Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 212

Search results for: path constraints

212 A Feasible Path Selection QoS Routing Algorithm with two Constraints in Packet Switched Networks

Authors: P.S.Prakash, S.Selvan

Abstract:

Over the past several years, there has been a considerable amount of research within the field of Quality of Service (QoS) support for distributed multimedia systems. One of the key issues in providing end-to-end QoS guarantees in packet networks is determining a feasible path that satisfies a number of QoS constraints. The problem of finding a feasible path is NPComplete if number of constraints is more than two and cannot be exactly solved in polynomial time. We proposed Feasible Path Selection Algorithm (FPSA) that addresses issues with pertain to finding a feasible path subject to delay and cost constraints and it offers higher success rate in finding feasible paths.

Keywords: feasible path, multiple constraints, path selection, QoS routing

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211 An Efficient and Optimized Multi Constrained Path Computation for Real Time Interactive Applications in Packet Switched Networks

Authors: P.S. Prakash, S. Selvan

Abstract:

Quality of Service (QoS) Routing aims to find path between source and destination satisfying the QoS requirements which efficiently using the network resources and underlying routing algorithm and to fmd low-cost paths that satisfy given QoS constraints. One of the key issues in providing end-to-end QoS guarantees in packet networks is determining feasible path that satisfies a number of QoS constraints. We present a Optimized Multi- Constrained Routing (OMCR) algorithm for the computation of constrained paths for QoS routing in computer networks. OMCR applies distance vector to construct a shortest path for each destination with reference to a given optimization metric, from which a set of feasible paths are derived at each node. OMCR is able to fmd feasible paths as well as optimize the utilization of network resources. OMCR operates with the hop-by-hop, connectionless routing model in IP Internet and does not create any loops while fmding the feasible paths. Nodes running OMCR not necessarily maintaining global view of network state such as topology, resource information and routing updates are sent only to neighboring nodes whereas its counterpart link-state routing method depend on complete network state for constrained path computation and that incurs excessive communication overhead.

Keywords: QoS Routing, Optimization, feasible path, multiple constraints.

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210 Coerced Delay and Multi Additive Constraints QoS Routing Schemes

Authors: P.S. Prakash, S. Selvan

Abstract:

IP networks are evolving from data communication infrastructure into many real-time applications such as video conferencing, IP telephony and require stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. A rudimentary issue in QoS routing is to find a path between a source-destination pair that satisfies two or more endto- end constraints and termed to be NP hard or complete. In this context, we present an algorithm Multi Constraint Path Problem Version 3 (MCPv3), where all constraints are approximated and return a feasible path in much quicker time. We present another algorithm namely Delay Coerced Multi Constrained Routing (DCMCR) where coerce one constraint and approximate the remaining constraints. Our algorithm returns a feasible path, if exists, in polynomial time between a source-destination pair whose first weight satisfied by the first constraint and every other weight is bounded by remaining constraints by a predefined approximation factor (a). We present our experimental results with different topologies and network conditions.

Keywords: Routing, Quality-of-Service (QoS), additive constraints, shortest path, delay coercion.

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209 Approximating Maximum Speed on Road from Curvature Information of Bezier Curve

Authors: M. Y. Misro, A. Ramli, J. M. Ali

Abstract:

Bezier curves have useful properties for path generation problem, for instance, it can generate the reference trajectory for vehicles to satisfy the path constraints. Both algorithms join cubic Bezier curve segment smoothly to generate the path. Some of the useful properties of Bezier are curvature. In mathematics, curvature is the amount by which a geometric object deviates from being flat, or straight in the case of a line. Another extrinsic example of curvature is a circle, where the curvature is equal to the reciprocal of its radius at any point on the circle. The smaller the radius, the higher the curvature thus the vehicle needs to bend sharply. In this study, we use Bezier curve to fit highway-like curve. We use different approach to find the best approximation for the curve so that it will resembles highway-like curve. We compute curvature value by analytical differentiation of the Bezier Curve. We will then compute the maximum speed for driving using the curvature information obtained. Our research works on some assumptions; first, the Bezier curve estimates the real shape of the curve which can be verified visually. Even though, fitting process of Bezier curve does not interpolate exactly on the curve of interest, we believe that the estimation of speed are acceptable. We verified our result with the manual calculation of the curvature from the map.

Keywords: Speed estimation, path constraints, reference trajectory, Bezier curve.

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208 New Design Constraints of FIR Filter on Magnitude and Phase of Error Function

Authors: Raghvendra Kumar, Lillie Dewan

Abstract:

Exchange algorithm with constraints on magnitude and phase error separately in new way is presented in this paper. An important feature of the algorithms presented in this paper is that they allow for design constraints which often arise in practical filter design problems. Meeting required minimum stopband attenuation or a maximum deviation from the desired magnitude and phase responses in the passbands are common design constraints that can be handled by the methods proposed here. This new algorithm may have important advantages over existing technique, with respect to the speed and stability of convergence, memory requirement and low ripples.

Keywords: Least square estimation, Constraints, Exchange algorithm.

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207 Fundamental Concepts of Theory of Constraints: An Emerging Philosophy

Authors: Ajay Gupta, Arvind Bhardwaj, Arun Kanda

Abstract:

Dr Eliyahu Goldratt has done the pioneering work in the development of Theory of Constraints. Since then, many more researchers around the globe are working to enhance this body of knowledge. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compile the salient features of this theory from the work done by Goldratt and other researchers. This paper will provide a good starting point to the potential researchers interested to work in Theory of Constraints. The paper will also help the practicing managers by clarifying their concepts on the theory and will facilitate its successful implementation in their working areas.

Keywords: Drum-Buffer-Rope, Goldratt, ProductionScheduling, Theory of Constraints.

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206 Application of Wavelet Neural Networks in Optimization of Skeletal Buildings under Frequency Constraints

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghasemi, Amin Ghorbani

Abstract:

The main goal of the present work is to decrease the computational burden for optimum design of steel frames with frequency constraints using a new type of neural networks called Wavelet Neural Network. It is contested to train a suitable neural network for frequency approximation work as the analysis program. The combination of wavelet theory and Neural Networks (NN) has lead to the development of wavelet neural networks. Wavelet neural networks are feed-forward networks using wavelet as activation function. Wavelets are mathematical functions within suitable inner parameters, which help them to approximate arbitrary functions. WNN was used to predict the frequency of the structures. In WNN a RAtional function with Second order Poles (RASP) wavelet was used as a transfer function. It is shown that the convergence speed was faster than other neural networks. Also comparisons of WNN with the embedded Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and with approximate techniques and also with analytical solutions are available in the literature.

Keywords: Weight Minimization, Frequency Constraints, Steel Frames, ANN, WNN, RASP Function.

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205 Qmulus – A Cloud Driven GPS Based Tracking System for Real-Time Traffic Routing

Authors: Niyati Parameswaran, Bharathi Muthu, Madiajagan Muthaiyan

Abstract:

This paper presents Qmulus- a Cloud Based GPS Model. Qmulus is designed to compute the best possible route which would lead the driver to the specified destination in the shortest time while taking into account real-time constraints. Intelligence incorporated to Qmulus-s design makes it capable of generating and assigning priorities to a list of optimal routes through customizable dynamic updates. The goal of this design is to minimize travel and cost overheads, maintain reliability and consistency, and implement scalability and flexibility. The model proposed focuses on reducing the bridge between a Client Application and a Cloud service so as to render seamless operations. Qmulus-s system model is closely integrated and its concept has the potential to be extended into several other integrated applications making it capable of adapting to different media and resources.

Keywords: Cloud Services, GPS, Real-Time Constraints, Shortest Path, System Management and Traffic Routing

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204 Assessment of Path Loss Prediction Models for Wireless Propagation Channels at L-Band Frequency over Different Micro-Cellular Environments of Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: C. I. Abiodun, S. O. Azi, J. S. Ojo, P. Akinyemi

Abstract:

The design of accurate and reliable mobile communication systems depends majorly on the suitability of path loss prediction methods and the adaptability of the methods to various environments of interest. In this research, the results of the adaptability of radio channel behavior are presented based on practical measurements carried out in the 1800 MHz frequency band. The measurements are carried out in typical urban, suburban and rural environments in Ekiti State, Southwestern part of Nigeria. A total number of seven base stations of MTN GSM service located in the studied environments were monitored. Path loss and break point distances were deduced from the measured received signal strength (RSS) and a practical path loss model is proposed based on the deduced break point distances. The proposed two slope model, regression line and four existing path loss models were compared with the measured path loss values. The standard deviations of each model with respect to the measured path loss were estimated for each base station. The proposed model and regression line exhibited lowest standard deviations followed by the Cost231-Hata model when compared with the Erceg Ericsson and SUI models. Generally, the proposed two-slope model shows closest agreement with the measured values with a mean error values of 2 to 6 dB. These results show that, either the proposed two slope model or Cost 231-Hata model may be used to predict path loss values in mobile micro cell coverage in the well-considered environments. Information from this work will be useful for link design of microwave band wireless access systems in the region.

Keywords: Break-point distances, path loss models, path loss exponent, received signal strength.

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203 Discovery of Time Series Event Patterns based on Time Constraints from Textual Data

Authors: Shigeaki Sakurai, Ken Ueno, Ryohei Orihara

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method that discovers time series event patterns from textual data with time information. The patterns are composed of sequences of events and each event is extracted from the textual data, where an event is characteristic content included in the textual data such as a company name, an action, and an impression of a customer. The method introduces 7 types of time constraints based on the analysis of the textual data. The method also evaluates these constraints when the frequency of a time series event pattern is calculated. We can flexibly define the time constraints for interesting combinations of events and can discover valid time series event patterns which satisfy these conditions. The paper applies the method to daily business reports collected by a sales force automation system and verifies its effectiveness through numerical experiments.

Keywords: Text mining, sequential mining, time constraints, daily business reports.

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202 Application of Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star-Smart and G2 Quintic Pythagorean Hodograph Curves to the UAV Path Planning Problem

Authors: Luiz G. Véras, Felipe L. Medeiros, Lamartine F. Guimarães

Abstract:

This work approaches the automatic planning of paths for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) through the application of the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star-Smart (RRT*-Smart) algorithm. RRT*-Smart is a sampling process of positions of a navigation environment through a tree-type graph. The algorithm consists of randomly expanding a tree from an initial position (root node) until one of its branches reaches the final position of the path to be planned. The algorithm ensures the planning of the shortest path, considering the number of iterations tending to infinity. When a new node is inserted into the tree, each neighbor node of the new node is connected to it, if and only if the extension of the path between the root node and that neighbor node, with this new connection, is less than the current extension of the path between those two nodes. RRT*-smart uses an intelligent sampling strategy to plan less extensive routes by spending a smaller number of iterations. This strategy is based on the creation of samples/nodes near to the convex vertices of the navigation environment obstacles. The planned paths are smoothed through the application of the method called quintic pythagorean hodograph curves. The smoothing process converts a route into a dynamically-viable one based on the kinematic constraints of the vehicle. This smoothing method models the hodograph components of a curve with polynomials that obey the Pythagorean Theorem. Its advantage is that the obtained structure allows computation of the curve length in an exact way, without the need for quadratural techniques for the resolution of integrals.

Keywords: Path planning, path smoothing, Pythagorean hodograph curve, RRT*-Smart.

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201 Optimal SSSC Placement to ATC Enhancing in Power Systems

Authors: Sh. Javadi, A. Alijani, A.H. Mazinan

Abstract:

This paper reviews the optimization available transmission capability (ATC) of power systems using a device of FACTS named SSSC equipped with energy storage devices. So that, emplacement and improvement of parameters of SSSC will be illustrated. Thus, voltage magnitude constraints of network buses, line transient stability constraints and voltage breakdown constraints are considered. To help the calculations, a comprehensive program in DELPHI is provided, which is able to simulate and trace the parameters of SSSC has been installed on a specific line. Furthermore, the provided program is able to compute ATC, TTC and maximum value of their enhancement after using SSSC.

Keywords: available transmission capability (ATC), total transmission capability (TTC), voltage constraints, stability constraints, FACTS, SSSC.

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200 Control and Simulation of FOPDT Food Processes with Constraints using PI Controller

Authors: M.Y. Pua, M.C. Tan, L.W. Tan, N. Ab.Aziz, F.S. Taip

Abstract:

The most common type of controller being used in the industry is PI(D) controller which has been used since 1945 and is still being widely used due to its efficiency and simplicity. In most cases, the PI(D) controller was tuned without taking into consideration of the effect of actuator saturation. In real processes, the most common actuator which is valve will act as constraint and restrict the controller output. Since the controller is not designed to encounter saturation, the process may windup and consequently resulted in large oscillation or may become unstable. Usually, an antiwindup compensator is added to the feedback control loop to reduce the deterioration effect of integral windup. This research aims to specifically control processes with constraints. The proposed method was applied to two different types of food processes, which are blending and spray drying. Simulations were done using MATLAB and the performances of the proposed method were compared with other conventional methods. The proposed technique was able to control the processes and avoid saturation such that no anti windup compensator is needed.

Keywords: constraints, food process control, first order plusdead time process, PI

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199 Decomposition of Graphs into Induced Paths and Cycles

Authors: I. Sahul Hamid, Abraham V. M.

Abstract:

A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of subgraphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path or an induced cycle in G, then ψ is called an induced path decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced path decomposition of G is called the induced path decomposition number of G and is denoted by πi(G). In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter.

Keywords: Path decomposition, Induced path decomposition, Induced path decomposition number.

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198 Optimal Path Planner for Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M. Imran Akram, Ahmed Pasha, Nabeel Iqbal

Abstract:

In this paper a real-time trajectory generation algorithm for computing 2-D optimal paths for autonomous aerial vehicles has been discussed. A dynamic programming approach is adopted to compute k-best paths by minimizing a cost function. Collision detection is implemented to detect intersection of the paths with obstacles. Our contribution is a novel approach to the problem of trajectory generation that is computationally efficient and offers considerable gain over existing techniques.

Keywords: dynamic programming, graph search, path planning.

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197 Fast Return Path Planning for Agricultural Autonomous Terrestrial Robot in a Known Field

Authors: Carlo Cernicchiaro, Pedro D. Gaspar, Martim L. Aguiar

Abstract:

The agricultural sector is becoming more critical than ever in view of the expected overpopulation of the Earth. The introduction of robotic solutions in this field is an increasingly researched topic to make the most of the Earth's resources, thus going to avoid the problems of wear and tear of the human body due to the harsh agricultural work, and open the possibility of a constant careful processing 24 hours a day. This project is realized for a terrestrial autonomous robot aimed to navigate in an orchard collecting fallen peaches below the trees. When it receives the signal indicating the low battery, it has to return to the docking station where it will replace its battery and then return to the last work point and resume its routine. Considering a preset path in orchards with tree rows with variable length by which the robot goes iteratively using the algorithm D*. In case of low battery, the D* algorithm is still used to determine the fastest return path to the docking station as well as to come back from the docking station to the last work point. MATLAB simulations were performed to analyze the flexibility and adaptability of the developed algorithm. The simulation results show an enormous potential for adaptability, particularly in view of the irregularity of orchard field, since it is not flat and undergoes modifications over time from fallen branch as well as from other obstacles and constraints. The D* algorithm determines the best route in spite of the irregularity of the terrain. Moreover, in this work, it will be shown a possible solution to improve the initial points tracking and reduce time between movements.

Keywords: Path planning, fastest return path, agricultural terrestrial robot, autonomous, docking station.

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196 The Same or Not the Same - On the Variety of Mechanisms of Path Dependence

Authors: Jürgen Beyer

Abstract:

In association with path dependence, researchers often talk of institutional “lock-in", thereby indicating that far-reaching path deviation or path departure are to be regarded as exceptional cases. This article submits the alleged general inclination for stability of path-dependent processes to a critical review. The different reasons for path dependence found in the literature indicate that different continuity-ensuring mechanisms are at work when people talk about path dependence (“increasing returns", complementarity, sequences etc.). As these mechanisms are susceptible to fundamental change in different ways and to different degrees, the path dependence concept alone is of only limited explanatory value. It is therefore indispensable to identify the underlying continuity-ensuring mechanism as well if a statement-s empirical value is to go beyond the trivial, always true “history matters".

Keywords: path dependence, increasing returns, historicalinstitutionalism, lock-in.

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195 Perceived Constraints on Sport Participation among Young Koreans in Australia

Authors: Jae Won Kang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine a broader range of sport constraints perceived by young Koreans in Australia who may need to adjust to changing behavioral expectations due to the socio-cultural transitions. Regardless of gender, in terms of quantitative findings, the most important participation constraints within the seven categories were resources, access, interpersonal, affective, religious, socio-cultural, and physical in that order. The most important constraining items were a lack of time, access, information, adaptive skills, and parental and family support in that order. Qualitative research found young Korean’s participation constraints among three categories (time, parental control and interpersonal constraints). It is possible that different ethnic groups would be constrained by different factors; however, this is outside the scope of this study.

Keywords: Constraints, cultural adjustment, Sport, Young Koreans in Australia.

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194 Intelligent Path Planning for Rescue Robot

Authors: Sohrab Khanmohammadi, Raana Soltani Zarrin

Abstract:

In this paper, a heuristic method for simultaneous rescue robot path-planning and mission scheduling is introduced based on project management techniques, multi criteria decision making and artificial potential fields path-planning. Groups of injured people are trapped in a disastrous situation. These people are categorized into several groups based on the severity of their situation. A rescue robot, whose ultimate objective is reaching injured groups and providing preliminary aid for them through a path with minimum risk, has to perform certain tasks on its way towards targets before the arrival of rescue team. A decision value is assigned to each target based on the whole degree of satisfaction of the criteria and duties of the robot toward the target and the importance of rescuing each target based on their category and the number of injured people. The resulted decision value defines the strength of the attractive potential field of each target. Dangerous environmental parameters are defined as obstacles whose risk determines the strength of the repulsive potential field of each obstacle. Moreover, negative and positive energies are assigned to the targets and obstacles, which are variable with respects to the factors involved. The simulation results show that the generated path for two cases studies with certain differences in environmental conditions and other risk factors differ considerably.

Keywords: Artificial potential field, GERT, path planning

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193 Induced Acyclic Path Decomposition in Graphs

Authors: Abraham V. M., I. Sahul Hamid

Abstract:

A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of graphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path in G, then ψ is called an induced acyclic path decomposition of G and if each Hi is a (induced) cycle in G then ψ is called a (induced) cycle decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced acyclic path decomposition of G is called the induced acyclic path decomposition number of G and is denoted by ¤Çia(G). Similarly the cyclic decomposition number ¤Çc(G) is defined. In this paper we begin an investigation of these parameters.

Keywords: Cycle decomposition, Induced acyclic path decomposition, Induced acyclic path decomposition number.

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192 A Comparative Study of GTC and PSP Algorithms for Mining Sequential Patterns Embedded in Database with Time Constraints

Authors: Safa Adi

Abstract:

This paper will consider the problem of sequential mining patterns embedded in a database by handling the time constraints as defined in the GSP algorithm (level wise algorithms). We will compare two previous approaches GTC and PSP, that resumes the general principles of GSP. Furthermore this paper will discuss PG-hybrid algorithm, that using PSP and GTC. The results show that PSP and GTC are more efficient than GSP. On the other hand, the GTC algorithm performs better than PSP. The PG-hybrid algorithm use PSP algorithm for the two first passes on the database, and GTC approach for the following scans. Experiments show that the hybrid approach is very efficient for short, frequent sequences.

Keywords: Database, GTC algorithm, PSP algorithm, sequential patterns, time constraints.

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191 Context, Challenges, Constraints and Strategies of Non-Profit Organisations in Responding to the Needs of Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Cape Town, South Africa

Authors: C. O’Brien, Chloe Reiss

Abstract:

While South Africa has been the chosen host country for over 1,2 million asylum seekers/refugees it has at the same time, been struggling to address the needs of its own people who are still trapped in poverty with little prospects of employment. This limited exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken in Cape Town with a purposive sample of 21 key personnel from various NPOs providing a service to asylum seekers/refugees. Individual in-depth face to face interviews were carried out and the main findings were: Some of the officials at the Department of Home Affairs, health personnel, landlords, school principals, employers, bank officials and police officers were prejudicial in their practices towards asylum seekers/ refugees. The major constraints experienced by NPOs in this study were linked to a lack of funding and minimal government support, strained relationship with the Department of Home Affairs and difficulties in accessing refugees. And finally, the strategies adopted by these NPOs included networking with other service providers, engaging in advocacy, raising community awareness and liaising with government. Thus, more focused intervention strategies are needed to build social cohesion, address prejudices which fuels xenophobic attacks and raise awareness/educate various sectors about refugee rights. Given this burgeoning global problem, social work education and training should include curriculum content on migrant issues. Furthermore, larger studies using mixed methodology approaches would yield more nuanced data and provide for more strategic interventions.

Keywords: Refugees and asylum seekers, non-profit organisations, refugee challenges, constraints of service delivery.

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190 Job Shop Scheduling: Classification, Constraints and Objective Functions

Authors: Majid Abdolrazzagh-Nezhad, Salwani Abdullah

Abstract:

The job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is an important decision facing those involved in the fields of industry, economics and management. This problem is a class of combinational optimization problem known as the NP-hard problem. JSSPs deal with a set of machines and a set of jobs with various predetermined routes through the machines, where the objective is to assemble a schedule of jobs that minimizes certain criteria such as makespan, maximum lateness, and total weighted tardiness. Over the past several decades, interest in meta-heuristic approaches to address JSSPs has increased due to the ability of these approaches to generate solutions which are better than those generated from heuristics alone. This article provides the classification, constraints and objective functions imposed on JSSPs that are available in the literature.

Keywords: Job-shop scheduling, classification, constraints, objective functions.

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189 Spin Coherent State Path Integral for the Interaction of Two-Level System with Time Dependent Non-Uniform Magnetic Field

Authors: Rekik Rima, Aouachria Mekki

Abstract:

We study the movement of a two-level atom in interaction with time dependent nonuniform magnetic filed using the path integral formalism. The propagator is first written in the standard form by replacing the spin by a unit vector aligned along the polar and azimuthal directions. Then it is determined exactly using perturbation methods. Thus the Rabi formula of the system are deduced.

Keywords: Path integral, Formalism, Propagator, Transition probability.

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188 Providing On-Demand Path and Arrival Time Information Considering Realtime Delays of Buses

Authors: Yoshifumi Ishizaki, Naoki Kanatani, Masaki Ito, Toshihiko Sasama, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the bus location system for the route bus through the experiment in the real environment. A bus location system is a system that provides information such as the bus delay and positions. This system uses actual services and positions data of buses, and those information should match data on the database. The system has two possible problems. One, the system could cost high in preparing devices to get bus positions. Two, it could be difficult to match services data of buses. To avoid these problems, we have developed this system at low cost and short time by using the smart phone with GPS and the bus route system. This system realizes the path planning considering bus delay and displaying position of buses on the map. The bus location system was demonstrated on route buses with smart phones for two months.

Keywords: Route Bus, Path Planning System, GPS, Smart Phone.

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187 Evaluating Performance of Quality-of-Service Routing in Large Networks

Authors: V. Narasimha Raghavan, M. Venkatesh, T. Peer Meera Labbai, Praveen Dwarakanath Prabhu

Abstract:

The performance and complexity of QoS routing depends on the complex interaction between a large set of parameters. This paper investigated the scaling properties of source-directed link-state routing in large core networks. The simulation results show that the routing algorithm, network topology, and link cost function each have a significant impact on the probability of successfully routing new connections. The experiments confirm and extend the findings of other studies, and also lend new insight designing efficient quality-of-service routing policies in large networks.

Keywords: QoS, Link-State Routing, Dijkstra, Path Selection, Path Computation.

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186 GenCos- Optimal Bidding Strategy Considering Market Power and Transmission Constraints: A Cournot-based Model

Authors: A. Badri

Abstract:

Restructured electricity markets may provide opportunities for producers to exercise market power maintaining prices in excess of competitive levels. In this paper an oligopolistic market is presented that all Generation Companies (GenCos) bid in a Cournot model. Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to obtain generation scheduling of each GenCo as well as hourly market clearing prices (MCP). In order to consider network constraints a multiperiod framework is presented to simulate market clearing mechanism in which the behaviors of market participants are modelled through piecewise block curves. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) is employed to solve the problem. Impacts of market clearing process on participants- characteristic and final market prices are presented. Consequently, a novel multi-objective model is addressed for security constrained optimal bidding strategy of GenCos. The capability of price-maker GenCos to alter MCP is evaluated through introducing an effective-supply curve. In addition, the impact of exercising market power on the variation of market characteristics as well as GenCos scheduling is studied.

Keywords: Optimal bidding strategy, Cournot equilibrium, market power, network constraints, market auction mechanism

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185 Treatment of Spin-1/2 Particle in Interaction with a Time-Dependent Magnetic Field by the Fermionic Coherent-State Path-Integral Formalism

Authors: Aouachria Mekki

Abstract:

We consider a spin-1/2 particle interacting with a time-dependent magnetic field using path integral formalism. The propagator is first of all written in the standard form replacing the spin by two fermionic oscillators via the Schwinger model. The propagator is then exactly determined, thanks to a simple transformation, and the transition probability is deduced.

Keywords: Path integral, formalism, Propagator.

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184 A Review on Comparative Analysis of Path Planning and Collision Avoidance Algorithms

Authors: Divya Agarwal, Pushpendra S. Bharti

Abstract:

Autonomous mobile robots (AMR) are expected as smart tools for operations in every automation industry. Path planning and obstacle avoidance is the backbone of AMR as robots have to reach their goal location avoiding obstacles while traversing through optimized path defined according to some criteria such as distance, time or energy. Path planning can be classified into global and local path planning where environmental information is known and unknown/partially known, respectively. A number of sensors are used for data collection. A number of algorithms such as artificial potential field (APF), rapidly exploring random trees (RRT), bidirectional RRT, Fuzzy approach, Purepursuit, A* algorithm, vector field histogram (VFH) and modified local path planning algorithm, etc. have been used in the last three decades for path planning and obstacle avoidance for AMR. This paper makes an attempt to review some of the path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms used in the field of AMR. The review includes comparative analysis of simulation and mathematical computations of path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms using MATLAB 2018a. From the review, it could be concluded that different algorithms may complete the same task (i.e. with a different set of instructions) in less or more time, space, effort, etc.

Keywords: Autonomous mobile robots, obstacle avoidance, path planning, and processing time.

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183 A Valley Detection for Path Planning

Authors: In-Geun Lim, Jin-Soo Kim, Chirl-Hwa Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents a constrained valley detection algorithm. The intent is to find valleys in the map for the path planning that enables a robot or a vehicle to move safely. The constraint to the valley is a desired width and a desired depth to ensure the space for movement when a vehicle passes through the valley. We propose an algorithm to find valleys satisfying these 2 dimensional constraints. The merit of our algorithm is that the pre-processing and the post-processing are not necessary to eliminate undesired small valleys. The algorithm is validated through simulation using digitized elevation data.

Keywords: valley, width, depth, path planning.

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