Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: piggery

3 Sanitary Measures in Piggeries, Awareness and Risk Factors of African Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Asambe

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the level of compliance with sanitary measures in piggeries, and awareness and risk factors of African swine fever in Benue State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to 74 respondents consisting of piggery owners and attendants in different piggeries across 12 LGAs to collect data for this study. Sanitary measures in piggeries were observed to be generally very poor, though respondents admitted being aware of ASF. Piggeries located within a 1 km radius of a slaughter slab (OR=9.2, 95% CI - 3.0-28.8), piggeries near refuse dump sites (OR=3.0, 95% CI - 1.0-9.5) and piggeries where farm workers wear their work clothes outside of the piggery premises (OR=0.2, 95% CI - 0.1-0.7) showed higher chances of ASFV infection and were significantly associated (p < 0.0001), (p < 0.05) and (p < 0.01), and were identified as potential risk factors. The study concluded that pigs in Benue State are still at risk of an ASF outbreak. Proper sanitary and hygienic practices is advocated and emphasized in piggeries, while routine surveillance for ASFV antibodies in pigs in Benue State is strongly recommended to provide a reliable reference data base to plan for the prevention of any devastating ASF outbreak.

Keywords: African swine fever, awareness, piggery, risk factors, sanitary measures.

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2 Surveillance for African Swine Fever and Classical Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Asambe, A. K. B. Sackey, L. B. Tekdek

Abstract:

A serosurveillance study was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies to African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Classical swine fever virus in pigs sampled from piggeries and Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, Nigeria. 416 pigs from 74 piggeries across 12 LGAs and 44 pigs at the Makurdi central slaughter slab were sampled for serum. The sera collected were analysed using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit to test for antibodies to ASFV, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to test for antibodies to CSFV. Of the 416 pigs from piggeries and 44 pigs sampled from the slaughter slab, seven (1.7%) and six (13.6%), respectively, tested positive to ASFV antibodies and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). Out of the 12 LGAs sampled, Obi LGA had the highest ASFV antibody detection rate of (4.8%) and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). None of the samples tested positive to CSFV antibodies. The study concluded that antibodies to CSFV were absent in the sampled pigs in piggeries and at the Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, while antibodies to ASFV were present in both locations; hence, the need to keep an eye open for CSF too since both diseases may pose great risk in the study area. Further studies to characterise the ASFV circulating in Benue State and investigate the possible sources is recommended. Routine surveillance to provide a comprehensive and readily accessible data base to plan for the prevention of any fulminating outbreak is also recommended.

Keywords: African swine fever, classical swine fever, piggery, slaughter slab, surveillance.

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1 Effects of Upflow Liquid Velocity on Performance of Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) System

Authors: Seni Karnchanawong, Wachara Phajee

Abstract:

The effects of upflow liquid velocity (ULV) on performance of expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) system were investigated. The EGSB reactor, made from galvanized steel pipe 0.10 m diameter and 5 m height, had been used to treat piggery wastewater, after passing through acidification tank. It consisted of 39.3 l working volume in reaction zone and 122 l working volume in sedimentation zone, at the upper part. The reactor was seeded with anaerobically digested sludge and operated at the ULVs of 4, 8, 12 and 16 m/h, consecutively, corresponding to organic loading rates of 9.6 – 13.0 kg COD/ (m3.d). The average COD concentrations in the influent were 9,601 – 13,050 mg/l. The COD removal was not significantly different, i.e. 93.0% - 94.0%, except at ULV 12 m/h where SS in the influent was exceptionally high so that VSS washout had occurred, leading to low COD removal. The FCOD and VFA concentrations in the effluent of all experiments were not much different, indicating the same range of treatment performance. The biogas production decreased at higher ULV and ULV of 4 m/h is suggested as design criterion for EGSB system.

Keywords: Expanded granular sludge bed system, piggery wastewater, upflow liquid velocity

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