Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: phase angle

21 Rotor Dynamic Analysis for a Shaft Train by Using Finite Element Method

Authors: M. Najafi

Abstract:

In the present paper, a large turbo-generator shaft train including a heavy-duty gas turbine engine, a coupling, and a generator is established. The method of analysis is based on finite element simplified model for lateral and torsional vibration calculation. The basic elements of rotor are the shafts and the disks which are represented as circular cross section flexible beams and rigid body elements, respectively. For more accurate results, the gyroscopic effect and bearing dynamics coefficients and function of rotation are taken into account, and for the influence of shear effect, rotor has been modeled in the form of Timoshenko beam. Lateral critical speeds, critical speed map, damped mode shapes, Campbell diagram, zones of instability, amplitudes, phase angles response due to synchronous forces of excitation and amplification factor are calculated. Also, in the present paper, the effect of imbalanced rotor and effects of changing in internal force and temperature are studied.

Keywords: Rotor dynamic analysis, Finite element method, shaft train, Campbell diagram.

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20 Impact of Fischer-Tropsch Wax on Ethylene Vinyl Acetate/Waste Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen: An Energy-Sustainability Nexus

Authors: Keith D. Nare, Mohau J. Phiri, James Carson, Chris D. Woolard, Shanganyane P. Hlangothi

Abstract:

In an energy-intensive world, minimizing energy consumption is paramount to cost saving and reducing the carbon footprint. Improving mixture procedures utilizing warm mix additive Fischer-Tropsch (FT) wax in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and modified bitumen highlights a greener and sustainable approach to modified bitumen. In this study, the impact of FT wax on optimized EVA/waste crumb rubber modified bitumen is assayed with a maximum loading of 2.5%. The rationale of the FT wax loading is to maintain the original maximum loading of EVA in the optimized mixture. The phase change abilities of FT wax enable EVA co-crystallization with the support of the elastomeric backbone of crumb rubber. Less than 1% loading of FT wax worked in the EVA/crumb rubber modified bitumen energy-sustainability nexus. Response surface methodology approach to the mixture design is implemented amongst the different loadings of FT wax, EVA for a consistent amount of crumb rubber and bitumen. Rheological parameters (complex shear modulus, phase angle and rutting parameter) were the factors used as performance indicators of the different optimized mixtures. The low temperature chemistry of the optimized mixtures is analyzed using elementary beam theory and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. Master curves and black space diagrams are developed and used to predict age-induced cracking of the different long term aged mixtures. Modified binder rheology reveals that the strain response is not linear and that there is substantial re-arrangement of polymer chains as stress is increased, this is based on the age state of the mixture and the FT wax and EVA loadings. Dominance of individual effects is evident over effects of synergy in co-interaction of EVA and FT wax. All-inclusive FT wax and EVA formulations were best optimized in mixture 4 with mixture 7 reflecting increase in ease of workability. Findings show that interaction chemistry of bitumen, crumb rubber EVA, and FT wax is first and second order in all cases involving individual contributions and co-interaction amongst the components of the mixture.

Keywords: Bitumen, crumb rubber, ethylene vinyl acetate, FT wax.

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19 Theoretical Study on the Forced Vibration of One Degree of Freedom System, Equipped with Inerter, under Load-Type or Displacement-Type Excitation

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this paper, a theoretical study on the forced vibration of one degree of freedom system equipped with inerter, working under load-type or displacement-type excitation, is presented. Differential equations of movement are solved under cosinusoidal excitation, and explicit relations for the magnitude, resonant magnitude, phase angle, resonant frequency, and critical frequency are obtained. Influence of the inertance and damping on these dynamic characteristics is clarified. From the obtained results, one concludes that the inerter increases the magnitude of vibration and the phase angle of the damped mechanical system. Moreover, the magnitude ratio and difference of phase angles are not depending on the actual type of excitation. Consequently, such kind of similitude allows for the comparison of various theoretical and experimental results, which can be broadly found in the literature.

Keywords: One degree of freedom vibration, inerter, parallel connection, load-type excitation, displacement-type excitation.

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18 Study on the Application of Lime to Improve the Rheological Properties of Polymer Modified Bitumen

Authors: A. Chegenizadeh, M. Keramatikerman, H. Nikraz

Abstract:

Bitumen is one of the most applicable materials in pavement engineering. It is a binding material with unique viscoelastic properties, especially when it mixes with polymer. In this study, to figure out the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer modified with bitumen (PMB), a series of dynamic shearing rheological (DSR) tests were conducted. Four percentages of lime (i.e. 1%, 2%, 4% and 5%) were mixed with PMB and tested under four different temperatures including 64ºC, 70ºC, 76ºC and 82ºC. The results indicated that complex shearing modulus (G*) increased by increasing the frequency due to raised resistance against deformation. The phase angle (δ) showed a decreasing trend by incrementing the frequency. The addition of lime percentages increased the complex modulus value and declined phase angle parameter. Increasing the temperature decreased the complex modulus and increased the phase angle until 70ºC. The decreasing trend of rutting factor with increasing temperature revealed that rutting factor improved by the addition of the lime to the PMB.

Keywords: Rheological properties, DSR test, polymer mixed with bitumen, complex modulus, lime.

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17 Numerical Investigations on Dynamic Stall of a Pitching-Plunging Helicopter Blade Airfoil

Authors: Xie Kai, Laith K. Abbas, Chen Dongyang, Yang Fufeng, Rui Xiaoting

Abstract:

Effect of plunging motion on the pitch oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A simulation model based on overset grid technology and k - ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is established, and the numerical simulation results are compared with available experimental data and other simulations. Two cases of phase angle φ = 0, μ which represents the phase difference between the pitching and plunging motions of an airfoil are performed. Airfoil vortex generation, moving, and shedding are discussed in detail. Good agreements have been achieved with the available literature. The upward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack less than the actual one during pitching analysis. It is observed that the formation of the stall vortex is suppressed, resulting in a decrease in the lift coefficient and a delay of the stall angle. However, the downward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack higher the actual one.

Keywords: Dynamic stall, pitching-plunging, computational fluid dynamics, helicopter blade rotor, airfoil.

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16 Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır

Abstract:

In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.

Keywords: Transformer, simulation, equivalent model, parallel series combinations.

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15 Theoretical Investigation on the Dynamic Characteristics of One Degree of Freedom Vibration System Equipped with Inerter of Variable Inertance

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Yoshiki Tsuji

Abstract:

In this paper, a theoretical investigation on the dynamic characteristics of one degree of freedom vibration system equipped with inerter of variable inertance, is presented. Differential equation of movement was solved under proper initial conditions in the case of free undamped/damped vibration, considered in the absence/presence of the inerter in the mechanical system. Influence of inertance on the amplitude of vibration, phase angle, natural frequency, damping ratio, and logarithmic decrement was clarified. It was mainly found that the inerter decreases the natural frequency of the undamped system and also of the damped system if the damping ratio is below 0.707. On the other hand, the inerter increases the natural frequency of the damped system if the damping ratio exceeds 0.707. Results obtained in this work are useful for the adequate design of inerters.

Keywords: One degree of freedom vibration system, inerter, parallel connection, variable inertance, frequency control, damping.

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14 Experimental Investigations on Nanoclay (Cloisite-15A) Modified Bitumen

Authors: Ashish Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar Suman

Abstract:

This study investigated the influence of Cloisite-15A nanoclay on the physical, performance, and mechanical properties of bitumen binder. Cloisite-15A was blended in the bitumen in variegated percentages from 1% to 9% with increment of 2%. The blended bitumen was characterized using penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity using rotational viscometer, and compared with unmodified bitumen equally penetration grade 60/70. The rheological parameters were investigated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), and mechanical properties were investigated by using Marshall Stability test. The results indicated an increase in softening point, dynamic viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. Rheological properties of bitumen increase complex modulus, decrease phase angle and improve rutting resistances as well. There was significant improvement in Marshall Stability, rather marginal improvement in flow value. The best improvement in the modified binder was obtained with 5% Cloisite-15A nanoclay.

Keywords: Cloisite-15A, complex shear modulus, phase angle, rutting resistance.

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13 Streamwise Vorticity in the Wake of a Sliding Bubble

Authors: R. O’Reilly Meehan, D. B. Murray

Abstract:

In many practical situations, bubbles are dispersed in a liquid phase. Understanding these complex bubbly flows is therefore a key issue for applications such as shell and tube heat exchangers, mineral flotation and oxidation in water treatment. Although a large body of work exists for bubbles rising in an unbounded medium, that of bubbles rising in constricted geometries has received less attention. The particular case of a bubble sliding underneath an inclined surface is common to two-phase flow systems. The current study intends to expand this knowledge by performing experiments to quantify the streamwise flow structures associated with a single sliding air bubble under an inclined surface in quiescent water. This is achieved by means of two-dimensional, two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV), performed with a continuous wave laser and high-speed camera. PIV vorticity fields obtained in a plane perpendicular to the sliding surface show that there is significant bulk fluid motion away from the surface. The associated momentum of the bubble means that this wake motion persists for a significant time before viscous dissipation. The magnitude and direction of the flow structures in the streamwise measurement plane are found to depend on the point on its path through which the bubble enters the plane. This entry point, represented by a phase angle, affects the nature and strength of the vortical structures. This study reconstructs the vorticity field in the wake of the bubble, converting the field at different instances in time to slices of a large-scale wake structure. This is, in essence, Taylor’s ”frozen turbulence” hypothesis. Applying this to the vorticity fields provides a pseudo three-dimensional representation from 2-D data, allowing for a more intuitive understanding of the bubble wake. This study provides insights into the complex dynamics of a situation common to many engineering applications, particularly shell and tube heat exchangers in the nucleate boiling regime.

Keywords: Bubbly flow, particle image velocimetry, two-phase flow, wake structures.

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12 A Study on Fatigue Performance of Asphalt Using AMPT

Authors: Yuan Jie Kelvin Lu, Amin Chegenizadeh

Abstract:

Asphalt pavement itself is a mixture made up of mainly aggregates, binders, and fillers that acts as a composition used for pavement construction. An experimental program was setup to determine the fatigue performance test of Asphalt with three different grades of conventional binders. Asphalt specimen has achieved the maximum optimum bulk density and air voids with a consistent bulk density of 2.3 t/m3, with an air void of 5% ± 0.5, before loading into the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tested (AMPT) for fatigue test. The number of cycles is defined as the point where phase angle drops, which is caused by the formation of cracks due to the increasing micro cracks when asphalt is undergoing repeated cycles of loading. Thus, the data collected are analyzed using the drop of phase angle as failure criteria. Based in the data analyzed, it is evident that the fatigue life of asphalt lies on the grade of binder. The result obtained shows that all specimens do experience a drop in phase angle due to macro cracks in the asphalt specimen.

Keywords: Asphalt binder, AMPT, CX test, simplified–viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD).

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11 Comparison of Fundamental Frequency Model and PWM Based Model of UPFC

Authors: S.A. Al-Qallaf, S.A. Al-Mawsawi, A. Haider

Abstract:

Among all FACTS devices, the unified power flow controller (UPFC) is considered to be the most versatile device. This is due to its capability to control all the transmission system parameters (impedance, voltage magnitude, and phase angle). With the growing interest in UPFC, the attention to develop a mathematical model has increased. Several models were introduced for UPFC in literature for different type of studies in power systems. In this paper a novel comparison study between two dynamic models of UPFC with their proposed control strategies.

Keywords: FACTS, UPFC, Dynamic Modeling, PWM, Fundamental Frequency.

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10 Vibration Analysis of an Alstom Typhoon Gas Turbine Power Plant Related to Iran Oil Industry

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Vibration analysis is the most important factor in preventive maintenance. Gas turbine vibration analysis is also one of the most challenging categories in most critical equipment monitoring systems. Utilities are heart of the process in big industrial plants like petrochemical zones. Vibration analysis methods and condition monitoring systems of this kind of equipment developed too much in recent years. On the other hand, too much operation condition consideration in this kind of equipment should be adjusted properly like inlet and outlet pressure and temperature for both turbine and compressor. In this paper the most important tools and hypothesis used for analyzing of gas turbine power plants discussed in details through a real case history related to an Alstom Typhoon gas turbine power plant in Iran oil industries. In addition, the basic principal of vibration behavior caused by mechanical unbalance in gas turbine rotor discussed in details.

Keywords: Vibration analysis, gas turbine, time wave form (TWF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), phase angle.

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9 Lateral and Longitudinal Vibration of a Rotating Flexible Beam Coupled with Torsional Vibration of a Flexible Shaft

Authors: Khaled Alnefaie

Abstract:

In this study, rotating flexible shaft-disk system having flexible beams is considered as a dynamic system. After neglecting nonlinear terms, torsional vibration of the shaft-disk system and lateral and longitudinal vibration of the flexible beam are still coupled through the motor speed. The system has three natural frequencies; the flexible shaft-disk system torsional natural frequency, the flexible beam lateral and longitudinal natural frequencies. Eigenvalue calculations show that while the shaft speed changes, torsional natural frequency of the shaft-disk system and the beam longitudinal natural frequency are not changing but the beam lateral natural frequency changes. Beam lateral natural frequency stays the same as the nonrotating beam lateral natural frequency ωb until the motor speed ωm is equal to ωb. After then ωb increases and remains equal to the motor speed ωm until the motor speed is equal to the shaft-disk system natural frequency ωT. Then the beam lateral natural frequency ωb becomes equal to the natural frequency ωT and stays same while the motor speed ωm is increased. Modal amplitudes and phase angles of the vibrations are also plotted against the motor speed ωm.

Keywords: Rotor dynamics, beam-shaft coupling, beam vibration, flexible shaft.

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8 UPFC Supplementary Controller Design Using Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Damping Low Frequency Oscillations in Power Systems

Authors: A.K. Baliarsingh, S. Panda, A.K. Mohanty, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents a systematic approach for designing Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) based supplementary damping controllers for damping low frequency oscillations in a single-machine infinite-bus power system. Detailed investigations have been carried out considering the four alternatives UPFC based damping controller namely modulating index of series inverter (mB), modulating index of shunt inverter (mE), phase angle of series inverter (δB ) and phase angle of the shunt inverter (δE ). The design problem of the proposed controllers is formulated as an optimization problem and Real- Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed to optimize damping controller parameters. Simulation results are presented and compared with a conventional method of tuning the damping controller parameters to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach.

Keywords: Power System Oscillations, Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), Damping Controller.

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7 Effect of Time-Periodic Boundary Temperature on the Onset of Nanofluid Convection in a Layer of a Saturated Porous Medium

Authors: J.C. Umavathi

Abstract:

The linear stability of nanofluid convection in a horizontal porous layer is examined theoretically when the walls of the porous layer are subjected to time-periodic temperature modulation. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermopherosis, while the Darcy model is used for the porous medium. The analysis revels that for a typical nanofluid (with large Lewis number) the prime effect of the nanofluids is via a buoyancy effect coupled with the conservation of nanoparticles. The contribution of nanoparticles to the thermal energy equation being a second-order effect. It is found that the critical thermal Rayleigh number can be found reduced or decreased by a substantial amount, depending on whether the basic nanoparticle distribution is top-heavy or bottom-heavy. Oscillatory instability is possible in the case of a bottom-heavy nanoparticle distribution, phase angle and frequency of modulation.

Keywords: Brownian motion and thermophoresis, Porous medium, Nanofluid, Natural convection, Thermal modulation.

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6 Correlation between Capacitance and Dissipation Factor used for Assessment of Stator Insulation

Authors: José Luis Oslinger, Luis Carlos Castro

Abstract:

Measurements of capacitance C and dissipation factor tand of the stator insulation system provide useful information about internal defects within the insulation. The index k is defined as the proportionality constant between the changes at high voltage of capacitance DC and of the dissipation factor Dtand . DC and Dtand values were highly correlated when small flat defects were within the insulation and that correlation was lost in the presence of large narrow defects like electrical treeing. The discrimination between small and large defects is made resorting to partial discharge PD phase angle analysis. For the validation of the results, C and tand measurements were carried out in a 15MVA 4160V steam turbine turbogenerator placed in a sugar mill. In addition, laboratory test results obtained by other authors were analyzed jointly. In such laboratory tests, model coil bars subjected to thermal cycling resulted highly degraded and DC and Dtand values were not correlated. Thus, the index k could not be calculated.

Keywords: Aging, capacitance, dissipation factor, electrical treeing, insulation condition, partial discharge.

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5 Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge by Using Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP

Authors: S. Boonpoke, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the effectiveness of artificial intelligent technique to apply for pattern recognition and classification of Partial Discharge (PD). Characteristics of PD signal for pattern recognition and classification are computed from the relation of the voltage phase angle, the discharge magnitude and the repeated existing of partial discharges by using statistical and fractal methods. The simplified fuzzy ARTMAP (SFAM) is used for pattern recognition and classification as artificial intelligent technique. PDs quantities, 13 parameters from statistical method and fractal method results, are inputted to Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP to train system for pattern recognition and classification. The results confirm the effectiveness of purpose technique.

Keywords: Partial discharges, PD Pattern recognition, PDClassification, Artificial intelligent, Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP

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4 Difference of Properties on Surface Leakage and Discharge Currents of Porcelain Insulator Material

Authors: Waluyo, Ngapuli I. Sinisuka, Suwarno, Maman A. Djauhari

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of comparison between leakage currents and discharge currents. The leakage currents were obtained on polluted porcelain insulator. Whereas, the discharge currents were obtained on lightly artificial polluted porcelain specimen. The conducted measurements were leakage current or discharge current and applied voltage. The insulator or specimen was in a hermetically sealed chamber, and the current waveforms were analyzed using FFT. The result indicated that the leakage current (LC) on low RH condition the fifth harmonic would be visible, and followed by the seventh harmonic. The insulator had capacitive property. Otherwise, on 99% relative humidity, the fifth harmonic would also be visible, and the phase angle reached up to 12.2 degree. Whereas, on discharge current, the third harmonic would be visible, and followed by fifth harmonic. The third harmonic would increase as pressure reduced. On this condition, the specimen had a non-linear characteristics

Keywords: leakage current, discharge current, third harmonic, fifth harmonic, porcelain.

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3 LFC Design of a Deregulated Power System with TCPS Using PSO

Authors: H. Shayeghi, H.A. Shayanfar, A. Jalili

Abstract:

In the LFC problem, the interconnections among some areas are the input of disturbances, and therefore, it is important to suppress the disturbances by the coordination of governor systems. In contrast, tie-line power flow control by TCPS located between two areas makes it possible to stabilize the system frequency oscillations positively through interconnection, which is also expected to provide a new ancillary service for the further power systems. Thus, a control strategy using controlling the phase angle of TCPS is proposed for provide active control facility of system frequency in this paper. Also, the optimum adjustment of PID controller's parameters in a robust way under bilateral contracted scenario following the large step load demands and disturbances with and without TCPS are investigated by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. This newly developed control strategy combines the advantage of PSO and TCPS and has simple stricture that is easy to implement and tune. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy a three-area restructured power system is considered as a test system under different operating conditions and system nonlinearities. Analysis reveals that the TCPS is quite capable of suppressing the frequency and tie-line power oscillations effectively as compared to that obtained without TCPS for a wide range of plant parameter changes, area load demands and disturbances even in the presence of system nonlinearities.

Keywords: LFC, TCPS, Dregulated Power System, PowerSystem Control, PSO.

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2 Construction and Performance Characterization of the Looped-Tube Travelling-Wave Thermoacoustic Engine with Ceramic Regenerator

Authors: Abdulrahman S. Abduljalil, Zhibin Yu, Artur J. Jaworski, Lei Shi

Abstract:

In a travelling wave thermoacoustic device, the regenerator sandwiched between a pair of (hot and cold) heat exchangers constitutes the so-called thermoacoustic core, where the thermoacoustic energy conversion from heat to acoustic power takes place. The temperature gradient along the regenerator caused by the two heat exchangers excites and maintains the acoustic wave in the resonator. The devices are called travelling wave thermoacoustic systems because the phase angle difference between the pressure and velocity oscillation is close to zero in the regenerator. This paper presents the construction and testing of a thermoacoustic engine equipped with a ceramic regenerator, made from a ceramic material that is usually used as catalyst substrate in vehicles- exhaust systems, with fine square channels (900 cells per square inch). The testing includes the onset temperature difference (minimum temperature difference required to start the acoustic oscillation in an engine), the acoustic power output, thermal efficiency and the temperature profile along the regenerator.

Keywords: Regenerator, Temperature gradient, Thermoacoustic, Travelling-wave.

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1 Fuzzy Control of a Three Phase ThyristorizedInduction Motor

Authors: Abolfazl Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza Feyzi, Sohrab Khanmohammad, Mohammad Bagher Bana Sharifian, Ali Sajjadi

Abstract:

Nowadays the control of stator voltage at a constant frequency is one of the traditional and low expense methods in order to control the speed of induction motors near its nominal speed. The torque of induction motor is a nonlinear function of the firing angle, phase angle and speed. In this paper the speed control of induction motor regarding various load torque and under different conditions will be investigated based on a fuzzy controller with inverse training.

Keywords: Three phase induction motor, AC converter, speedcontrol, fuzzy control.

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