Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 249

Search results for: plant shut-down

249 Operational- Economics Based Evaluation And Selection of A Power Plant Using Graph Theoretic Approach

Authors: Naresh Yadav, I.A. Khan, Sandeep Grover

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology for operational and economic characteristics based evaluation and selection of a power plant using Graph theoretic approach. A universal evaluation index on the basis of Operational and economics characteristics of a plant is proposed which evaluates and ranks the various types of power plants. The index thus obtained from the pool of operational characteristics of the power plant attributes Digraph. The Digraph is developed considering Operational and economics attributes of the power plants and their relative importance for their smooth operation, installation and commissioning and prioritizing their selection. The sensitivity analysis of the attributes towards the objective has also been carried out in order to study the impact of attributes over the desired outcome i.e. the universal operational-economics index of the power plant.

Keywords: Power plant evaluation, Digraph methods, Matrixmethod, operational characteristics of Power plant, Gas turbines

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248 Techno-Economics Study to Select Optimum Desalination Plant for Asalouyeh Combined Cycle Power Plant in Iran

Authors: Z. Gomar, H. Heidary, M. Davoudi

Abstract:

This research deals with techno economic analysis to select the most economic desalination method for Asalouyeh combined cycle power plant . Due to lack of fresh water, desalination of sea water is necessary to provide required DM water of Power Plant. The most common desalination methods are RO, MSF, MED, and MED–TVC. In this research, methods of RO, MED, and MED– TVC have been compared. Simulation results show that recovery of heat of exhaust gas of main stack is optimum case for providing DM water required for injected steam of MED desalination. This subject is very important because of improving thermal efficiency of power plant using extra heat recovery. Also, it has been shown that by adding 3 rows of finned tube to de-aerator evaporator, which is very simple and low cost, required steam for generating 5200 m3/day of desalinated water is obtainable.

Keywords: Desalination, MED, thermodynamic simulation, combined cycle power plant.

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247 Design of a MSF Desalination Plant to be Supplied by a New Specific 42 MW Power Plant Located in Iran

Authors: Rouzbeh Shafaghat, Hoda Shafaghat, Fatemeh Ghanbari, Pouya Sirous Rezaei, Rohollah Espanani

Abstract:

Nowadays, desalination of salt water is considered an important industrial process. In many parts of the world, particularly in the gulf countries, the multi-stage flash (MSF) water desalination has an essential contribution in the production of fresh water. In this study, a simple mathematical model is defined to design a MSF desalination system and the feasibility of using the MSF desalination process in proximity of a 42 MW power plant is investigated. This power plant can just provide 10 ton/h superheated steam from low pressure (LP) section of heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) for thermal desalting system. The designed MSF system with gained output ratio (GOR) of 10.3 has 24 flashing stages and can produce 2480 ton/d of fresh water. The expected performance characteristics of the designed MSF desalination plant are determined. In addition, the effect of motive water pressure on the amount of non-condensable gases removed by water jet vacuum pumps is investigated.

Keywords: Design, dual-purpose power plant, mathematical model, MSF desalination.

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246 Computer Modeling and Plant-Wide Dynamic Simulation for Industrial Flare Minimization

Authors: Sujing Wang, Song Wang, Jian Zhang, Qiang Xu

Abstract:

Flaring emissions during abnormal operating conditions such as plant start-ups, shut-downs, and upsets in chemical process industries (CPI) are usually significant. Flare minimization can help to save raw material and energy for CPI plants, and to improve local environmental sustainability. In this paper, a systematic methodology based on plant-wide dynamic simulation is presented for CPI plant flare minimizations under abnormal operating conditions. Since off-specification emission sources are inevitable during abnormal operating conditions, to significantly reduce flaring emission in a CPI plant, they must be either recycled to the upstream process for online reuse, or stored somewhere temporarily for future reprocessing, when the CPI plant manufacturing returns to stable operation. Thus, the off-spec products could be reused instead of being flared. This can be achieved through the identification of viable design and operational strategies during normal and abnormal operations through plant-wide dynamic scheduling, simulation, and optimization. The proposed study includes three stages of simulation works: (i) developing and validating a steady-state model of a CPI plant; (ii) transiting the obtained steady-state plant model to the dynamic modeling environment; and refining and validating the plant dynamic model; and (iii) developing flare minimization strategies for abnormal operating conditions of a CPI plant via a validated plant-wide dynamic model. This cost-effective methodology has two main merits: (i) employing large-scale dynamic modeling and simulations for industrial flare minimization, which involves various unit models for modeling hundreds of CPI plant facilities; (ii) dealing with critical abnormal operating conditions of CPI plants such as plant start-up and shut-down. Two virtual case studies on flare minimizations for start-up operation (over 50% of emission savings) and shut-down operation (over 70% of emission savings) of an ethylene plant have been employed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed study.

Keywords: Flare minimization, large-scale modeling and simulation, plant shut-down, plant start-up.

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245 Simulation Modeling and Analysis of In-Plant Logistics at a Cement Manufacturing Plant in India

Authors: Sachin Kamble, Shradha Gawankar

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of successful implementation of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) of cement dispatch activities in a cement manufacturing plant located in India. Simulation model was developed for the purpose of identifying and analyzing the areas for improvement. The company was facing a problem of low throughput rate and subsequent forced stoppages of the plant leading to a high production loss of 15000MT per month. It was found from the study that the present systems and procedures related to the in-plant logistics plant required significant changes. The major recommendations included process improvement at the entry gate, reducing the cycle time at the security gate and installation of an additional weigh bridge. This paper demonstrates how BPR can be implemented for improving the in-plant logistics process. Various recommendations helped the plant to increase its throughput by 14%.

Keywords: Business process reengineering, simulation modeling, in-plant logistics, distribution process, cement industry.

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244 The Effects of Plant Density and Row Spacing on the Height of Maize Hybrids of Different Vegetation Time and Genotype

Authors: E. Murányi, P. Pepó

Abstract:

The small plot experiment was set in 2013 at the RISFLátókép Experimental Farm of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen, on lime-coated chernozem soil in four replications. The final heights of the maize hybrids were studied at three plant densities (50, 70, and 90 thousand ha-1) and two row spacing (45 and 76cm). During the experiment, we have investigated the development of the final plant heights of five maize hybrids of different vegetation time and genotype: Sarolta, DKC 4025, P 9175, Reseda/P 37M81, and SY Affinity. In the development of the plant heights, the tiller number and the hybrid were the decisive factors. The increasing stock density resulted in significant difference in the plant height values, while the row spacing did not. With the increase of plant density and the length of vegetation time, the heights of the individual plants increased.

Keywords: Maize, plant density, row spacing, plant height, genotype.

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243 Analysis of a Hydroelectric Plant connected to Electrical Power System in the Physical Domain

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Octavio Barriga

Abstract:

A bond graph model of a hydroelectric plant is proposed. In order to analyze the system some structural properties of a bond graph are used. The structural controllability of the hydroelctric plant is described. Also, the steady state of the state variables applying the bond graph in a derivative causality assignment is obtained. Finally, simulation results of the system are shown.

Keywords: Bond graph, hydraulic plant, steady state.

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242 Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant

Authors: Cigdem Safak Saglam

Abstract:

Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.

Keywords: Thermal power plant, lignite coal, pre-treatment, demineralization, electrodialysis, recycling, waste water, process water.

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241 Profit Optimization for Solar Plant Electricity Production

Authors: Fl. Loury, P. Sablonière

Abstract:

In this paper a stochastic scenario-based model predictive control applied to molten salt storage systems in concentrated solar tower power plant is presented. The main goal of this study is to build up a tool to analyze current and expected future resources for evaluating the weekly power to be advertised on electricity secondary market. This tool will allow plant operator to maximize profits while hedging the impact on the system of stochastic variables such as resources or sunlight shortage.

Solving the problem first requires a mixed logic dynamic modeling of the plant. The two stochastic variables, respectively the sunlight incoming energy and electricity demands from secondary market, are modeled by least square regression. Robustness is achieved by drawing a certain number of random variables realizations and applying the most restrictive one to the system. This scenario approach control technique provides the plant operator a confidence interval containing a given percentage of possible stochastic variable realizations in such a way that robust control is always achieved within its bounds. The results obtained from many trajectory simulations show the existence of a ‘’reliable’’ interval, which experimentally confirms the algorithm robustness.

Keywords: Molten Salt Storage System, Concentrated Solar Tower Power Plant, Robust Stochastic Model Predictive Control.

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240 Plant Layout Analysis by Computer Simulation for Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant

Authors: Visuwan D., Phruksaphanrat B

Abstract:

In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyze and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyze and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout. In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyze and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyze and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout. 

Keywords: Layout, Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant (EMS), Computer Simulation, Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS).

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239 Impact Assessment of Air Pollution Stress on Plant Species through Biochemical Estimations

Authors: Govindaraju.M, Ganeshkumar.R.S, Suganthi.P, Muthukumaran.V.R, Visvanathan.P

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the response of plants exposed to lignite-based thermal power plant emission. For this purpose, five plant species were collected from 1.0 km distance (polluted site) and control plants were collected from 20.0 km distance (control site) to thermal power plant. The common tree species Cassia siamea Lamk., Polyalthia longifolia. Sonn, Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Wild., Azadirachta indica A.Juss, Ficus religiosa L. were selected as test plants. Photosynthetic pigments changes (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) and rubisco enzyme modifications were studied. Reduction was observed in the photosynthetic pigments of plants growing in polluted site and also large sub unit of the rubisco enzyme was degraded in Azadirachta indica A. Juss collected from polluted site.

Keywords: Air pollution, Lignite-based thermal power plant, Photosynthetic pigments, Rubisco enzyme.

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238 Towards a Systematic Planning of Standardization Projects in Plant Engineering

Authors: M. Amberg, M. Gepp, S. Horn

Abstract:

In today-s economy plant engineering faces many challenges. For instance the intensifying competition in this business is leading to cost competition and needs for a shorter time-to-market. To remain competitive companies need to make their businesses more profitable by implementing improvement programs such as standardization projects. But they have difficulties to tap their full economic potential for various reasons. One of them is non-holistic planning and implementation of standardization projects. This paper describes a new conceptual framework - the layer-model. The model combines and expands existing proven approaches in order to improve design, implementation and management of standardization projects. Based on a holistic approach it helps to systematically analyze the effects of standardization projects on different business layers and enables companies to better seize the opportunities offered by standardization.

Keywords: layer model, plant engineering, standardization.

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237 Optimal Sizing of a Hybrid Wind/PV Plant Considering Reliability Indices

Authors: S. Dehghan, B. Kiani, A. Kazemi, A. Parizad

Abstract:

The utilization of renewable energy sources in electric power systems is increasing quickly because of public apprehensions for unpleasant environmental impacts and increase in the energy costs involved with the use of conventional energy sources. Despite the application of these energy sources can considerably diminish the system fuel costs, they can also have significant influence on the system reliability. Therefore an appropriate combination of the system reliability indices level and capital investment costs of system is vital. This paper presents a hybrid wind/photovoltaic plant, with the aim of supplying IEEE reliability test system load pattern while the plant capital investment costs is minimized by applying a hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO) / harmony search (HS) approach, and the system fulfills the appropriate level of reliability.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Fuel Cell, HS, Hybrid Power Plant, PSO, Photovoltaic, Reliability.

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236 Optimal Criteria for Non-Minimal Phase Plants

Authors: Z. Nemec, R. Matousek

Abstract:

The paper describes the evaluation of quality of control for cases of controlled non-minimal phase plants. Control circuits containing non-minimal phase plants have different properties, they manifest reversed reaction at the beginning of unit step response. For these types of plants are developed special criterion of quality of control, which considers the difference and can be helpful for synthesis of optimal controller tuning. All results are clearly presented using Matlab/Simulink models.

Keywords: control design, non-minimal phase system, optimalcriteria, power plant, heating plant, water turbine, Matlab, Simulink.

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235 The Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata and Chromolaena odorata Plant Extract against Malaria Parasite

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Abdul O. Momoh

Abstract:

Malaria constitutes one of the major health problems in Nigeria. One of the reasons attributed for the upsurge was the development of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and the emergence of multi-resistant strains of the parasite to anti-malaria drugs. A continued search for other effective, safe and cheap plantbased anti-malaria agents thus becomes imperative in the face of these difficulties. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate the in vivo anti-malarial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata and Androgaphis paniculata leaves. The two plants were evaluated for their anti-malaria efficacy in vivo in a 4-day curative test assay against Plasmodium berghei strain in mice. The group treated with 500mg/ml dose of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata plant showed parasite suppression with increase in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) value except day 3 which showed a slight decrease in PCV value. During the 4-day curative test, an increase in the PCV values, weight measurement and zero count of Plasmodium berghei parasite values was recorded after day 3 of drug administration. These results obtained in group treated with A. paniculata extract showed anti-malarial efficacy with higher mortality rate in parasitaemia count when compared with Chromolaena odorata group. These results justify the use of ethanolic extracts of A. paniculata plant as medicinal herb used in folklore medicine in the treatment of malaria.

Keywords: Anti-malaria, Curative, Plant-based anti-malaria agents.

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234 Failure Analysis of Pipe System at a Hydroelectric Power Plant

Authors: Ali Göksenli, Barlas Eryürek

Abstract:

In this study, failure analysis of pipe system at a micro hydroelectric power plant is investigated. Failure occurred at the pipe system in the powerhouse during shut down operation of the water flow by a valve. This locking had caused a sudden shock wave, also called “Water-hammer effect”, resulting in noise and inside pressure increase. After visual investigation of the effect of the shock wave on the system, a circumference crack was observed at the pipe flange weld region. To establish the reason for crack formation, calculations of pressure and stress values at pipe, flange and welding seams were carried out and concluded that safety factor was high (2.2), indicating that no faulty design existed. By further analysis, pipe system and hydroelectric power plant was examined. After observations it is determined that the plant did not include a ventilation nozzle (air trap), that prevents the system of sudden pressure increase inside the pipes which is caused by water-hammer effect. Analyses were carried out to identify the influence of water-hammer effect on inside pressure increase and it was concluded that, according Jowkowsky’s equation, shut down time is effective on inside pressure increase. The valve closing time was uncertain but by a shut down time of even one minute, inside pressure would increase by 7.6 bar (working pressure was 34.6 bar). Detailed investigations were also carried out on the assembly of the pipe-flange system by considering technical drawings. It was concluded that the pipe-flange system was not installed according to the instructions. Two of five weld seams were not applied and one weld was carried out faulty. This incorrect and inadequate weld seams resulted in; insufficient connection of the pipe to the flange constituting a strong notch effect at weld seam regions, increase in stress values and the decrease of strength and safety factor.

Keywords: Failure analysis, hydroelectric plant, water-hammer, crack, welding seam.

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233 Development of a Model for the Redesign of Plant Structures

Authors: L. Richter, J. Lübkemann, P. Nyhuis

Abstract:

In order to remain competitive in what is a turbulent environment; businesses must be able to react rapidly to change. The past response to volatile market conditions was to introduce an element of flexibility to production. Nowadays, what is often required is a redesign of factory structures in order to cope with the state of constant flux. The Institute of Production Systems and Logistics is currently developing a descriptive and causal model for the redesign of plant structures as part of an ongoing research project. This article presents the first research findings attained in devising this model.

Keywords: Causal model, change driven factory redesign, factory planning, plant structure.

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232 The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: N. AlShaya, R. Alhomidan, S. Alromizan, W. Labib

Abstract:

Plant-based natural fibers are used more increasingly in construction materials. It is done to reduce the pressure on the built environment, which has been increased dramatically due to the increases world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibers are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibers as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fiber types; fiber characteristics, and fiber-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview on the main factors, affecting the properties of plant-based natural fiber cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibers in producing various construction materials; such as, mud bricks and blocks is investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibers as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.

Keywords: Cement composites, plant fibers, strength, mechanical properties.

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231 Plant Varieties Selection System

Authors: Kitti Koonsanit, Chuleerat Jaruskulchai, Poonsak Miphokasap, Apisit Eiumnoh

Abstract:

In the end of the day, meteorological data and environmental data becomes widely used such as plant varieties selection system. Variety plant selection for planted area is of almost importance for all crops, including varieties of sugarcane. Since sugarcane have many varieties. Variety plant non selection for planting may not be adapted to the climate or soil conditions for planted area. Poor growth, bloom drop, poor fruit, and low price are to be from varieties which were not recommended for those planted area. This paper presents plant varieties selection system for planted areas in Thailand from meteorological data and environmental data by the use of decision tree techniques. With this software developed as an environmental data analysis tool, it can analyze resulting easier and faster. Our software is a front end of WEKA that provides fundamental data mining functions such as classify, clustering, and analysis functions. It also supports pre-processing, analysis, and decision tree output with exporting result. After that, our software can export and display data result to Google maps API in order to display result and plot plant icons effectively.

Keywords: Plant varieties selection system, decision tree, expert recommendation.

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230 Bioremediation of MEG, DEG, and TEG: Potential of Burhead Plant and Soil Microorganisms

Authors: Pattrarat Teamkao, Paitip Thiravetyan

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of soil microorganisms and the burhead plant, as well as the combination of soil microorganisms and plants to remediate monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) in synthetic wastewater. The result showed that a system containing both burhead plant and soil microorganisms had the highest efficiency in EGs removal. Around 100% of MEG and DEG and 85% of TEG were removed within 15 days of the experiments. However, the burhead plant had higher removal efficiency than soil microorganisms for MEG and DEG but the same for TEG in the study systems. The removal rate of EGs in the study system related to the molecular weight of the compounds and MEG, the smallest glycol, was removed faster than DEG and TEG by both the burhead plant and soil microorganisms in the study system.

Keywords: Ethylene glycol, burhead plant, soil microorganisms, phytoremediation

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229 The Using of Mixing Amines in an Industrial Gas Sweetening Plant

Authors: B. Sohbi, M. Meakaff, M. Emtir, M. Elgarni

Abstract:

Natural gas is defined as gas obtained from a natural underground reservoir. It generally contains a large quantity of methane along with heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, isobutene, normal butane; also in the raw state it often contains a considerable amount of non hydrocarbons, such as nitrogen and the acid gases (carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide). The acid gases must be removed from natural gas before use. One of the processes witch are use in the industry to remove the acid gases from natural gas is the use of alkanolamine process. In this present paper, a simulation study for an industrial gas sweetening plant has been investigated. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of using mixing amines as solvent on the gas treatment process using the software Hysys.

Keywords: Natural gas, alkanolamine process, gas sweetening plant, simulation, mixing amines.

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228 Improvements in Material Handling: A Case Study of Cement Manufacturing Plant

Authors: A. Pancharya

Abstract:

The globalization of the Indian economy has thrown a great challenge to the Indian industries in respect of productivity, quality, cost, delivery etc. Achieving success• the global market has required fundamental shift in the way business is conducted and has dramatically affected virtually every aspect of process industry. The internal manufacturing process and supporting infrastructure should be such that it can compete successfully in global markets with better flexibility and delivery. The paper deals with a case study of a reputed process industry, some changes in the process has been suggested, which leads to reduction in labor cost and production cost.

Keywords: Indian cement industry, material handling, plant layout.

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227 Bioefficacy of Some Oil-Mixed Plant Derivatives against African Mud Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Beetles, Dermestes maculatus and Necrobia rufipes

Authors: Akinwumi F. Olusegun

Abstract:

The efficacy of the separate mixing of four tropical spicy and medicinal plant products: Dennettia tripetala Baker (pepper fruit), Eugenia aromatica Hook (clove), Piper guineense (Schum and Thonn) (black pepper) and Monodora myristica (Dunal) (African nut-meg) with a household vegetable oil was evaluated under tropical storage conditions for the control and reproductive performance of Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) (hide beetle) and Necroba rufipes (De Geer) (copra beetle) on African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell). Each of the plant materials was pulverized into powder and applied as a mix of 1ml of oil and plant powder at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0g per 100g of dried fish, and allowed to dry for 6h. Each of the four oil-mixed powder treatments evoked significant (P < 05) mortalities of the two insects compared with the control (oil only) at 1, 3 and 7 days post treatment. The oil-powder mixture dosages did not prevent insect egg hatchability but while the emergent larvae on the treated samples died, the emergent larvae in the control survived into adults. The application of oil-mixed powders effectively suppressed the emergence of the larvae of the beetles. Similarly, each of the oil-powder mixtures significantly reduced weight loss in smoked fish that were exposed to D. maculatus and N. rufipes when compared to the control (P < 05). The results of this study suggest that the plant powders rather than the domestic oil demonstrated protective ability against the fish beetles and confirm the efficacy of the plant products as pest control agents.

Keywords: Catfish, Fish beetles, Fish preservation, Oil-powder mix, Plant products.

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226 Exergetic Analysis of Steam Turbine Power Plant Operated in Chemical Industry

Authors: F. Hafdhi, T. Khir, A. Ben Yahia, A. Ben Brahim

Abstract:

An Energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in different parts of the plant are also considered in the analysis. Mass, thermal and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the factory. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis. The effects of the key operating parameters such as steam pressure and temperature, mass flow rate as well as seawater temperature, on the cycle performances are investigated. A maximum Exergy Loss Rate of about 72% is obtained for the melters, followed by the condensers, heat exchangers and the pumps. The heat exchangers used in the phosphoric acid unit present exergetic efficiencies around 33% while 60% to 72% are obtained for steam turbines and blower. For the explored ranges of HP steam temperature and pressure, the exergy efficiencies of steam turbine generators STGI and STGII increase of about 2.5% and 5.4% respectively. In the same way optimum HP steam flow rate values, leading to the maximum exergy efficiencies are defined.

Keywords: Steam turbine generator, energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, phosphoric acid plant.

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225 Evaluation of the Inhibitory Effect of Some Plant Crude Extracts Against Albugo Candida, the Causal Agent of White Rust

Authors: Marjan Omranpour, Saeed Abbasi, Sohbat Bahraminejad

Abstract:

White rust, caused by Albugo candida, is the most destructive foliar diseases of persian cress, Lepidium sativum in Iran. Application of fungicide is the most common method for the disease control. However, regarding the problems created by synthetic pesticides application, environmentally safe methods are needed to replace chemical pesticides. In this study, the antifungal activity of plant natural extracts was investigated for their ability to inhibit zoospore release from sporangia of A. candida. The crude extract of 46 plants was obtained using methanol. The inhibitory effect of the extracts was examined by mixing the plant extracts with a zoosporangial suspension of A. candida (1×106 spore/ml) at three concentrations, 250, 100 and 50 ppm. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design, with three replicates. The results of the experiment showed that three out of 46 plants species, including, Rhus coriaria, Anagallis arvensis and Mespilus germanica were completely inhibit zoospore release from zoosporangia of Albugo candida at concentration of 50 ppm.

Keywords: white rust, plant extract, Rhus coriaria, Anagallis arvensis and Mespilus germanica

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224 Investigation of Plant Density and Weed Competition in Different Cultivars of Wheat In Khoramabad Region

Authors: Ali Khourgami, Masoud Rafiee, Korous Rahmati, Ghobad Bour

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of plant density and competition of wheat with field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) on yield and agronomical properties of wheat(Triticum Sativum) in irrigated conditions, a factorial experiment as the base of complete randomize block design in three replication was conducted at the field of Kamalvand in khoramabad (Lorestan) region of Iran during 2008-2009. Three plant density (Factor A=200, 230 and 260kg/ha) three cultivar (Factor B=Bahar,Pishtaz and Alvand) and weed control (Factor C= control and no control of weeds)were assigned in experiment. Results show that: Plant density had significant effect (statistically) on seed yield, 1000 seed weight, weed density and dry weight of weeds, seed yield and harvest index had been meaningful effect for cultivars. The interaction between plant density and cultivars for weed density, seed yield, thousand seed weight and harvest index were significant. 260 kg/ha (plant density) of wheat had more effect on increasing of seed yield in Bahar cultivar wheat in khoramabad region of Iran.

Keywords: Convolvulus arvensis, plant density, Triticumsativum, weed density, Wheat

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223 Effects of Road Disturbance on Plant Biodiversity

Authors: Sheng-Lan Zeng, Ting-Ting Zhang, Yu Gao, Zu-Tao Ouyang, Jia-Kuan Chen, Bo Li, Bin Zhao

Abstract:

Urbanization and related anthropogenic modifications cause extent of habitat fragmentation and directly lead to decline of local biodiversity. Conservation biologists advocate corridor creation as one approach to rescue biodiversity. Here we examine the utility of roads as corridors in preserving plant diversity by investigating roadside vegetation in Yellow River Delta (YRD), China. We examined the spatio-temporal distribution pattern of plant species richness, diversity and composition along roadside. The results suggest that roads, as dispersal conduits, increase occurrence probability of new settlers to a new area, meanwhile, roads accumulate the greater propagule pressure and favourable survival condition during operation phase. As a result, more species, including native and alien plants, non- halophyte and halophyte species, threatened and cosmopolitic species, were found prosperous at roadside. Roadside may be a refuge for more species, and the pattern of vegetation distribution is affected by road age and the distance from road verge.

Keywords: Native and alien species, Plant diversity conservation, Road construction, Road disturbance

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222 Application of Robotics to Assemble a Used Fuel Container in the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu

Abstract:

The newest Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC)- (called also “Mark II”) modifies the design approach for its Assembly Robotic Cell (ARC) in the Canadian Used (Nuclear) Fuel Packing Plant (UFPP). Some of the robotic design solutions are presented in this paper. The design indicates that robots and manipulators are expected to be used in the Canadian UFPP. As normally, the UFPP design will incorporate redundancy of all equipment to allow expedient recovery from any postulated upset conditions. Overall, this paper suggests that robot usage will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: Used fuel packing plant, robotic assembly cell, used fuel container, deep geological repository.

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221 Performance of a Power Generator System Using Crude Plant Oil Blend with Diesel Fuel

Authors: Tsair-Wang Chung, Kuan-Ting Liu, Mai-Tzu Chen

Abstract:

Under the variation of crude oil price and the impact of greenhouse effect, it is urgent to find a potential alternative fuel. Among these alternative fuels, non edible plant oils are the most potential ones, because they don-t have the problem of food and cropland competitions. Among the non-edible plant oils, Jatropha oil is the most potential one. Jatropha oil is non-eatable oil and has good oil quality and low temperature performance. It has potential to become one of the most competitive biomass crude oils. The crude plant oil will be blended with diesel fuel to be tested in a power generator. The international collaboration between Taiwan and Indonesia on the production of Jatropha in Indonesia will also be presented in this study.

Keywords: Jatropha, plant oil, oil blend, diesel, power generator.

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220 Thermal Analysis of Open-Cycle Regenerator Gas-Turbine Power-Plant

Authors: M. M. Rahman, Thamir K. Ibrahim, M. Y. Taib, M. M. Noor, Rosli A. Bakar

Abstract:

Regenerative gas turbine engine cycle is presented that yields higher cycle efficiencies than simple cycle operating under the same conditions. The power output, efficiency and specific fuel consumption are simulated with respect to operating conditions. The analytical formulae about the relation to determine the thermal efficiency are derived taking into account the effected operation conditions (ambient temperature, compression ratio, regenerator effectiveness, compressor efficiency, turbine efficiency and turbine inlet temperature). Model calculations for a wide range of parameters are presented, as are comparisons with simple gas turbine cycle. The power output and thermal efficiency are found to be increasing with the regenerative effectiveness, and the compressor and turbine efficiencies. The efficiency increased with increase the compression ratio to 5, then efficiency decreased with increased compression ratio, but in simple cycle the thermal efficiency always increase with increased in compression ratio. The increased in ambient temperature caused decreased thermal efficiency, but the increased in turbine inlet temperature increase thermal efficiency.

Keywords: Gas turbine, power plant, thermal analysis, regeneration

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