith services offered online through their website. Findings have theoretical as well as practical implications for the successful adoption of cloud computing Business-to-Business model and similar systems.

Keywords: Innovation, virtualization, cloud computing, organizational flexibility

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89 A Signature-Based Secure Authentication Framework for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: J. Jenefa, E. A. Mary Anita

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Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) is a kind of Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET). It allows the vehicles to communicate with one another as well as with nearby Road Side Units (RSU) and Regional Trusted Authorities (RTA). Vehicles communicate through On-Board Units (OBU) in which privacy has to be assured which will avoid the misuse of private data. A secure authentication framework for VANETs is proposed in which Public Key Cryptography (PKC) based adaptive pseudonym scheme is used to generate self-generated pseudonyms. Self-generated pseudonyms are used instead of real IDs for privacy preservation and non-repudiation. The ID-Based Signature (IBS) and ID-Based Online/Offline Signature (IBOOS) schemes are used for authentication. IBS is used to authenticate between vehicle and RSU whereas IBOOS provides authentication among vehicles. Security attacks like impersonation attack in the network are resolved and the attacking nodes are rejected from the network, thereby ensuring secure communication among the vehicles in the network. Simulation results shows that the proposed system provides better authentication in VANET environment.

Keywords: Non-repudiation, privacy preservation, public key cryptography, self- generated pseudonym.

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88 Use of Cloud Computing and Smart Devices in Healthcare

Authors: Nikunj Agarwal, M. P. Sebastian

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Cloud computing can reduce the start-up expenses of implementing EHR (Electronic Health Records). However, many of the healthcare institutions are yet to implement cloud computing due to the associated privacy and security issues. In this paper, we analyze the challenges and opportunities of implementing cloud computing in healthcare. We also analyze data of over 5000 US hospitals that use Telemedicine applications. This analysis helps to understand the importance of smart phones over the desktop systems in different departments of the healthcare institutions. The wide usage of smartphones and cloud computing allows ubiquitous and affordable access to the health data by authorized persons, including patients and doctors. Cloud computing will prove to be beneficial to a majority of the departments in healthcare. Through this analysis, we attempt to understand the different healthcare departments that may benefit significantly from the implementation of cloud computing.

Keywords: Cloud computing, smart devices, healthcare, telemedicine.

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87 Mining Big Data in Telecommunications Industry: Challenges, Techniques, and Revenue Opportunity

Authors: Hoda A. Abdel Hafez

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Mining big data represents a big challenge nowadays. Many types of research are concerned with mining massive amounts of data and big data streams. Mining big data faces a lot of challenges including scalability, speed, heterogeneity, accuracy, provenance and privacy. In telecommunication industry, mining big data is like a mining for gold; it represents a big opportunity and maximizing the revenue streams in this industry. This paper discusses the characteristics of big data (volume, variety, velocity and veracity), data mining techniques and tools for handling very large data sets, mining big data in telecommunication and the benefits and opportunities gained from them.

Keywords: Mining Big Data, Big Data, Machine learning, Data Streams, Telecommunication.

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86 Factors Affecting M-Government Deployment and Adoption

Authors: Saif Obaid Alkaabi, Nabil Ayad

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Governments constantly seek to offer faster, more secure, efficient and effective services for their citizens. Recent changes and developments to communication services and technologies, mainly due the Internet, have led to immense improvements in the way governments of advanced countries carry out their interior operations Therefore, advances in e-government services have been broadly adopted and used in various developed countries, as well as being adapted to developing countries. The implementation of advances depends on the utilization of the most innovative structures of data techniques, mainly in web dependent applications, to enhance the main functions of governments. These functions, in turn, have spread to mobile and wireless techniques, generating a new advanced direction called m-government. This paper discusses a selection of available m-government applications and several business modules and frameworks in various fields. Practically, the m-government models, techniques and methods have become the improved version of e-government. M-government offers the potential for applications which will work better, providing citizens with services utilizing mobile communication and data models incorporating several government entities. Developing countries can benefit greatly from this innovation due to the fact that a large percentage of their population is young and can adapt to new technology and to the fact that mobile computing devices are more affordable. The use of models of mobile transactions encourages effective participation through the use of mobile portals by businesses, various organizations, and individual citizens. Although the application of m-government has great potential, it does have major limitations. The limitations include: the implementation of wireless networks and relative communications, the encouragement of mobile diffusion, the administration of complicated tasks concerning the protection of security (including the ability to offer privacy for information), and the management of the legal issues concerning mobile applications and the utilization of services.

Keywords: E-government, m-government, system dependability, system security, trust.

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85 Development of a Secured Telemedical System Using Biometric Feature

Authors: O. Iyare, A. H. Afolayan, O. T. Oluwadare, B. K. Alese

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Access to advanced medical services has been one of the medical challenges faced by our present society especially in distant geographical locations which may be inaccessible. Then the need for telemedicine arises through which live videos of a doctor can be streamed to a patient located anywhere in the world at any time. Patients’ medical records contain very sensitive information which should not be made accessible to unauthorized people in order to protect privacy, integrity and confidentiality. This research work focuses on a more robust security measure which is biometric (fingerprint) as a form of access control to data of patients by the medical specialist/practitioner.

Keywords: Biometrics, telemedicine, privacy, patient information.

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84 Privacy of RFID Systems: Security of Personal Data for End-Users

Authors: Firoz Khan

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Privacy of RFID systems is receiving increasing attention in the RFID community. RFID privacy is important as the RFID tags will be attached to all kinds of products and physical objects including people. The possible abuse or excessive use of RFID tracking capability by malicious users can lead to potential privacy violations. In this paper, we will discuss how the different industries use RFID and the potential privacy and security issues while RFID is implemented in these industries. Although RFID technology offers interesting services to customer and retailers, it could also endanger the privacy of end-users. Personal data can be leaked if a protection mechanism is not deployed in the RFID systems. The paper summarizes many different solutions for implementing privacy and security while deploying RFID systems.

Keywords: RFID, privacy, security, encryption.

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83 Spatial Integration at the Room-Level of 'Sequina' Slum Area in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Ali Essam El Shazly

Abstract:

The social logic of 'Sequina' slum area in Alexandria details the integral measure of space syntax at the room-level of twenty-building samples. The essence of spatial structure integrates the central 'visitor' domain with the 'living' frontage of the 'children' zone against the segregated privacy of the opposite 'parent' depth. Meanwhile, the multifunctioning of shallow rooms optimizes the integral 'visitor' structure through graph and visibility dimensions in contrast to the 'inhabitant' structure of graph-tails out of sight. Common theme of the layout integrity increases in compensation to the decrease of room visibility. Despite the 'pheno-type' of collective integration, the individual layouts observe 'geno-type' structure of spatial diversity per room adjoins. In this regard, the layout integrity alternates the cross-correlation of the 'kitchen & living' rooms with the 'inhabitant & visitor' domains of 'motherhood' dynamic structure. Moreover, the added 'grandparent' restructures the integral measure to become the deepest space, but opens to the 'living' of 'household' integrity. Some isomorphic layouts change the integral structure just through the 'balcony' extension of access, visual or ignored 'ringiness' of space syntax. However, the most integrated or segregated layouts invert the 'geno-type' into a shallow 'inhabitant' centrality versus the remote 'visitor' structure. Overview of the multivariate social logic of spatial integrity could never clarify without the micro-data analysis.

Keywords: Alexandria, Sequina slum, spatial integration, space syntax.

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82 A Quasi-Systematic Review on Effectiveness of Social and Cultural Sustainability Practices in Built Environment

Authors: Asif Ali, Daud Salim Faruquie

Abstract:

With the advancement of knowledge about the utility and impact of sustainability, its feasibility has been explored into different walks of life. Scientists, however; have established their knowledge in four areas viz environmental, economic, social and cultural, popularly termed as four pillars of sustainability. Aspects of environmental and economic sustainability have been rigorously researched and practiced and huge volume of strong evidence of effectiveness has been founded for these two sub-areas. For the social and cultural aspects of sustainability, dependable evidence of effectiveness is still to be instituted as the researchers and practitioners are developing and experimenting methods across the globe. Therefore, the present research aimed to identify globally used practices of social and cultural sustainability and through evidence synthesis assess their outcomes to determine the effectiveness of those practices. A PICO format steered the methodology which included all populations, popular sustainability practices including walkability/cycle tracks, social/recreational spaces, privacy, health & human services and barrier free built environment, comparators included ‘Before’ and ‘After’, ‘With’ and ‘Without’, ‘More’ and ‘Less’ and outcomes included Social well-being, cultural coexistence, quality of life, ethics and morality, social capital, sense of place, education, health, recreation and leisure, and holistic development. Search of literature included major electronic databases, search websites, organizational resources, directory of open access journals and subscribed journals. Grey literature, however, was not included. Inclusion criteria filtered studies on the basis of research designs such as total randomization, quasirandomization, cluster randomization, observational or single studies and certain types of analysis. Studies with combined outcomes were considered but studies focusing only on environmental and/or economic outcomes were rejected. Data extraction, critical appraisal and evidence synthesis was carried out using customized tabulation, reference manager and CASP tool. Partial meta-analysis was carried out and calculation of pooled effects and forest plotting were done. As many as 13 studies finally included for final synthesis explained the impact of targeted practices on health, behavioural and social dimensions. Objectivity in the measurement of health outcomes facilitated quantitative synthesis of studies which highlighted the impact of sustainability methods on physical activity, Body Mass Index, perinatal outcomes and child health. Studies synthesized qualitatively (and also quantitatively) showed outcomes such as routines, family relations, citizenship, trust in relationships, social inclusion, neighbourhood social capital, wellbeing, habitability and family’s social processes. The synthesized evidence indicates slight effectiveness and efficacy of social and cultural sustainability on the targeted outcomes. Further synthesis revealed that such results of this study are due weak research designs and disintegrated implementations. If architects and other practitioners deliver their interventions in collaboration with research bodies and policy makers, a stronger evidence-base in this area could be generated.

Keywords: Built environment, cultural sustainability, social sustainability, sustainable architecture.

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