Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: percolation

9 Natural Emergence of a Core Structure in Networks via Clique Percolation

Authors: A. Melka, N. Slater, A. Mualem, Y. Louzoun

Abstract:

Networks are often presented as containing a “core” and a “periphery.” The existence of a core suggests that some vertices are central and form the skeleton of the network, to which all other vertices are connected. An alternative view of graphs is through communities. Multiple measures have been proposed for dense communities in graphs, the most classical being k-cliques, k-cores, and k-plexes, all presenting groups of tightly connected vertices. We here show that the edge number thresholds for such communities to emerge and for their percolation into a single dense connectivity component are very close, in all networks studied. These percolating cliques produce a natural core and periphery structure. This result is generic and is tested in configuration models and in real-world networks. This is also true for k-cores and k-plexes. Thus, the emergence of this connectedness among communities leading to a core is not dependent on some specific mechanism but a direct result of the natural percolation of dense communities.

Keywords: Networks, cliques, percolation, core structure, phase transition.

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8 Ecotoxicological Studies of Soil Using Analytical and Biological Methods: A Review

Authors: V. Chahal, A. Nagpal, Y. B. Pakade, J. K. Katnoria

Abstract:

Soil is a complex physical and biological system that provides support, water, nutrients and oxygen to the plants. Apart from these, it acts as a connecting link between inorganic, organic and living components of the ecosystem. In recent years, presence of xenobiotics, alterations in the natural soil environment, application of pesticides/inorganic fertilizers, percolation of contaminated surface water as well as leachates from landfills to subsurface strata and direct discharge of industrial wastes to the land have resulted in soil pollution which in turn has posed severe threats to human health especially in terms of causing carcinogenicity by direct DNA damage. The present review is an attempt to summarize literature on sources of soil pollution, characterization of pollutants and their consequences in different living systems.

Keywords: Soil Pollution, Contaminants, Heavy metals, Pesticides, Bioassays.

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7 An Automated High Pressure Differential Thermal Analysis System for Phase Transformation Studies

Authors: T. K. Mondal, N C Shivaprakash

Abstract:

A piston cylinder based high pressure differential thermal analyzer system is developed to investigate phase transformations, melting, glass transitions, crystallization behavior of inorganic materials, glassy systems etc., at ambient to 4 GPa and at room temperature to 1073 K. The pressure is calibrated by the phase transition of bismuth and ytterbium and temperature is calibrated by using thermocouple data chart. The system developed is calibrated using benzoic acid, ammonium nitrate and it has a pressure and temperature control of ± 8.9 x 10 -4 GPa , ± 2 K respectively. The phase transition of Asx Te100-x chalcogenides, ferrous oxide and strontium boride are studied using the indigenously developed system.

Keywords: double stage crystallization, Phase transition, Quasi hydrostatic, Rigidity percolation

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6 The Sizes of Large Hierarchical Long-Range Percolation Clusters

Authors: Yilun Shang

Abstract:

We study a long-range percolation model in the hierarchical lattice ΩN of order N where probability of connection between two nodes separated by distance k is of the form min{αβ−k, 1}, α ≥ 0 and β > 0. The parameter α is the percolation parameter, while β describes the long-range nature of the model. The ΩN is an example of so called ultrametric space, which has remarkable qualitative difference between Euclidean-type lattices. In this paper, we characterize the sizes of large clusters for this model along the line of some prior work. The proof involves a stationary embedding of ΩN into Z. The phase diagram of this long-range percolation is well understood.

Keywords: percolation, component, hierarchical lattice, phase transition.

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5 The Giant Component in a Random Subgraph of a Weak Expander

Authors: Yilun Shang

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the appearance of the giant component in random subgraphs G(p) of a given large finite graph family Gn = (Vn, En) in which each edge is present independently with probability p. We show that if the graph Gn satisfies a weak isoperimetric inequality and has bounded degree, then the probability p under which G(p) has a giant component of linear order with some constant probability is bounded away from zero and one. In addition, we prove the probability of abnormally large order of the giant component decays exponentially. When a contact graph is modeled as Gn, our result is of special interest in the study of the spread of infectious diseases or the identification of community in various social networks.

Keywords: subgraph, expander, random graph, giant component, percolation.

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4 Percolation Transition with Hidden Variables in Complex Networks

Authors: Zhanli Zhang, Wei Chen, Xin Jiang, Lili Ma, Shaoting Tang, Zhiming Zheng

Abstract:

A new class of percolation model in complex networks, in which nodes are characterized by hidden variables reflecting the properties of nodes and the occupied probability of each link is determined by the hidden variables of the end nodes, is studied in this paper. By the mean field theory, the analytical expressions for the phase of percolation transition is deduced. It is determined by the distribution of the hidden variables for the nodes and the occupied probability between pairs of them. Moreover, the analytical expressions obtained are checked by means of numerical simulations on a particular model. Besides, the general model can be applied to describe and control practical diffusion models, such as disease diffusion model, scientists cooperation networks, and so on.

Keywords: complex networks, percolation transition, hidden variable, occupied probability.

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3 Transport and Fate of Copper in Soils

Authors: S K Sharma, N S Sehkon, S Deswal, Siby John

Abstract:

The presence of toxic heavy metals in industrial effluents is one of the serious threats to the environment. Heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Mercury, Copper, Arsenic are found in the effluents of industries such as foundries, electroplating, petrochemical, battery manufacturing, tanneries, fertilizer, dying, textiles, metallurgical and metal finishing. Tremendous increase of industrial copper usage and its presence in industrial effluents has lead to a growing concern about the fate and effects of Copper in the environment. Percolation of industrial effluents through soils leads to contamination of ground water and soils. The transport of heavy metals and their diffusion into the soils has therefore, drawn the attention of the researchers. In this study, an attempt has been made to delineate the mechanisms of transport and fate of copper in terrestrial environment. Column studies were conducted using perplex glass square column of dimension side 15 cm and 1.35 m long. The soil samples were collected from a natural drain near Mohali (India). The soil was characterized to be poorly graded sandy loam. The soil was compacted to the field dry density level of about 1.6 g/cm3. Break through curves for different depths of the column were plotted. The results of the column study indicated that the copper has high tendency to flow in the soils and fewer tendencies to get absorbed on the soil particles. The t1/2 estimates obtained from the studies can be used for design copper laden wastewater disposal systems.

Keywords: Column study, copper, soil, transport.

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2 Heavy Metals Transport in the Soil Profiles under the Application of Sludge and Wastewater

Authors: A. Behbahaninia, S. A. Mirbagheri, A. H. Javid

Abstract:

Heavy metal transfer in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. The use of sewage sludge and effluents from wastewater treatment plants for irrigation of agricultural lands is on the rise particularly in peri-urban area of developing countries. In this study soil samples under sludge application and wastewater irrigation were studied and soil samples were collected in the soil profiles from the surface to 100 cm in depth. For this purpose, three plots were made in a treatment plant in south of Tehran-Iran. First plot was irrigated just with effluent from wastewater treatment plant, second plot with simulated heavy metals concentration equal 50 years irrigation and in third plot sewage sludge and effluent was used. Trace metals concentration (Cd, Cu) were determined for soil samples. The results indicate movement of metals was observed, but the most concentration of metals was found in topsoil samples. The most of Cadmium concentration was measured in the topsoil of plot 3, 4.5mg/kg and Maximum cadmium movement was observed in 0-20 cm. The most concentration of copper was 27.76mg/kg, and maximum percolation in 0-20 cm. Metals (Cd, Cu) were measured in leached water. Preferential flow and metal complexation with soluble organic apparently allow leaching of heavy metals.

Keywords: Heavy metal, sludge, soil, transport.

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1 Estimation of Broadcast Probability in Wireless Adhoc Networks

Authors: Bharadwaj Kadiyala, Sunitha V

Abstract:

Most routing protocols (DSR, AODV etc.) that have been designed for wireless adhoc networks incorporate the broadcasting operation in their route discovery scheme. Probabilistic broadcasting techniques have been developed to optimize the broadcast operation which is otherwise very expensive in terms of the redundancy and the traffic it generates. In this paper we have explored percolation theory to gain a different perspective on probabilistic broadcasting schemes which have been actively researched in the recent years. This theory has helped us estimate the value of broadcast probability in a wireless adhoc network as a function of the size of the network. We also show that, operating at those optimal values of broadcast probability there is at least 25-30% reduction in packet regeneration during successful broadcasting.

Keywords: Crossover length, Percolation, Probabilistic broadcast, Wireless adhoc networks

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