Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 238

Search results for: priority scheduling

238 Evaluating per-user Fairness of Goal-Oriented Parallel Computer Job Scheduling Policies

Authors: Sangsuree Vasupongayya

Abstract:

Fair share objective has been included into the goaloriented parallel computer job scheduling policy recently. However, the previous work only presented the overall scheduling performance. Thus, the per-user performance of the policy is still lacking. In this work, the details of per-user fair share performance under the Tradeoff-fs(Tx:avgX) policy will be further evaluated. A basic fair share priority backfill policy namely RelShare(1d) is also studied. The performance of all policies is collected using an event-driven simulator with three real job traces as input. The experimental results show that the high demand users are usually benefited under most policies because their jobs are large or they have a lot of jobs. In the large job case, one job executed may result in over-share during that period. In the other case, the jobs may be backfilled for performances. However, the users with a mixture of jobs may suffer because if the smaller jobs are executing the priority of the remaining jobs from the same user will be lower. Further analysis does not show any significant impact of users with a lot of jobs or users with a large runtime approximation error.

Keywords: deviation, fair share, discrepancy search, priority scheduling.

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237 An Analysis of Real-Time Distributed System under Different Priority Policies

Authors: Y. Jayanta Singh, Suresh C. Mehrotra

Abstract:

A real time distributed computing has heterogeneously networked computers to solve a single problem. So coordination of activities among computers is a complex task and deadlines make more complex. The performances depend on many factors such as traffic workloads, database system architecture, underlying processors, disks speeds, etc. Simulation study have been performed to analyze the performance under different transaction scheduling: different workloads, arrival rate, priority policies, altering slack factors and Preemptive Policy. The performance metric of the experiments is missed percent that is the percentage of transaction that the system is unable to complete. The throughput of the system is depends on the arrival rate of transaction. The performance can be enhanced with altering the slack factor value. Working on slack value for the transaction can helps to avoid some of transactions from killing or aborts. Under the Preemptive Policy, many extra executions of new transactions can be carried out.

Keywords: Real distributed systems, slack factors, transaction scheduling, priority policies.

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236 Enhancing Performance of Bluetooth Piconets Using Priority Scheduling and Exponential Back-Off Mechanism

Authors: Dharmendra Chourishi “Maitraya”, Sridevi Seshadri

Abstract:

Bluetooth is a personal wireless communication technology and is being applied in many scenarios. It is an emerging standard for short range, low cost, low power wireless access technology. Current existing MAC (Medium Access Control) scheduling schemes only provide best-effort service for all masterslave connections. It is very challenging to provide QoS (Quality of Service) support for different connections due to the feature of Master Driven TDD (Time Division Duplex). However, there is no solution available to support both delay and bandwidth guarantees required by real time applications. This paper addresses the issue of how to enhance QoS support in a Bluetooth piconet. The Bluetooth specification proposes a Round Robin scheduler as possible solution for scheduling the transmissions in a Bluetooth Piconet. We propose an algorithm which will reduce the bandwidth waste and enhance the efficiency of network. We define token counters to estimate traffic of real-time slaves. To increase bandwidth utilization, a back-off mechanism is then presented for best-effort slaves to decrease the frequency of polling idle slaves. Simulation results demonstrate that our scheme achieves better performance over the Round Robin scheduling.

Keywords: Piconet, Medium Access Control, Polling algorithm, Scheduling, QoS, Time Division Duplex (TDD).

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235 Soft Real-Time Fuzzy Task Scheduling for Multiprocessor Systems

Authors: Mahdi Hamzeh, Sied Mehdi Fakhraie, Caro Lucas

Abstract:

All practical real-time scheduling algorithms in multiprocessor systems present a trade-off between their computational complexity and performance. In real-time systems, tasks have to be performed correctly and timely. Finding minimal schedule in multiprocessor systems with real-time constraints is shown to be NP-hard. Although some optimal algorithms have been employed in uni-processor systems, they fail when they are applied in multiprocessor systems. The practical scheduling algorithms in real-time systems have not deterministic response time. Deterministic timing behavior is an important parameter for system robustness analysis. The intrinsic uncertainty in dynamic real-time systems increases the difficulties of scheduling problem. To alleviate these difficulties, we have proposed a fuzzy scheduling approach to arrange real-time periodic and non-periodic tasks in multiprocessor systems. Static and dynamic optimal scheduling algorithms fail with non-critical overload. In contrast, our approach balances task loads of the processors successfully while consider starvation prevention and fairness which cause higher priority tasks have higher running probability. A simulation is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Experimental results have shown that the proposed fuzzy scheduler creates feasible schedules for homogeneous and heterogeneous tasks. It also and considers tasks priorities which cause higher system utilization and lowers deadline miss time. According to the results, it performs very close to optimal schedule of uni-processor systems.

Keywords: Computational complexity, Deadline, Feasible scheduling, Fuzzy scheduling, Priority, Real-time multiprocessor systems, Robustness, System utilization.

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234 Decision Tree Based Scheduling for Flexible Job Shops with Multiple Process Plans

Authors: H.-H. Doh, J.-M. Yu, Y.-J. Kwon, J.-H. Shin, H.-W. Kim, S.-H. Nam, D.-H. Lee

Abstract:

This paper suggests a decision tree based approach for flexible job shop scheduling with multiple process plans, i.e. each job can be processed through alternative operations, each of which can be processed on alternative machines. The main decision variables are: (a) selecting operation/machine pair; and (b) sequencing the jobs assigned to each machine. As an extension of the priority scheduling approach that selects the best priority rule combination after many simulation runs, this study suggests a decision tree based approach in which a decision tree is used to select a priority rule combination adequate for a specific system state and hence the burdens required for developing simulation models and carrying out simulation runs can be eliminated. The decision tree based scheduling approach consists of construction and scheduling modules. In the construction module, a decision tree is constructed using a four-stage algorithm, and in the scheduling module, a priority rule combination is selected using the decision tree. To show the performance of the decision tree based approach suggested in this study, a case study was done on a flexible job shop with reconfigurable manufacturing cells and a conventional job shop, and the results are reported by comparing it with individual priority rule combinations for the objectives of minimizing total flow time and total tardiness.

Keywords: Flexible job shop scheduling, Decision tree, Priority rules, Case study.

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233 Multiple Job Shop-Scheduling using Hybrid Heuristic Algorithm

Authors: R.A.Mahdavinejad

Abstract:

In this paper, multi-processors job shop scheduling problems are solved by a heuristic algorithm based on the hybrid of priority dispatching rules according to an ant colony optimization algorithm. The objective function is to minimize the makespan, i.e. total completion time, in which a simultanous presence of various kinds of ferons is allowed. By using the suitable hybrid of priority dispatching rules, the process of finding the best solution will be improved. Ant colony optimization algorithm, not only promote the ability of this proposed algorithm, but also decreases the total working time because of decreasing in setup times and modifying the working production line. Thus, the similar work has the same production lines. Other advantage of this algorithm is that the similar machines (not the same) can be considered. So, these machines are able to process a job with different processing and setup times. According to this capability and from this algorithm evaluation point of view, a number of test problems are solved and the associated results are analyzed. The results show a significant decrease in throughput time. It also shows that, this algorithm is able to recognize the bottleneck machine and to schedule jobs in an efficient way.

Keywords: Job shops scheduling, Priority dispatching rules, Makespan, Hybrid heuristic algorithm.

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232 Scheduling Multiple Workflow Using De-De Dodging Algorithm and PBD Algorithm in Cloud: Detailed Study

Authors: B. Arun Kumar, T. Ravichandran

Abstract:

Workflow scheduling is an important part of cloud computing and based on different criteria it decides cost, execution time, and performances. A cloud workflow system is a platform service facilitating automation of distributed applications based on new cloud infrastructure. An aspect which differentiates cloud workflow system from others is market-oriented business model, an innovation which challenges conventional workflow scheduling strategies. Time and Cost optimization algorithm for scheduling Hybrid Clouds (TCHC) algorithm decides which resource should be chartered from public providers is combined with a new De-De algorithm considering that every instance of single and multiple workflows work without deadlocks. To offset this, two new concepts - De-De Dodging Algorithm and Priority Based Decisive Algorithm - combine with conventional deadlock avoidance issues by proposing one algorithm that maximizes active (not just allocated) resource use and reduces Makespan.

Keywords: Workflow Scheduling, cloud workflow, TCHC algorithm, De-De Dodging Algorithm, Priority Based Decisive Algorithm (PBD), Makespan.

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231 Scheduling for a Reconfigurable Manufacturing System with Multiple Process Plans and Limited Pallets/Fixtures

Authors: Jae-Min Yu, Hyoung-Ho Doh, Ji-Su Kim, Dong-Ho Lee, Sung-Ho Nam

Abstract:

A reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) is an advanced system designed at the outset for rapid changes in its hardware and software components in order to quickly adjust its production capacity and functionally. Among various operational decisions, this study considers the scheduling problem that determines the input sequence and schedule at the same time for a given set of parts. In particular, we consider the practical constraints that the numbers of pallets/fixtures are limited and hence a part can be released into the system only when the fixture required for the part is available. To solve the integrated input sequencing and scheduling problems, we suggest a priority rule based approach in which the two sub-problems are solved using a combination of priority rules. To show the effectiveness of various rule combinations, a simulation experiment was done on the data for a real RMS, and the test results are reported.

Keywords: Reconfigurable manufacturing system, scheduling, priority rules, multiple process plans, pallets/fixtures

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230 SATA: A Web Based Scheduling Support System

Authors: Rajeswari Raju, Saiful Nizam Warris, Hazlifah Mohd Rusli

Abstract:

Developing a university course schedule is difficult. This is due to the limitations in the resources available. The process is made even harder with different faculties or departments having different ways of stating their schedule requirements. The person in charge of taking the schedule requirements and turning them into a proper course schedule is not only burden with the task of allocating the appropriate classes and time to lecturers and students, they also need to understand the schedule requirements. Therefore a scheduling support system named SATA is developed to assist ICRESS in the course scheduling process. SATA has been put to use for several semesters and the results have been encouraging. It won a bronze medal in the 2008 Invention, Innovation and Design competition (IID-08) and has been submitted to be patented in October 2008

Keywords: Course Scheduling, Scheduling Tool Aid.

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229 Proxisch: An Optimization Approach of Large-Scale Unstable Proxy Servers Scheduling

Authors: Xiaoming Jiang, Jinqiao Shi, Qingfeng Tan, Wentao Zhang, Xuebin Wang, Muqian Chen

Abstract:

Nowadays, big companies such as Google, Microsoft, which have adequate proxy servers, have perfectly implemented their web crawlers for a certain website in parallel. But due to lack of expensive proxy servers, it is still a puzzle for researchers to crawl large amounts of information from a single website in parallel. In this case, it is a good choice for researchers to use free public proxy servers which are crawled from the Internet. In order to improve efficiency of web crawler, the following two issues should be considered primarily: (1) Tasks may fail owing to the instability of free proxy servers; (2) A proxy server will be blocked if it visits a single website frequently. In this paper, we propose Proxisch, an optimization approach of large-scale unstable proxy servers scheduling, which allow anyone with extremely low cost to run a web crawler efficiently. Proxisch is designed to work efficiently by making maximum use of reliable proxy servers. To solve second problem, it establishes a frequency control mechanism which can ensure the visiting frequency of any chosen proxy server below the website’s limit. The results show that our approach performs better than the other scheduling algorithms.

Keywords: Proxy server, priority queue, optimization approach, distributed web crawling.

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228 A Genetic Algorithm to Schedule the Flow Shop Problem under Preventive Maintenance Activities

Authors: J. Kaabi, Y. Harrath

Abstract:

This paper studied the flow shop scheduling problem under machine availability constraints. The machines are subject to flexible preventive maintenance activities. The nonresumable scenario for the jobs was considered. That is, when a job is interrupted by an unavailability period of a machine it should be restarted from the beginning. The objective is to minimize the total tardiness time for the jobs and the advance/tardiness for the maintenance activities. To solve the problem, a genetic algorithm was developed and successfully tested and validated on many problem instances. The computational results showed that the new genetic algorithm outperforms another earlier proposed algorithm. 

Keywords: Flow shop scheduling, maintenance, genetic algorithm, priority rules.

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227 Cost and Profit Analysis of Markovian Queuing System with Two Priority Classes: A Computational Approach

Authors: S. S. Mishra, D. K. Yadav

Abstract:

This paper focuses on cost and profit analysis of single-server Markovian queuing system with two priority classes. In this paper, functions of total expected cost, revenue and profit of the system are constructed and subjected to optimization with respect to its service rates of lower and higher priority classes. A computing algorithm has been developed on the basis of fast converging numerical method to solve the system of non linear equations formed out of the mathematical analysis. A novel performance measure of cost and profit analysis in view of its economic interpretation for the system with priority classes is attempted to discuss in this paper. On the basis of computed tables observations are also drawn to enlighten the variational-effect of the model on the parameters involved therein.

Keywords: Cost and Profit, Computing, Expected Revenue, Priority classes

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226 Towards Developing a Self-Explanatory Scheduling System Based on a Hybrid Approach

Authors: Jian Zheng, Yoshiyasu Takahashi, Yuichi Kobayashi, Tatsuhiro Sato

Abstract:

In the study, we present a conceptual framework for developing a scheduling system that can generate self-explanatory and easy-understanding schedules. To this end, a user interface is conceived to help planners record factors that are considered crucial in scheduling, as well as internal and external sources relating to such factors. A hybrid approach combining machine learning and constraint programming is developed to generate schedules and the corresponding factors, and accordingly display them on the user interface. Effects of the proposed system on scheduling are discussed, and it is expected that scheduling efficiency and system understandability will be improved, compared with previous scheduling systems.

Keywords: Constraint programming, Factors considered in scheduling, machine learning, scheduling system.

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225 Combine Duration and "Select the Priority Trip" to Improve the Number of Boats

Authors: Liu Shu, Dong Shangjia

Abstract:

Our goal is to effectively increase the number of boats in the river during a six month period. The main factors of determining the number of boats are duration and “select the priority trip". In the microcosmic simulation model, the best result is 4 to 24 nights with DSCF, and the number of boats is 812 with an increasing ratio of 9.0% related to the second best result. However, the number of boats is related to 31.6% less than the best one in 6 to 18 nights with FCFS. In the discrete duration model, we get from 6 to 18 nights, the numbers of boats have increased to 848 with an increase ratio of 29.7% than the best result in model I for the same time range. Moreover, from 4 to 24 nights, the numbers of boats have increase to 1194 with an increase ratio of 47.0% than the best result in model I for the same time range.

Keywords: Discrete duration model, “select the priority trip”, microcosmic simulation model.

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224 A Study of Priority Evaluation and Resource Allocation for Revitalization of Cultural Heritages in the Urban Development

Authors: Wann-Ming Wey, Yi-Chih Huang

Abstract:

Proper maintenance and preservation of significant cultural heritages or historic buildings is necessary. It can not only enhance environmental benefits and a sense of community, but also preserve a city's history and people’s memory. It allows the next generation to be able to get a glimpse of our past, and achieve the goal of sustainable preserved cultural assets. However, the management of maintenance work has not been appropriate for many designated heritages or historic buildings so far. The planning and implementation of the reuse has yet to have a breakthrough specification. It leads the heritages to a mere formality of being “reserved”, instead of the real meaning of “conservation”. For the restoration and preservation of cultural heritages study issues, it is very important due to the consideration of historical significance, symbolism, and economic benefits effects. However, the decision makers such as the officials from public sector they often encounter which heritage should be prioritized to be restored first under the available limited budgets. Only very few techniques are available today to determine the appropriately restoration priorities for the diverse historical heritages, perhaps because of a lack of systematized decision-making aids been proposed before. In the past, the discussions of management and maintenance towards cultural assets were limited to the selection of reuse alternatives instead of the allocation of resources. In view of this, this research will adopt some integrated research methods to solve the existing problems that decision-makers might encounter when allocating resources in the management and maintenance of heritages and historic buildings.

The purpose of this study is to develop a sustainable decision making model for local governments to resolve these problems. We propose an alternative decision support model to prioritize restoration needs within the limited budgets. The model is constructed based on fuzzy Delphi, fuzzy analysis network process (FANP) and goal programming (GP) methods. In order to avoid misallocate resources; this research proposes a precise procedure that can take multi-stakeholders views, limited costs and resources into consideration. Also, the combination of many factors and goals has been taken into account to find the highest priority and feasible solution results. To illustrate the approach we propose in this research, seven cultural heritages in Taipei city as one example has been used as an empirical study, and the results are in depth analyzed to explain the application of our proposed approach.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Historic Buildings, Priority Evaluation, Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Goal Programming, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process, Resource Allocation.

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223 Strategic Priority of Green ICT Policy in Korea: Applying Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Yong Ho Shim, Ki Youn Kim, Ji Yeon Cho, Jin Kyung Park, Bong Gyou Lee

Abstract:

This study considers priorities of primary goals to increase policy efficiency of Green ICT. Recently several studies have been published that address how IT is linked to climate change. However, most of the previous studies are limited to Green ICT industrial statute and policy directions. This paper present Green ICT policy making processes systematically. As a result of the analysis of Korean Green ICT policy, the following emerged as important to accomplish for Green ICT policy: eco-friendliness, technology evolution, economic efficiency, energy efficiency, and stable supply of energy. This is an initial study analyzing Green ICT policy, which provides an academic framework that can be used a guideline to establish Green ICT policy.

Keywords: AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process), Case Study, Green ICT, Policy Priority

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222 Stochastic Scheduling to Minimize Expected Lateness in Multiple Identical Machines

Authors: Ghulam Zakria, Zailin Guan , Yasser Riaz Awan, Wan Lizhi

Abstract:

There are many real world problems in which parameters like the arrival time of new jobs, failure of resources, and completion time of jobs change continuously. This paper tackles the problem of scheduling jobs with random due dates on multiple identical machines in a stochastic environment. First to assign jobs to different machine centers LPT scheduling methods have been used, after that the particular sequence of jobs to be processed on the machine have been found using simple stochastic techniques. The performance parameter under consideration has been the maximum lateness concerning the stochastic due dates which are independent and exponentially distributed. At the end a relevant problem has been solved using the techniques in the paper..

Keywords: Quantity Production Flow Shop, LPT Scheduling, Stochastic Scheduling, Maximum Lateness, Random Due Dates

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221 Flexible Wormhole-Switched Network-on-chip with Two-Level Priority Data Delivery Service

Authors: Faizal A. Samman, Thomas Hollstein, Manfred Glesner

Abstract:

A synchronous network-on-chip using wormhole packet switching and supporting guaranteed-completion best-effort with low-priority (LP) and high-priority (HP) wormhole packet delivery service is presented in this paper. Both our proposed LP and HP message services deliver a good quality of service in term of lossless packet completion and in-order message data delivery. However, the LP message service does not guarantee minimal completion bound. The HP packets will absolutely use 100% bandwidth of their reserved links if the HP packets are injected from the source node with maximum injection. Hence, the service are suitable for small size messages (less than hundred bytes). Otherwise the other HP and LP messages, which require also the links, will experience relatively high latency depending on the size of the HP message. The LP packets are routed using a minimal adaptive routing, while the HP packets are routed using a non-minimal adaptive routing algorithm. Therefore, an additional 3-bit field, identifying the packet type, is introduced in their packet headers to classify and to determine the type of service committed to the packet. Our NoC prototypes have been also synthesized using a 180-nm CMOS standard-cell technology to evaluate the cost of implementing the combination of both services.

Keywords: Network-on-Chip, Parallel Pipeline Router Architecture, Wormhole Switching, Two-Level Priority Service.

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220 The Simulation and Realization of Input-Buffer Scheduling Algorithm in Satellite Switching System

Authors: Yi Zhang, Quan Zhou, Jun Li, Yanlang Hu

Abstract:

Scheduling algorithm is a key technology in satellite switching system with input-buffer. In this paper, a new scheduling algorithm and its realization are proposed. Based on Crossbar switching fabric, the algorithm adopts serial scheduling strategy and adjusts the output port arbitrating strategy for the better equity of every port. Consequently, it increases the matching probability. The algorithm can greatly reduce the scheduling delay and cell loss rate. The analysis and simulation results by OPNET show that the proposed algorithm has the better performance than others in average delay and cell loss rate, and has the equivalent complexity. On the basis of these results, the hardware realization and simulation based on FPGA are completed, which validate the feasibility of the new scheduling algorithm.

Keywords: Scheduling algorithm, input-buffer, serial scheduling, hardware design.

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219 Feedback-Controlled Server for Scheduling Aperiodic Tasks

Authors: Shinpei Kato, Nobuyuki Yamasaki

Abstract:

This paper proposes a scheduling scheme using feedback control to reduce the response time of aperiodic tasks with soft real-time constraints. We design an algorithm based on the proposed scheduling scheme and Total Bandwidth Server (TBS) that is a conventional server technique for scheduling aperiodic tasks. We then describe the feedback controller of the algorithm and give the control parameter tuning methods. The simulation study demonstrates that the algorithm can reduce the mean response time up to 26% compared to TBS in exchange for slight deadline misses.

Keywords: Real-Time Systems, Aperiodic Task Scheduling, Feedback-Control Scheduling, Total Bandwidth Server.

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218 A Genetic Algorithm with Priority Selection for the Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Cha-Hwa Lin, Je-Wei Hu

Abstract:

The conventional GA combined with a local search algorithm, such as the 2-OPT, forms a hybrid genetic algorithm(HGA) for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). However, the geometric properties which are problem specific knowledge can be used to improve the search process of the HGA. Some tour segments (edges) of TSPs are fine while some maybe too long to appear in a short tour. This knowledge could constrain GAs to work out with fine tour segments without considering long tour segments as often. Consequently, a new algorithm is proposed, called intelligent-OPT hybrid genetic algorithm (IOHGA), to improve the GA and the 2-OPT algorithm in order to reduce the search time for the optimal solution. Based on the geometric properties, all the tour segments are assigned 2-level priorities to distinguish between good and bad genes. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the IOHGA. The experimental results indicate that in general the IOHGA could obtain near-optimal solutions with less time and better accuracy than the hybrid genetic algorithm with simulated annealing algorithm (HGA(SA)).

Keywords: Traveling salesman problem, hybrid geneticalgorithm, priority selection, 2-OPT.

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217 Proposing a Pareto-based Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Seyed Habib A. Rahmati

Abstract:

During last decades, developing multi-objective evolutionary algorithms for optimization problems has found considerable attention. Flexible job shop scheduling problem, as an important scheduling optimization problem, has found this attention too. However, most of the multi-objective algorithms that are developed for this problem use nonprofessional approaches. In another words, most of them combine their objectives and then solve multi-objective problem through single objective approaches. Of course, except some scarce researches that uses Pareto-based algorithms. Therefore, in this paper, a new Pareto-based algorithm called controlled elitism non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (CENSGA) is proposed for the multi-objective FJSP (MOFJSP). Our considered objectives are makespan, critical machine work load, and total work load of machines. The proposed algorithm is also compared with one the best Pareto-based algorithms of the literature on some multi-objective criteria, statistically.

Keywords: Scheduling, Flexible job shop scheduling problem, controlled elitism non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

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216 Performance Analysis of OQSMS and MDDR Scheduling Algorithms for IQ Switches

Authors: K. Navaz, Kannan Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Due to the increasing growth of internet users, the emerging applications of multicast are growing day by day and there is a requisite for the design of high-speed switches/routers. Huge amounts of effort have been done into the research area of multicast switch fabric design and algorithms. Different traffic scenarios are the influencing factor which affect the throughput and delay of the switch. The pointer based multicast scheduling algorithms are not performed well under non-uniform traffic conditions. In this work, performance of the switch has been analyzed by applying the advanced multicast scheduling algorithm OQSMS (Optimal Queue Selection Based Multicast Scheduling Algorithm), MDDR (Multicast Due Date Round-Robin Scheduling Algorithm) and MDRR (Multicast Dual Round-Robin Scheduling Algorithm). The results show that OQSMS achieves better switching performance than other algorithms under the uniform, non-uniform and bursty traffic conditions and it estimates optimal queue in each time slot so that it achieves maximum possible throughput.

Keywords: Multicast, Switch, Delay, Scheduling.

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215 Design Considerations of Scheduling Systems Suitable for PCB Manufacturing

Authors: Oscar Fernandez-Flores, Tony Speer, Rodney Day

Abstract:

This paper identifies five key design characteristics of production scheduling software systems in printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. The authors consider that, in addition to an effective scheduling engine, a scheduling system should be able to process a preventative maintenance calendar, to give the user the flexibility to handle data using a variety of electronic sources, to run simulations to support decision-making, and to have simple and customisable graphical user interfaces. These design considerations were the result of a review of academic literature, the evaluation of commercial applications and a compilation of requirements of a PCB manufacturer. It was found that, from those systems that were evaluated, those that effectively addressed all five characteristics outlined in this paper were the most robust of all and could be used in PCB manufacturing.

Keywords: Decision-making, ERP, PCB, scheduling.

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214 Analysis of Heuristic Based Hybrid Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Multiprocessor Task Scheduling

Authors: Supriya Arya, Sunita Dhingra

Abstract:

Multiprocessor task scheduling problem for dependent and independent tasks is computationally complex problem. Many methods are proposed to achieve optimal running time. As the multiprocessor task scheduling is NP hard in nature, therefore, many heuristics are proposed which have improved the makespan of the problem. But due to problem specific nature, the heuristic method which provide best results for one problem, might not provide good results for another problem. So, Simulated Annealing which is meta heuristic approach is considered. It can be applied on all types of problems. However, due to many runs, meta heuristic approach takes large computation time. Hence, the hybrid approach is proposed by combining the Duplication Scheduling Heuristic and Simulated Annealing (SA) and the makespan results of Simple Simulated Annealing and Hybrid approach are analyzed.

Keywords: Multiprocessor task scheduling Problem, Makespan, Duplication Scheduling Heuristic, Simulated Annealing, Hybrid Approach.

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213 Comparative Study of Scheduling Algorithms for LTE Networks

Authors: Samia Dardouri, Ridha Bouallegue

Abstract:

Scheduling is the process of dynamically allocating physical resources to User Equipment (UE) based on scheduling algorithms implemented at the LTE base station. Various algorithms have been proposed by network researchers as the implementation of scheduling algorithm which represents an open issue in Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard. This paper makes an attempt to study and compare the performance of PF, MLWDF and EXP/PF scheduling algorithms. The evaluation is considered for a single cell with interference scenario for different flows such as Best effort, Video and VoIP in a pedestrian and vehicular environment using the LTE-Sim network simulator. The comparative study is conducted in terms of system throughput, fairness index, delay, packet loss ratio (PLR) and total cell spectral efficiency.

Keywords: LTE, Multimedia flows, Scheduling algorithms.

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212 A Performance Analysis of Different Scheduling Schemes in WiMAX

Authors: A. Youseef

Abstract:

IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) aims to present high speed wireless access to cover wide range coverage. The base station (BS) and the subscriber station (SS) are the main parts of WiMAX. WiMAX uses either Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) or mesh topologies. In the PMP mode, the SSs connect to the BS to gain access to the network. However, in the mesh mode, the SSs connect to each other to gain access to the BS. The main components of QoS management in the 802.16 standard are the admission control, buffer management and packet scheduling. In this paper, we use QualNet 5.0.2 to study the performance of different scheduling schemes, such as WFQ, SCFQ, RR and SP when the numbers of SSs increase. We find that when the number of SSs increases, the average jitter and average end-to-end delay is increased and the throughput is reduced.

Keywords: WiMAX, Scheduling Scheme, QoS, QualNet.

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211 A New Scheduling Algorithm Based on Traffic Classification Using Imprecise Computation

Authors: Farzad Abtahi, Sahar Khanmohamadi, Bahram Sadeghi Bigham

Abstract:

Wireless channels are characterized by more serious bursty and location-dependent errors. Many packet scheduling algorithms have been proposed for wireless networks to guarantee fairness and delay bounds. However, most existing schemes do not consider the difference of traffic natures among packet flows. This will cause the delay-weight coupling problem. In particular, serious queuing delays may be incurred for real-time flows. In this paper, it is proposed a scheduling algorithm that takes traffic types of flows into consideration when scheduling packets and also it is provided scheduling flexibility by trading off video quality to meet the playback deadline.

Keywords: Data communication, Real-time, Scheduling, Video transport.

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210 Flexible Heuristics for Project Scheduling with Limited Resources

Authors: Miloš Šeda

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Resource-constrained project scheduling is an NPhard optimisation problem. There are many different heuristic strategies how to shift activities in time when resource requirements exceed their available amounts. These strategies are frequently based on priorities of activities. In this paper, we assume that a suitable heuristic has been chosen to decide which activities should be performed immediately and which should be postponed and investigate the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) from the implementation point of view. We propose an efficient routine that, instead of shifting the activities, extends their duration. It makes it possible to break down their duration into active and sleeping subintervals. Then we can apply the classical Critical Path Method that needs only polynomial running time. This algorithm can simply be adapted for multiproject scheduling with limited resources.

Keywords: Project management, resource-constrained scheduling, NP-hard problem, CPM, heuristic method.

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209 A Power-Controlled Scheduling Scheme Using a Directional Antenna in Smart Home

Authors: Yongsun Kim, Hoyong Kang

Abstract:

This paper proposes a power-controlled scheduling scheme for devices using a directional antenna in smart home. In the case of the home network using directional antenna, devices can concurrently transmit data in the same frequency band. Accordingly, the throughput increases compared to that of devices using omni-directional antenna in proportional to the number of concurrent transmissions. Also, the number of concurrent transmissions depends on the beamwidth of antenna, the number of devices operating in the network , transmission power, interference and so on. In particular, the less transmission power is used, the more concurrent transmissions occur due to small transmission range. In this paper, we considered sub-optimal scheduling scheme for throughput maximization and power consumption minimization. In the scheme, each device is equipped with a directional antenna. Various beamwidths, path loss components, and antenna radiation efficiencies are considered. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes outperform the scheduling scheme using directional antennas without power control.

Keywords: Mmwave WPANs, directional scheduling, power-controlled scheduling scheme, smart home.

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