Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2200

Search results for: primal-dual interior point method

2200 On the Sphere Method of Linear Programming Using Multiple Interior Points Approach

Authors: Job H. Domingo, Carolina Bancayrin-Baguio

Abstract:

The Sphere Method is a flexible interior point algorithm for linear programming problems. This was developed mainly by Professor Katta G. Murty. It consists of two steps, the centering step and the descent step. The centering step is the most expensive part of the algorithm. In this centering step we proposed some improvements such as introducing two or more initial feasible solutions as we solve for the more favorable new solution by objective value while working with the rigorous updates of the feasible region along with some ideas integrated in the descent step. An illustration is given confirming the advantage of using the proposed procedure.

Keywords: Interior point, linear programming, sphere method, initial feasible solution, feasible region, centering and descent steps, optimal solution.

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2199 Weighted Harmonic Arnoldi Method for Large Interior Eigenproblems

Authors: Zhengsheng Wang, Jing Qi, Chuntao Liu, Yuanjun Li

Abstract:

The harmonic Arnoldi method can be used to find interior eigenpairs of large matrices. However, it has been shown that this method may converge erratically and even may fail to do so. In this paper, we present a new method for computing interior eigenpairs of large nonsymmetric matrices, which is called weighted harmonic Arnoldi method. The implementation of the method has been tested by numerical examples, the results show that the method converges fast and works with high accuracy.

Keywords: Harmonic Arnoldi method, weighted harmonic Arnoldi method, eigenpair, interior eigenproblem, non symmetric matrix.

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2198 A Constructive Proof of the General Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem and Related Computational Results in General Non-Convex sets

Authors: Menglong Su, Shaoyun Shi, Qing Xu

Abstract:

In this paper, by introducing twice continuously differentiable mappings, we develop an interior path following following method, which enables us to give a constructive proof of the general Brouwer fixed point theorem and thus to solve fixed point problems in a class of non-convex sets. Under suitable conditions, a smooth path can be proven to exist. This can lead to an implementable globally convergent algorithm. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the results of this paper.

Keywords: interior path following method, general Brouwer fixed point theorem, non-convex sets, globally convergent algorithm

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2197 A Microcontroller Implementation of Constrained Model Predictive Control

Authors: Amira Kheriji Abbes, Faouzi Bouani, Mekki Ksouri

Abstract:

Model Predictive Control (MPC) is an established control technique in a wide range of process industries. The reason for this success is its ability to handle multivariable systems and systems having input, output or state constraints. Neverthless comparing to PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in miniaturized devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and microcontrollers has historically been very small scale due to its complexity in implementation and its computation time requirement. At the same time, such embedded technologies have become an enabler for future manufacturing enterprisers as well as a transformer of organizations and markets. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and applied control technique in the industrial engineering. In this paper, we propose an efficient firmware for the implementation of constrained MPC in the performed STM32 microcontroller using interior point method. Indeed, performances study shows good execution speed and low computational burden. These results encourage to develop predictive control algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard processes. The PID anti windup controller was also implemented in the STM32 in order to make a performance comparison with the MPC. The main features of the proposed constrained MPC framework are illustrated through two examples.

Keywords: Embedded software, microcontroller, constrainedModel Predictive Control, interior point method, PID antiwindup, Keil tool, C/Cµ language.

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2196 An Efficient Tool for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance with Reactive Power Control of Distributed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

With the rapid increase of grid-connected PV systems over the last decades, genuine challenges have arisen for engineers and professionals of energy field in the planning and operation of existing distribution networks with the integration of new generation sources. However, the conventional distribution network, in its design was not expected to receive other generation outside the main power supply. The tools generally used to analyze the networks become inefficient and cannot take into account all the constraints related to the operation of grid-connected PV systems. Some of these constraints are voltage control difficulty, reverse power flow, and especially voltage unbalance which could be due to the poor distribution of single-phase PV systems in the network. In order to analyze the impact of the connection of small and large number of PV systems to the distribution networks, this paper presents an efficient optimization tool that minimizes voltage unbalance in three-phase distribution networks with active and reactive power injections from the allocation of single-phase and three-phase PV plants. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. Good reduction of voltage unbalance can be achieved by reactive power control of the PV systems. The presented tool is based on the three-phase current injection method and the PV systems are modeled via an equivalent circuit. The primal-dual interior point method is used to obtain the optimal operating points for the systems.

Keywords: Photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method, three-phase optimal power flow, unbalanced system.

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2195 A Finite Point Method Based on Directional Derivatives for Diffusion Equation

Authors: Guixia Lv, Longjun Shen

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite point method based on directional derivatives for diffusion equation on 2D scattered points. To discretize the diffusion operator at a given point, a six-point stencil is derived by employing explicit numerical formulae of directional derivatives, namely, for the point under consideration, only five neighbor points are involved, the number of which is the smallest for discretizing diffusion operator with first-order accuracy. A method for selecting neighbor point set is proposed, which satisfies the solvability condition of numerical derivatives. Some numerical examples are performed to show the good performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Finite point method, directional derivatives, diffusionequation, method for selecting neighbor point set.

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2194 Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.

Keywords: Distribution system, losses, photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method, reactive power control.

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2193 Perturbation Based Search Method for Solving Unconstrained Binary Quadratic Programming Problem

Authors: Muthu Solayappan, Kien Ming Ng, Kim Leng Poh

Abstract:

This paper presents a perturbation based search method to solve the unconstrained binary quadratic programming problem. The proposed algorithm was tested with some of the standard test problems and the results are reported for 10 instances of 50, 100, 250, & 500 variable problems. A comparison of the performance of the proposed algorithm with other heuristics and optimization software is made. Based on the results, it was found that the proposed algorithm is computationally inexpensive and the solutions obtained match the best known solutions for smaller sized problems. For larger instances, the algorithm is capable of finding a solution within 0.11% of the best known solution. Apart from being used as a stand-alone method, this algorithm could also be incorporated with other heuristics to find better solutions.

Keywords: unconstrained binary quadratic programming, perturbation, interior point methods

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2192 Dynamic Meshing for Material Point Method Computations

Authors: Wookuen Shin, Gregory R. Miller, Pedro Arduino, Peter Mackenzie-Helnwein

Abstract:

This paper presents strategies for dynamically creating, managing and removing mesh cells during computations in the context of the Material Point Method (MPM). The dynamic meshing approach has been developed to help address problems involving motion of a finite size body in unbounded domains in which the extent of material travel and deformation is unknown a priori, such as in the case of landslides and debris flows. The key idea is to efficiently instantiate and search only cells that contain material points, thereby avoiding unneeded storage and computation. Mechanisms for doing this efficiently are presented, and example problems are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of dynamic mesh management relative to alternative approaches.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Material Point Method, Large Deformations, Moving Boundaries.

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2191 The Interior Design Proposals of Buildings for Tourism Purposes

Authors: Şebnem Ertaş

Abstract:

“Architecture” is one component of sustainable cultural tourism. The sustainability of architecture is possible through preservation and restoration activities. In Turkey, which has an important place in the world’s cultural heritage, several studies focused on the sustainability of the cultural heritage were done in terms of the principles of “preserve-use-sustain”. Within the scope of this study, a methodology will be proposed in order to obtain the development of different scenarios supporting sustainable tourism. Sille is an ancient village located on the Spice Road and Silk Road dating back to the Ottoman and Seljuk eras. However, in recent years it is protected as an archeological site. In the “Alternative Project Phase”, the streets and buildings which bring dynamism to trade are determined; among these, 10 major buildings in Hacı Ali Ağa Street are studied.

Keywords: Tourism, cultural tourism, sustainability of architecture, interior design, Sille.

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2190 Hygric Performance of a Sandstone Wall Retrofitted with Interior Thermal Insulation

Authors: J. Maděra, M. Jerman, R. Černý

Abstract:

Temperature, relative humidity and overhygroscopic moisture fields in a sandstone wall provided with interior thermal insulation were calculated in order to assess the hygric performance of the retrofitted wall. Computational simulations showed that during the time period of 10 years which was subject of investigation no overhygroscopic moisture appeared in the analyzed building envelope so that it performed in a satisfactory way from the hygric point of view.

Keywords: Sandstone wall, interior thermal insulation, moisture, computational modeling.

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2189 New Fourth Order Explicit Group Method in the Solution of the Helmholtz Equation

Authors: Norhashidah Hj. Mohd Ali, Teng Wai Ping

Abstract:

In this paper, the formulation of a new group explicit method with a fourth order accuracy is described in solving the two dimensional Helmholtz equation. The formulation is based on the nine-point fourth order compact finite difference approximation formula. The complexity analysis of the developed scheme is also presented. Several numerical experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of the developed scheme. Comparisons with other existing schemes will be reported and discussed. Preliminary results indicate that this method is a viable alternative high accuracy solver to the Helmholtz equation.

Keywords: Explicit group method, finite difference, Helmholtz equation, five-point formula, nine-point formula.

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2188 A Method of Planar-Template- Based Camera Self-Calibration for Single-View

Authors: Yue Zhao, Chao Li

Abstract:

Camera calibration is an important step in 3D reconstruction. Camera calibration may be classified into two major types: traditional calibration and self-calibration. However, a calibration method in using a checkerboard is intermediate between traditional calibration and self-calibration. A self is proposed based on a square in this paper. Only a square in the planar template, the camera self-calibration can be completed through the single view. The proposed algorithm is that the virtual circle and straight line are established by a square on planar template, and circular points, vanishing points in straight lines and the relation between them are be used, in order to obtain the image of the absolute conic (IAC) and establish the camera intrinsic parameters. To make the calibration template is simpler, as compared with the Zhang Zhengyou-s method. Through real experiments and experiments, the experimental results show that this algorithm is feasible and available, and has a certain precision and robustness.

Keywords: Absolute conic, camera calibration, circle point, vanishing point.

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2187 Study on Numerical Simulation Applied to Moisture Buffering Design Method – The Case Study of Pine Wood in a Single Zone Residential Unit in Taiwan

Authors: Y.C. Yeh, Y.S. Tsay, C.M. Chiang

Abstract:

A good green building design project, designers should consider not only energy consumption, but also healthy and comfortable needs of inhabitants. In recent years, the Taiwan government paid attentions on both carbon reduction and indoor air quality issues, which be presented in the legislation of Building Codes and other regulations. Taiwan located in hot and humid climates, dampness in buildings leads to significant microbial pollution and building damage. This means that the high temperature and humidity present a serious indoor air quality issue. The interactions between vapor transfers and energy fluxes are essential for the whole building Heat Air and Moisture (HAM) response. However, a simulation tool with short calculation time, property accuracy and interface is needed for practical building design processes. In this research, we consider the vapor transfer phenomenon of building materials as well as temperature and humidity and energy consumption in a building space. The simulation bases on the EMPD method, which was performed by EnergyPlus, a simulation tool developed by DOE, to simulate the indoor moisture variation in a one-zone residential unit based on the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Method, which is more suitable for practical building design processes.

Keywords: Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Method, Moisture Buffering Effect, Interior Material, Green Material, EnergyPlus

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2186 A Source Point Distribution Scheme for Wave-Body Interaction Problem

Authors: Aichun Feng, Zhi-Min Chen, Jing Tang Xing

Abstract:

A two-dimensional linear wave-body interaction problem can be solved using a desingularized integral method by placing free surface Rankine sources over calm water surface and satisfying boundary conditions at prescribed collocation points on the calm water surface. A new free-surface Rankine source distribution scheme, determined by the intersection points of free surface and body surface, is developed to reduce numerical computation cost. Associated with this, a new treatment is given to the intersection point. The present scheme results are in good agreement with traditional numerical results and measurements.

Keywords: Source point distribution, panel method, Rankine source, desingularized algorithm.

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2185 Behavioral Response of Dogs to Interior Environment: An Exploratory Study on Design Parameters for Designing Dog Boarding Centers in Indian Context

Authors: M. R. Akshaya, Veena Rao

Abstract:

Pet population in India is increasing phenomenally owing to the changes in urban lifestyle with increasing number of single professionals, single parents, delayed parenthood etc. The animal companionship as a means of reducing stress levels, deriving emotional support, and unconditional love provided by dogs are a few reasons attributed for increasing pet ownership. The consequence is the booming of the pet care products and dog care centers catering to the different requirements of rearing the pets. Dog care centers quite popular in tier 1 metros of India cater to the requirement of the dog owners providing space for the dogs in absence of the owner. However, it is often reported that the absence of the owner leads to destructive and exploratory behavior issues; the main being the anxiety disorders. In the above context, it becomes imperative for a designer to design dog boarding centers that help in reducing the separation anxiety in dogs keeping in mind the different interior design parameters. An exploratory research with focus group discussion is employed involving a group of dog owners, behaviorists, proprietors of day care as well as boarding centers, and veterinarians to understand their perception on the significance of different interior parameters of color, texture, ventilation, aroma therapy and acoustics as a means of reducing the stress levels in dogs sent to the boarding centers. The data collected is organized as thematic networks thus enabling the listing of the interior design parameters that needs to be considered in designing dog boarding centers. 

Keywords: Behavioral response, design parameters, dog boarding centers, interior environment.

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2184 Extended Cubic B-spline Interpolation Method Applied to Linear Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

Authors: Nur Nadiah Abd Hamid, Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail

Abstract:

Linear two-point boundary value problem of order two is solved using extended cubic B-spline interpolation method. There is one free parameters, λ, that control the tension of the solution curve. For some λ, this method produced better results than cubic B-spline interpolation method.

Keywords: two-point boundary value problem, B-spline, extendedcubic B-spline.

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2183 Error Propagation of the Hidden-Point Bar Method: Effect of Bar Geometry

Authors: Said M. Easa, Ahmed Shaker

Abstract:

The hidden-point bar method is useful in many surveying applications. The method involves determining the coordinates of a hidden point as a function of horizontal and vertical angles measured to three fixed points on the bar. Using these measurements, the procedure involves calculating the slant angles, the distances from the station to the fixed points, the coordinates of the fixed points, and then the coordinates of the hidden point. The propagation of the measurement errors in this complex process has not been fully investigated in the literature. This paper evaluates the effect of the bar geometry on the position accuracy of the hidden point which depends on the measurement errors of the horizontal and vertical angles. The results are used to establish some guidelines regarding the inclination angle of the bar and the location of the observed points that provide the best accuracy.

Keywords: Hidden point, accuracy, error propagation, surveying, evaluation, simulation, geometry.

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2182 Research on Urban Point of Interest Generalization Method Based on Mapping Presentation

Authors: Chengming Li, Yong Yin, Peipei Guo, Xiaoli Liu

Abstract:

Without taking account of the attribute richness of POI (point of interest) data and spatial distribution limited by roads, a POI generalization method considering both attribute information and spatial distribution has been proposed against the existing point generalization algorithm merely focusing on overall information of point groups. Hierarchical characteristic of urban POI information expression has been firstly analyzed to point out the measurement feature of the corresponding hierarchy. On this basis, an urban POI generalizing strategy has been put forward: POIs urban road network have been divided into three distribution pattern; corresponding generalization methods have been proposed according to the characteristic of POI data in different distribution patterns. Experimental results showed that the method taking into account both attribute information and spatial distribution characteristics of POI can better implement urban POI generalization in the mapping presentation.

Keywords: POI, Road network, spatial information expression, selection method, distribution pattern.

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2181 Comparison of an Interior Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with a Synchronous Reluctance Generator for a Wind Application

Authors: Poopak Roshanfekr, Torbjörn Thiringer, Sonja Lundmark, Mikael Alatalo

Abstract:

This article presents a performance comparison of an interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG) with a synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG) with the same size for a wind application. It is found that using the same geometrical dimensions, a SynRG can convert 74 % of the power that an IPMSG can convert, while it has 80% of the IPMSG weight. Moreover it is found that the efficieny for the IMPSG is 99% at rated power compared to 98.7% for the SynRG.

Keywords: Interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG), synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG), wind energy, annual energy efficiency.

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2180 Homotopy Analysis Method for Hydromagnetic Plane and Axisymmetric Stagnation-point Flow with Velocity Slip

Authors: Jing Zhu, Liancun Zheng, Xinxin Zhang

Abstract:

This work is focused on the steady boundary layer flow near the forward stagnation point of plane and axisymmetric bodies towards a stretching sheet. The no slip condition on the solid boundary is replaced by the partial slip condition. The analytical solutions for the velocity distributions are obtained for the various values of the ratio of free stream velocity and stretching velocity, slip parameter, the suction and injection velocity parameter, magnetic parameter and dimensionality index parameter in the series forms with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). Convergence of the series is explicitly discussed. Results show that the flow and the skin friction coefficient depend heavily on the velocity slip factor. In addition, the effects of all the parameters mentioned above were more pronounced for plane flows than for axisymmetric flows.

Keywords: slip flow, axisymmetric flow, homotopy analysismethod, stagnation-point.

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2179 Balancing of Quad Tree using Point Pattern Analysis

Authors: Amitava Chakraborty, Sudip Kumar De, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

Point quad tree is considered as one of the most common data organizations to deal with spatial data & can be used to increase the efficiency for searching the point features. As the efficiency of the searching technique depends on the height of the tree, arbitrary insertion of the point features may make the tree unbalanced and lead to higher time of searching. This paper attempts to design an algorithm to make a nearly balanced quad tree. Point pattern analysis technique has been applied for this purpose which shows a significant enhancement of the performance and the results are also included in the paper for the sake of completeness.

Keywords: Algorithm, Height balanced tree, Point patternanalysis, Point quad tree.

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2178 Intuitionistic Fuzzy Points in Semigroups

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sardar Manasi Mandal Samit Kumar Majumder

Abstract:

The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. Y.B. Jun and S.Z. Song introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy points. In this paper we find some relations between the intuitionistic fuzzy ideals of a semigroup S and the set of all intuitionistic fuzzy points of S.

Keywords: Semigroup, Regular(intra-regular) semigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy point, Intuitionistic fuzzy subsemigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy interior ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy semiprime ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy prime ideal.

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2177 2 – Block 3 - Point Modified Numerov Block Methods for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Abdu Masanawa Sagir

Abstract:

In this paper, linear multistep technique using power series as the basis function is used to develop the block methods which are suitable for generating direct solution of the special second order ordinary differential equations of the form y′′ = f(x,y), a < = x < = b with associated initial or boundary conditions. The continuaous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain two different three discrete schemes, each of order (4,4,4)T, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. The computational burden and computer time wastage involved in the usual reduction of second order problem into system of first order equations are avoided by this approach. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on linear and non-linear ordinary differential equations whose solutions are oscillatory or nearly periodic in nature, and the results obtained compared favourably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Block Method, Hybrid, Linear Multistep Method, Self – starting, Special Second Order.

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2176 Accurate Visualization of Graphs of Functions of Two Real Variables

Authors: Zeitoun D. G., Thierry Dana-Picard

Abstract:

The study of a real function of two real variables can be supported by visualization using a Computer Algebra System (CAS). One type of constraints of the system is due to the algorithms implemented, yielding continuous approximations of the given function by interpolation. This often masks discontinuities of the function and can provide strange plots, not compatible with the mathematics. In recent years, point based geometry has gained increasing attention as an alternative surface representation, both for efficient rendering and for flexible geometry processing of complex surfaces. In this paper we present different artifacts created by mesh surfaces near discontinuities and propose a point based method that controls and reduces these artifacts. A least squares penalty method for an automatic generation of the mesh that controls the behavior of the chosen function is presented. The special feature of this method is the ability to improve the accuracy of the surface visualization near a set of interior points where the function may be discontinuous. The present method is formulated as a minimax problem and the non uniform mesh is generated using an iterative algorithm. Results show that for large poorly conditioned matrices, the new algorithm gives more accurate results than the classical preconditioned conjugate algorithm.

Keywords: Function singularities, mesh generation, point allocation, visualization, collocation least squares method, Augmented Lagrangian method, Uzawa's Algorithm, Preconditioned Conjugate Gradien

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2175 Proximal Parallel Alternating Direction Method for Monotone Structured Variational Inequalities

Authors: Min Sun, Jing Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we focus on the alternating direction method, which is one of the most effective methods for solving structured variational inequalities(VI). In fact, we propose a proximal parallel alternating direction method which only needs to solve two strongly monotone sub-VI problems at each iteration. Convergence of the new method is proved under mild assumptions. We also present some preliminary numerical results, which indicate that the new method is quite efficient.

Keywords: structured variational inequalities, proximal point method, global convergence

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2174 Dimension Free Rigid Point Set Registration in Linear Time

Authors: Jianqin Qu

Abstract:

This paper proposes a rigid point set matching algorithm in arbitrary dimensions based on the idea of symmetric covariant function. A group of functions of the points in the set are formulated using rigid invariants. Each of these functions computes a pair of correspondence from the given point set. Then the computed correspondences are used to recover the unknown rigid transform parameters. Each computed point can be geometrically interpreted as the weighted mean center of the point set. The algorithm is compact, fast, and dimension free without any optimization process. It either computes the desired transform for noiseless data in linear time, or fails quickly in exceptional cases. Experimental results for synthetic data and 2D/3D real data are provided, which demonstrate potential applications of the algorithm to a wide range of problems.

Keywords: Covariant point, point matching, dimension free, rigid registration.

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2173 Numerical Analysis of Thermal Conductivity of Non-Charring Material Ablation Carbon-Carbon and Graphite with Considering Chemical Reaction Effects, Mass Transfer and Surface Heat Transfer

Authors: H. Mohammadiun, A. Kianifar, A. Kargar

Abstract:

Nowadays, there is little information, concerning the heat shield systems, and this information is not completely reliable to use in so many cases. for example, the precise calculation cannot be done for various materials. In addition, the real scale test has two disadvantages: high cost and low flexibility, and for each case we must perform a new test. Hence, using numerical modeling program that calculates the surface recession rate and interior temperature distribution is necessary. Also, numerical solution of governing equation for non-charring material ablation is presented in order to anticipate the recession rate and the heat response of non-charring heat shields. the governing equation is nonlinear and the Newton- Rafson method along with TDMA algorithm is used to solve this nonlinear equation system. Using Newton- Rafson method for solving the governing equation is one of the advantages of the solving method because this method is simple and it can be easily generalized to more difficult problems. The obtained results compared with reliable sources in order to examine the accuracy of compiling code.

Keywords: Ablation rate, surface recession, interior temperaturedistribution, non charring material ablation, Newton Rafson method.

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2172 Effective Security Method for Wireless LAN using Life-Cycle of Wireless Access Point

Authors: Soon-Tai Park, Haeryong Park, Myoung-sun Noh, Yoo-Jae Won

Abstract:

There are many expand of Wi-Fi zones provided mobile careers and usage of wireless access point at home as increase of usage of wireless internet caused by the use of smart phone. This paper shows wireless local area network status, security threats of WLAN and functionality of major wireless access point in Korea. We propose security countermeasures concerned with life cycle of access point from manufacturing to installation, using and finally disposal. There needed to releasing with configured secure at access point. Because, it is most cost effective resolution than stage of installation or other life cycle of access point.

Keywords: Wireless LAN Security, Wi-Fi Security, Wireless Access Point, Product Life-Cycle

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2171 Hazard Rate Estimation of Temporal Point Process, Case Study: Earthquake Hazard Rate in Nusatenggara Region

Authors: Sunusi N., Kresna A. J., Islamiyati A., Raupong

Abstract:

Hazard rate estimation is one of the important topics in forecasting earthquake occurrence. Forecasting earthquake occurrence is a part of the statistical seismology where the main subject is the point process. Generally, earthquake hazard rate is estimated based on the point process likelihood equation called the Hazard Rate Likelihood of Point Process (HRLPP). In this research, we have developed estimation method, that is hazard rate single decrement HRSD. This method was adapted from estimation method in actuarial studies. Here, one individual associated with an earthquake with inter event time is exponentially distributed. The information of epicenter and time of earthquake occurrence are used to estimate hazard rate. At the end, a case study of earthquake hazard rate will be given. Furthermore, we compare the hazard rate between HRLPP and HRSD method.

Keywords: Earthquake forecast, Hazard Rate, Likelihood point process, Point process.

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