Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: phosphoric acid

29 Carbothermic Reduction of Phosphoric Acid Extracted from Dephosphorization Slags to Produce Yellow Phosphorus

Authors: Ryoko Yoshida, Jyunpei Yoshida, Hua Fang Yu, Yasushi Sasaki, Tetsuya Nagasaka

Abstract:

Phosphorous is an important element for agriculture and industry and is a non-renewable resource. Especially, yellow phosphorus is an essential material in advanced industrial technology, but phosphorus resources were not produced in Japan at all, and all depend on imports. It has been suggested, however, that the remaining accessible reserves of phosphate ore will be depleted within 50 years. Therefore, alternative resources for phosphate ore must be found. In this research, we have developed a process that enables the production of high-purity yellow phosphorus from domestic unused phosphorus resources such as steelmaking slags. The process consists of two parts: (1) the production of crude phosphoric acid from wastes such as steelmaking slag; (2) producing high-purity yellow phosphorus by low-temperature carbothermic reduction of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The details of the carbothermic reduction of phosphoric acid are presented in this paper. Yellow phosphorus is commercially produced by carbothermic reduction of phosphate ore in an electric arc furnace at more than 1673K. In the newly developed system, gaseous P4O10 evaporated from H3PO4 is successfully reduced to yellow phosphorus by using carbon packed bed at less than 1273K. To meet the depletion of phosphate ore, the proposed process in this study to produce yellow phosphorus by carbothermic reduction of H3PO4 that are extracted from dephosphorization slags will be one of the effective and economical solutions.

Keywords: phosphoric acid, carbothermic reduction, dephosphorization slags, yellow phosphorus

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28 Producing and Mechanical Testing of Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Foams Reinforced by Waste Phosphogypsum

Authors: Krasimira Georgieva, Yordan Denev

Abstract:

Many of thermosetting resins have application only in filled state, reinforced with different mineral fillers. The co-filling of polymers with mineral filler and gases creates a possibility for production of polymer composites materials with low density. This processing leads to forming of new materials – gas-filled plastics (polymer foams). The properties of these materials are determined mainly by the shape and size of internal structural elements (pores). The interactions on the phase boundaries have influence on the materials properties too. In the present work, the gas-filled urea-formaldehyde resins were reinforced by waste phosphogypsum. The waste phosphogypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a solid by-product in wet phosphoric acid production processes. The values of the interactions polymer-filler were increased by using two modifying agents: polyvinyl acetate for polymer matrix and sodium metasilicate for filler. Technological methods for gas-filling and recipes of urea-formaldehyde based materials with apparent density 20-120 kg/m3 were developed. The heat conductivity of the samples is between 0.024 and 0.029 W/moK. Tensile analyses were carried out at 10 and 50% deformation and show values 0.01-0.14 MPa and 0.01-0.09 MPa, respectively. The apparent density of obtained materials is between 20 and 92 kg/m3. The changes in the tensile properties and density of these materials according to sodium metasilicate content were studied too. The mechanism of phosphogypsum adsorption modification was studied using methods of FT-IR spectroscopy. The structure of the gas-filled urea-formaldehyde resins was described by results of electron scanning microscopy at three different magnification ratios – x50, x150 and x 500. The aim of present work is to study the possibility of the usage of phosphogypsum as mineral filler for urea-formaldehyde resins and development of a technology for the production of gas-filled reinforced polymer composite materials. The structure and the properties of obtained composite materials are suitable for thermal and sound insulation applications.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, phosphogypsum, Gas-filled thermosets, urea-formaldehyde resins

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27 Flexible Technologies of Granulated Complex Fertilizers

Authors: Andrey M. Norov, Denis A. Pagaleshkin, Pavel S. Fedotov, Viacheslav M. Kolpakov, Konstantin G. Gorbovskiy

Abstract:

The article focuses on the latest research and developments (R&D) aimed at the development of plants for production of complex phosphorus-containing fertilizers which are in line with the principles of the best available techniques (BAT). The advantages of the implemented technical solutions are given. The paper describes developed options of flexible technologies for schemes with DGD (drum granulator dryer) and for schemes with AG-DD (ammoniator-granulator and dryer drum).

Keywords: phosphorus-containing fertilizer technology, Ammoniator-granulator and dryer drum, drum granulator dryer, PK-, NPK-, PKS- and NPKS-fertilizers, wet phosphoric acid

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26 Impact of Zn/Cr Ratio on ZnCrOx-SAPO-34 Bifunctional Catalyst for Direct Conversion of Syngas to Light Olefins

Authors: Yuxuan Huang, Weixin Qian, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Light olefins are important building blocks for chemical industry. Direct conversion of syngas to light olefins has been investigated for decades. Meanwhile, the limit for light olefins selectivity described by Anderson-Schulz-Flory (ASF) distribution model is still a great challenge to conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The emerging strategy called oxide-zeolite concept (OX-ZEO) is a promising way to get rid of this limit. ZnCrOx was prepared by co-precipitation method and (NH4)2CO3 was used as precipitant. SAPO-34 was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and Tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH) was used as template, while silica sol, pseudo-boehmite, and phosphoric acid were Al, Si and P source, respectively. The bifunctional catalyst was prepared by mechanical mixing of ZnCrOx and SAPO-34. Catalytic reactions were carried out under H2/CO=2, 380 ℃, 1 MPa and 6000 mL·gcat-1·h-1 in a fixed-bed reactor with a quartz lining. Catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, and CO-TPD. The addition of Al as structure promoter enhances CO conversion and selectivity to light olefins. Zn/Cr ratio, which decides the active component content and chemisorption property of the catalyst, influences CO conversion and selectivity to light olefins at the same time. C2-4= distribution of 86% among hydrocarbons at CO conversion of 14% was reached when Zn/Cr=1.5.

Keywords: syngas, light olefins, OX-ZEO, ZnCrOx

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25 Participation in IAEA Proficiency Test to Analyse Cobalt, Strontium and Caesium in Seawater Using Direct Counting and Radiochemical Techniques

Authors: S. Visetpotjanakit, C. Khrautongkieo

Abstract:

Radiation monitoring in the environment and foodstuffs is one of the main responsibilities of Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) as the nuclear regulatory body of Thailand. The main goal of the OAP is to assure the safety of the Thai people and environment from any radiological incidents. Various radioanalytical methods have been developed to monitor radiation and radionuclides in the environmental and foodstuff samples. To validate our analytical performance, several proficiency test exercises from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have been performed. Here, the results of a proficiency test exercise referred to as the Proficiency Test for Tritium, Cobalt, Strontium and Caesium Isotopes in Seawater 2017 (IAEA-RML-2017-01) are presented. All radionuclides excepting ³H were analysed using various radioanalytical methods, i.e. direct gamma-ray counting for determining ⁶⁰Co, ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs and developed radiochemical techniques for analysing ¹³⁴Cs, ¹³⁷Cs using AMP pre-concentration technique and 90Sr using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) liquid extraction technique. The analysis results were submitted to IAEA. All results passed IAEA criteria, i.e. accuracy, precision and trueness and obtained ‘Accepted’ statuses. These confirm the data quality from the OAP environmental radiation laboratory to monitor radiation in the environment.

Keywords: Seawater, proficiency test, radiation monitoring, international atomic energy agency

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24 Rapid Method for Low Level 90Sr Determination in Seawater by Liquid Extraction Technique

Authors: S. Visetpotjanakit, N. Nakkaew

Abstract:

Determination of low level 90Sr in seawater has been widely developed for the purpose of environmental monitoring and radiological research because 90Sr is one of the most hazardous radionuclides released from atmospheric during the testing of nuclear weapons, waste discharge from the generation nuclear energy and nuclear accident occurring at power plants. A liquid extraction technique using bis-2-etylhexyl-phosphoric acid to separate and purify yttrium followed by Cherenkov counting using a liquid scintillation counter to determine 90Y in secular equilibrium to 90Sr was developed to monitor 90Sr in the Asia Pacific Ocean. The analytical performance was validated for the accuracy, precision, and trueness criteria. Sr-90 determination in seawater using various low concentrations in a range of 0.01 – 1 Bq/L of 30 liters spiked seawater samples and 0.5 liters of IAEA-RML-2015-01 proficiency test sample was performed for statistical evaluation. The results had a relative bias in the range from 3.41% to 12.28%, which is below accepted relative bias of ± 25% and passed the criteria confirming that our analytical approach for determination of low levels of 90Sr in seawater was acceptable. Moreover, the approach is economical, non-laborious and fast.

Keywords: Seawater, proficiency test, radiation monitoring, strontium determination

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23 Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangrove Propagule Waste by Phosphoric Acid Activation

Authors: Widi Astuti, Rizki Agus Hermawan, Hariono Mukti, Nurul Retno Sugiyono

Abstract:

The removal of lead ion (Pb2+) from aqueous solution by activated carbon with phosphoric acid activation employing mangrove propagule as precursor was investigated in a batch adsorption system. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters including pH and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the adsorption equilibrium, while the pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to describe kinetic process of Pb2+ adsorption. The results show that the adsorption data are seen in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: Equilibrium, Adsorption, activated carbon, kinetic, Pb²⁺, mangrove propagule

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22 Uranium Adsorption Using a Composite Material Based on Platelet SBA-15 Supported Tin Salt Tungstomolybdophosphoric Acid

Authors: H. Aghayan, F. A. Hashemi, R. Yavari, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

In this work, a new composite adsorbent based on a mesoporous silica SBA-15 with platelet morphology and tin salt of tungstomolybdophosphoric (TWMP) acid was synthesized and applied for uranium adsorption from aqueous solution. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transfer infra-red, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, and then, effect of various parameters such as concentration of metal ions and contact time on adsorption behavior was examined. The experimental result showed that the adsorption process was explained by the Langmuir isotherm model very well, and predominant reaction mechanism is physisorption. Kinetic data of adsorption suggest that the adsorption process can be described by the pseudo second-order reaction rate model.

Keywords: Adsorption, platelet SBA-15, tungstomolybdophosphoric acid, uranium ion

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21 Verification of Sr-90 Determination in Water and Spruce Needles Samples Using IAEA-TEL-2016-04 ALMERA Proficiency Test Samples

Authors: S. Visetpotjanakit, N. Nakkaew

Abstract:

Determination of 90Sr in environmental samples has been widely developed with several radioanlytical methods and radiation measurement techniques since 90Sr is one of the most hazardous radionuclides produced from nuclear reactors. Liquid extraction technique using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) to separate and purify 90Y and Cherenkov counting using liquid scintillation counter to determine 90Y in secular equilibrium to 90Sr was developed and performed at our institute, the Office of Atoms for Peace. The approach is inexpensive, non-laborious, and fast to analyse 90Sr in environmental samples. To validate our analytical performance for the accurate and precise criteria, determination of 90Sr using the IAEA-TEL-2016-04 ALMERA proficiency test samples were performed for statistical evaluation. The experiment used two spiked tap water samples and one naturally contaminated spruce needles sample from Austria collected shortly after the Chernobyl accident. Results showed that all three analyses were successfully passed in terms of both accuracy and precision criteria, obtaining “Accepted” statuses. The two water samples obtained the measured results of 15.54 Bq/kg and 19.76 Bq/kg, which had relative bias 5.68% and -3.63% for the Maximum Acceptable Relative Bias (MARB) 15% and 20%, respectively. And the spruce needles sample obtained the measured results of 21.04 Bq/kg, which had relative bias 23.78% for the MARB 30%. These results confirm our analytical performance of 90Sr determination in water and spruce needles samples using the same developed method.

Keywords: ALMERA proficiency test, determination of 90Sr, environmental samples, Cherenkov counting

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20 Study on Hydrophilicity of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates with TiO2-NTs

Authors: Yu-Wei Chang, Hsuan-Yu Ku, Jo-Shan Chiu, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen

Abstract:

This paper aims to discuss the hydrophilicity about the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with titania nanotubes (NTs). The AAO templates with pore size diameters of 20-250 nm were generated by anodizing 6061 aluminum alloy substrates in acid solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), oxalic acid (COOH)2, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4), respectively. TiO2-NTs were grown on AAO templates by the sol-gel deposition process successfully. The water contact angle on AAO/TiO2-NTs surface was lower compared to the water contact angle on AAO surface. So, the characteristic of hydrophilicity was significantly associated with the AAO pore size and what kinds of materials were immersed variables.

Keywords: Nanotube, sol-gel, hydrophilicity, anodic aluminum oxide, anodization

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19 Exergetic Analysis of Steam Turbine Power Plant Operated in Chemical Industry

Authors: F. Hafdhi, T. Khir, A. Ben Yahia, A. Ben Brahim

Abstract:

An Energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in different parts of the plant are also considered in the analysis. Mass, thermal and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the factory. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis. The effects of the key operating parameters such as steam pressure and temperature, mass flow rate as well as seawater temperature, on the cycle performances are investigated. A maximum Exergy Loss Rate of about 72% is obtained for the melters, followed by the condensers, heat exchangers and the pumps. The heat exchangers used in the phosphoric acid unit present exergetic efficiencies around 33% while 60% to 72% are obtained for steam turbines and blower. For the explored ranges of HP steam temperature and pressure, the exergy efficiencies of steam turbine generators STGI and STGII increase of about 2.5% and 5.4% respectively. In the same way optimum HP steam flow rate values, leading to the maximum exergy efficiencies are defined.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, steam turbine generator, phosphoric acid plant, exergy efficiency

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18 Decontamination of Chromium Containing Ground Water by Adsorption Using Chemically Modified Activated Carbon Fabric

Authors: J. R. Mudakavi, K. Puttanna

Abstract:

Chromium in the environment is considered as one of the most toxic elements probably next only to mercury and arsenic. It is acutely toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in the environment. Chromium contamination of soil and underground water due to industrial activities is a very serious problem in several parts of India covering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh etc. Functionally modified Activated Carbon Fabrics (ACF) offer targeted chromium removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Activated carbon fabric is a light weight adsorbing material with high surface area and low resistance to fluid flow. We have investigated surface modification of ACF using various acids in the laboratory through batch as well as through continuous flow column experiments with a view to develop the optimum conditions for chromium removal. Among the various acids investigated, phosphoric acid modified ACF gave best results with a removal efficiency of 95% under optimum conditions. Optimum pH was around 2 – 4 with 2 hours contact time. Continuous column experiments with an effective bed contact time (EBCT) of 5 minutes indicated that breakthrough occurred after 300 bed volumes. Adsorption data followed a Freundlich isotherm pattern. Nickel adsorbs preferentially and sulphate reduces chromium adsorption by 50%. The ACF could be regenerated up to 52.3% using 3 M NaOH under optimal conditions. The process is simple, economical, energy efficient and applicable to industrial effluents and drinking water.

Keywords: Adsorption, drinking water, activated carbon fabric, hexavalent chromium

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17 SEM Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Acid Etching on Cat Enamel

Authors: C. Gallottini, W. Di Mari, C. De Carolis, A. Dolci, G. Dolci, L. Gallottini, G. Barraco, S. Eramo

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to summarize the literature on micromorphology and composition of the enamel of the cat and present an original experiment by SEM on how it responds to the etching with ortophosphoric acid for the time recommended in the veterinary literature (30", 45", 60"), derived from research and experience on human enamel; 21 teeth of cat were randomly divided into three groups of 7 (A, B, C): Group A was subjected to etching for 30 seconds by means of orthophosphoric acid to 40% on a circular area with diameter of about 2mm of ​​the enamel coronal; the Groups B and C had the same treatment but, respectively, for 45 and 60 seconds. The samples obtained were observed by SEM to constant magnification of 1000x framing, in particular, the border area between enamel exposed and not exposed to etching to highlight differences. The images were subjected to the analysis of three blinded experienced operators in electron microscopy. In the enamel of the cat the etching for the times considered is not optimally effective for the purpose adhesives and the presence of a thick prismless layer could explain this situation. To improve this condition may clinically in the likeness of what is proposed for the enamel of human deciduous teeth: a bevel or a chamfer of 1 mm on the contour of the cavity to discover the prismatic enamel and increase the bonding surface.

Keywords: Cat, SEM, enamel

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16 Development and Validation of a UPLC Method for the Determination of Albendazole Residues on Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Equipment Surfaces

Authors: R. S. Chandan, M. Vasudevan, Deecaraman, B. M. Gurupadayya

Abstract:

In Pharmaceutical industries, it is very important to remove drug residues from the equipment and areas used. The cleaning procedure must be validated, so special attention must be devoted to the methods used for analysis of trace amounts of drugs. A rapid, sensitive and specific reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of Albendazole in cleaning validation swab samples. The method was validated using an ACQUITY HSS C18, 50 x 2.1mm, 1.8μ column with a isocratic mobile phase containing a mixture of 1.36g of Potassium dihydrogenphosphate in 1000mL MilliQ water, 2mL of triethylamine and pH adjusted to 2.3 ± 0.05 with ortho-phosphoric acid, Acetonitrile and Methanol (50:40:10 v/v). The flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.5 mL min-1 with a column temperature of 350C and detection wavelength at 254nm using PDA detector. The injection volume was 2µl. Cotton swabs, moisten with acetonitrile were used to remove any residue of drug from stainless steel, teflon, rubber and silicon plates which mimic the production equipment surface and the mean extraction-recovery was found to be 91.8. The selected chromatographic condition was found to effectively elute Albendazole with retention time of 0.67min. The proposed method was found to be linear over the range of 0.2 to 150µg/mL and correlation coefficient obtained is 0.9992. The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, reproducible and specific and it can also be used for routine quality control analysis of these drugs in biological samples either alone or in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Keywords: residues, albendazole, UPLC, Cleaning validation, swab analysis

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15 Kinetics of Cu (II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan

Abstract:

The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil and kerosene, each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

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14 Thermodynamic Study of Uranium Extraction from Tunisian Wet Process Phosphoric Acid

Authors: N. Khleifia, A. Hannachi, N. Abbes

Abstract:

In the present paper, an experimental investigation was conducted to study the thermodynamic of uranium extraction from Tunisian wet phosphoric acid using the synergistic solvent mixture of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and trioctyl phosphine oxid (TOPO) diluted in kerosene. The effect of different factors affecting the extraction process (temperature, TOPO and DEHPA concentrations) has been investigated. The obtained data of temperature effect on the extraction showed that the enthalpy change is -35.8 kJ.mol-1. The slope analysis method was used for determining the stoichiometry of the extracted species.

Keywords: Extraction, Uranium, stoichiometry, phosphoric acid, DEHPA-TOPO

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13 A Comparison of Dilute Sulfuric and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatments in Biofuel Production from Corncobs

Authors: Jirakarn Nantapipat, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit

Abstract:

Biofuels, like biobutanol, have been recognized for being renewable and sustainable fuels which can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. To convert lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel, pretreatment process is an important step to remove hemicelluloses and lignin to improve enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid pretreatment has been successful developed for pretreatment of corncobs and the optimum conditions of dilute sulfuric and phosphoric acid pretreatment were obtained at 120 °C for 5 min with 15:1 liquid to solid ratio and 140 °C for 10 min with 10:1 liquid to solid ratio, respectively. The result shows that both of acid pretreatments gave the content of total sugar approximately 34–35 g/l. In case of inhibitor content (furfural), phosphoric acid pretreatment gives higher than sulfuric acid pretreatment. Characterizations of corncobs after pretreatment indicate that both of acid pretreatments can improve enzymatic accessibility and the better results present in corncobs pretreated with sulfuric acid in term of surface area, crystallinity, and composition analysis.

Keywords: Pretreatment, sulfuric acid, Corncobs, Phosphoric acid

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12 Effect of Temperature and Time on Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Corn Cobs

Authors: Sirikarn Satimanont, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit

Abstract:

Lignocellulosic materials are new targeted source to produce second generation biofuels like biobutanol. However, this process is significantly resisted by the native structure of biomass. Therefore, pretreatment process is always essential to remove hemicelluloses and lignin prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis. The goals of pretreatment are removing hemicelluloses and lignin, increasing biomass porosity, and increasing the enzyme accessibility. The main goal of this research is to study the important variables such as pretreatment temperature and time, which can give the highest total sugar yield in pretreatment step by using dilute phosphoric acid. After pretreatment, the highest total sugar yield of 13.61 g/L was obtained under an optimal condition at 140°C for 10 min of pretreatment time by using 1.75% (w/w) H3PO4 and at 15:1 liquid to solid ratio. The total sugar yield of two-stage process (pretreatment+enzymatic hydrolysis) of 27.38 g/L was obtained.

Keywords: Pretreatment, phosphoric acid, corn cobs, Butanol production

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11 Chain Extender on Property Relationships of Polyurethane Derived from Soybean Oil

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

Polyurethane foams (PUF) has been prepared from vegetable; soybean based polyols. They were characterized into flexible and semi rigid polyurethane foam. This work is directed to production of flexible polyurethane foams by a process involving the reaction of mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-Toluene di Isocyanate isomers, with portion of to blends of soy polyols with petroleum polyol in the presence of other ingredients such as blowing agents, silicone surfactants and accelerating agents. Additon of chain extender improves the property then further decreases the properties on further addition of the same. The objective of this work was to study the effect of chain extender and role of phosphoric acid catalyst to the final properties and correlate the morphology image with mechanical properties of these foams.

Keywords: polyurethane, soy polyol, chain extender

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10 Relationship of Reaction Temperature on Phosphate Oligomers Reactivity to Properties of Soy-Polyurethane

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

Polyurethane foam (PUF) were prepared by reacting polyols synthesized from soy-oil into mixture of 2,4- Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) with 4,4--Methylene Diamine Isocyanate (MDI) with ratio of 70:30. The polyols obtained via esterification reaction were categorize into different temperature of reaction and by used of varied concentration of phosphoric acid catalyst. The purpose of catalysts is to shifting selectivity to a desired and value added of product. The effect of stoichiometric balance (molar ratio of epoxide/ethylene glycol) to the concentration of the catalyst on the final properties was evaluated.

Keywords: temperature, phosphate, soy polyurethane

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9 Property of Polyurethane: from Soy-derived Phosphate Ester

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

Polyurethane foams (PUF) were formed by a chemical reaction of polyol and isocyanate. The polyol was manufactured by ring-opening hydrolysis of epoxidized soybean oil in the presence of phosphoric acid under varying experimental conditions. Other factors in the foam formulation such as water content and surfactant were kept constant. The effect of the amount of solvents, phosphoric acid, and their derivates in the foam formulation on the properties of polyurethane foams were studied. The properties of the material were measured via a number of parameters, which are water content of prepared polyol, polymer density and cellular structures.

Keywords: polyurethane, soy, phosporic acid

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8 Fabrication of Carbon Doped TiO2 Nanotubes via In-situ Anodization of Ti-foil in Acidic Medium

Authors: Asma M. Milad, Mohammad B. Kassim, Wan R. Daud

Abstract:

Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated onto a pre-treated titanium foil by anodic oxidation with a voltage of 20V in phosphoric acid/sodium fluoride electrolyte. A pretreatment of titanium foil involved washing with acetone, isopropanol, ethanol and deionized water. Carbon doped TiO2 nanotubes (C-TNT) was fabricated 'in-situ' with the same method in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol and urea as carbon sources. The affects of polyvinyl alcohol concentration and oxidation time on the composition, morphology and structure of the C-TN were studied by FE-SEM, EDX and XRD techniques. FESEM images of the nanotubes showed uniform arrays of C-TNTs. The density and microstructures of the nanotubes were greatly affected by the content of PVA. The introduction of the polyvinyl alcohol into the electrolyte increases the amount of C content inside TiO2 nanotube arrays uniformly. The influence of carbon content on the photo-current of C-TNT was investigated and the I-V profiles of the nanotubes were established. The preliminary results indicated that the 'in-situ' doping technique produced a superior quality nanotubes compared to post doping techniques.

Keywords: Photoelectrochemical Cell, thin film, anodization, 'in-situ', post doping, and titania nanotube arrays

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7 Selective and Facilitated Transport of Vanadium (VO2 +) Ion through Supported Liquid Membrane and Effects of Membrane Characteristics

Authors: Danial Husseinzadeh

Abstract:

A new supported liquid membrane (SLM) system for the selective transport of VO2 + ions was prepared in this present work. The SLM was a thin porous polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane soaked with Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as mobile carrier in Xylene as organic solvent. D2EHPA acts as a highly selective carrier for the uphill transport of VO2 + ions through the SLM. The transport of VO2 + ions reached to 64%. In the presence of P2O7-2 ion as suitable masking agent in the feed solution, the interfering effects of other cations were eliminated.

Keywords: Membrane Characteristics, vanadium, Facilitated ion transport, Supported liquid membranes

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6 Long-term Irrigation with Dairy Factory Wastewater Influences Soil Quality

Authors: Yen-Yiu Liu, Richard J. Haynes

Abstract:

The effects of irrigation with dairy factory wastewater on soil properties were investigated at two sites that had received irrigation for > 60 years. Two adjoining paired sites that had never received DFE were also sampled as well as another seven fields from a wider area around the factory. In comparison with paired sites that had not received effluent, long-term wastewater irrigation resulted in an increase in pH, EC, extractable P, exchangeable Na and K and ESP. These changes were related to the use of phosphoric acid, NaOH and KOH as cleaning agents in the factory. Soil organic C content was unaffected by DFE irrigation but the size (microbial biomass C and N) and activity (basal respiration) of the soil microbial community were increased. These increases were attributed to regular inputs of soluble C (e.g. lactose) present as milk residues in the wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the soils data from all 11sites confirmed that the main effects of DFE irrigation were an increase in exchangeable Na, extractable P and microbial biomass C, an accumulation of soluble salts and a liming effect. PCA analysis of soil bacterial community structure, using PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA fragments, generally separated individual sites from one another but did not group them according to irrigation history. Thus, whilst the size and activity of the soil microbial community were increased, the structure and diversity of the bacterial community remained unaffected.

Keywords: irrigation, Dairy factory, wastewater; effluent, soil quality

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5 Enhancing Efficiency for Reducing Sugar from Cassava Bagasse by Pretreatment

Authors: S. Gaewchingduang, P. Pengthemkeerati

Abstract:

Cassava bagasse is one of major biomass wastes in Thailand from starch processing industry, which contains high starch content of about 60%. The object of this study was to investigate the optimal condition for hydrothermally pretreating cassava baggasses with or without acid addition. The pretreated samples were measured reducing sugar yield directly or after enzymatic hydrolysis (alpha-amylase). In enzymatic hydrolysis, the highest reducing sugar content was obtained under hydrothermal conditions for at 125oC for 30 min. The result shows that pretreating cassava baggasses increased the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. For acid hydrolysis, pretreating cassava baggasses with sulfuric acid at 120oC for 60 min gave a maximum reducing sugar yield. In this study, sulfuric acid had a greater capacity for hydrolyzing cassava baggasses than phosphoric acid. In comparison, dilute acid hydrolysis to provide a higher yield of reducing sugar than the enzymatic hydrolysis combined hydrothermal pretreatment. However, enzymatic hydrolysis in a combination with hydrothermal pretreatment was an alternative to enhance efficiency reducing sugar production from cassava bagasse.

Keywords: Enzymatic Hydrolysis, acid hydrolysis, cassava bagasse, hydrothermal pretreatment

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4 Long- term Irrigation with Dairy Factory Wastewater Influences Soil Quality

Authors: Yen-Yiu Liu, Richard J. Haynes

Abstract:

The effects of irrigation with dairy factory wastewater on soil properties were investigated at two sites that had received irrigation for > 60 years. Two adjoining paired sites that had never received DFE were also sampled as well as another seven fields from a wider area around the factory. In comparison with paired sites that had not received effluent, long-term wastewater irrigation resulted in an increase in pH, EC, extractable P, exchangeable Na and K and ESP. These changes were related to the use of phosphoric acid, NaOH and KOH as cleaning agents in the factory. Soil organic C content was unaffected by DFE irrigation but the size (microbial biomass C and N) and activity (basal respiration) of the soil microbial community were increased. These increases were attributed to regular inputs of soluble C (e.g. lactose) present as milk residues in the wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the soils data from all 11sites confirmed that the main effects of DFE irrigation were an increase in exchangeable Na, extractable P and microbial biomass C, an accumulation of soluble salts and a liming effect. PCA analysis of soil bacterial community structure, using PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA fragments, generally separated individual sites from one another but did not group them according to irrigation history. Thus, whilst the size and activity of the soil microbial community were increased, the structure and diversity of the bacterial community remained unaffected.

Keywords: irrigation, Soil Quality, Dairy factory, wastewater; effluent

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3 Molecular Characteristics of Phosphoric Acid Treated Soils

Authors: Amin Eisazadeh, Khairul Anuar Kassim, Hadi Nur

Abstract:

The expansive nature of soils containing high amounts of clay minerals can be altered through chemical stabilization, resulting in a material suitable for construction purposes. The primary objective of this investigation was to study the changes induced in the molecular structure of phosphoric acid stabilized bentonite and lateritic soil using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Based on the obtained data, it was found that a surface alteration mechanism was the main reason responsible for the improvement of treated soils. Furthermore, the results indicated that the Al present in the octahedral layer of clay minerals were more amenable to chemical attacks and also partly responsible for the formation of new products.

Keywords: Stabilization, bentonite, phosphoric acid, Laterite clay, Molecularcharacterization

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2 Adsorption of Cadmium onto Activated and Non-Activated Date Pits

Authors: Munther I. Kandah, Fahmi A. Abu Al-Rub, Lucy Bawarish, Mira Bawarish, Hiba Al-Tamimi, Reem Khalil, Raja'a Sa, ada

Abstract:

In this project cadmium ions were adsorbed from aqueous solutions onto either date pits; a cheap agricultural and nontoxic material, or chemically activated carbon prepared from date pits using phosphoric acid. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch adsorption technique to assess the feasibility of using the prepared adsorbents. The effects of the process variables such as initial cadmium ions concentration, contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption capacity of both adsorbents were studied. The experimental data were tested using different isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin- Radushkevich. The results showed that although the equilibrium data could be described by all models used, Langmuir model gave slightly better results when using activated carbon while Freundlich model, gave better results with date pits.

Keywords: Adsorption, cadmium, chemical activation, DatePits

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1 Preparation and Characterisation of Chemically Activated Almond Shells by Optimization of Adsorption Parameters for Removal of Chromium VI from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Inamullah Bhatti, Khadija Qureshi, R. A. Kazi, Abdul Khalique Ansari

Abstract:

Activated carbon was prepared from agricultural waste “almond (Prunus amygdalus) nut shells" by chemical activation with phosphoric acid as an activating agent at 450 °C for 24 hr soaking time. The physical and chemical properties were analyzed. The adsorption of chromium VI from aqueous solution on almond nut shell activated carbon (ASAC) was investigated. The adsorption process parameters pH, agitation speed, agitation time, adsorbent dose were optimized. 98% of Cr VI was sorbed at pH 2 and stirring speed 200 rpm.. Surface structure showed that ASAC has a spongy type structure showing large number of pores

Keywords: Adsorption, sorbent, sorbate and activation

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