Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Search results for: panels' tilt and direction

91 A Simulation Method to Find the Optimal Design of Photovoltaic Home System in Malaysia, Case Study: A Building Integrated Photovoltaic in Putra Jaya

Authors: Riza Muhida, Maisarah Ali, Puteri Shireen Jahn Kassim, Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Agus G.E. Sutjipto, Afzeri

Abstract:

Over recent years, the number of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) installations for home systems have been increasing in Malaysia. The paper concerns an analysis - as part of current Research and Development (R&D) efforts - to integrate photovoltaics as an architectural feature of a detached house in the new satellite township of Putrajaya, Malaysia. The analysis was undertaken using calculation and simulation tools to optimize performance of BIPV home system. In this study, a the simulation analysis was undertaken for selected bungalow units based on a long term recorded weather data for city of Kuala Lumpur. The simulation and calculation was done with consideration of a PV panels' tilt and direction, shading effect and economical considerations. A simulation of the performance of a grid connected BIPV house in Kuala Lumpur was undertaken. This case study uses a 60 PV modules with power output of 2.7 kW giving an average of PV electricity output is 255 kWh/month..

Keywords: Building integrated photovoltaic, Malaysia, Simulation, panels' tilt and direction.

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90 Effect of Elevation and Wind Direction on Silicon Solar Panel Efficiency

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Homadi

Abstract:

As a great source of renewable energy, solar energy is considered to be one of the most important in the world, since it will be one of solutions cover the energy shortage in the future. Photovoltaic (PV) is the most popular and widely used among solar energy technologies. However, PV efficiency is fairly low and remains somewhat expensive. High temperature has a negative effect on PV efficiency and cooling system for these panels is vital, especially in warm weather conditions. This paper presents the results of a simulation study carried out on silicon solar cells to assess the effects of elevation on enhancing the efficiency of solar panels. The study included four different terrains. The study also took into account the direction of the wind hitting the solar panels. To ensure the simulation mimics reality, six silicon solar panels are designed in two columns and three rows, facing to the south at an angle of 30 o. The elevations are assumed to change from 10 meters to 200 meters. The results show that maximum increase in efficiency occurs when the wind comes from the north, hitting the back of the panels.

Keywords: Solar panels, elevation, wind direction, efficiency.

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89 The Optimization of Sun Collector Parameters

Authors: István Patkó, Hosam Bayoumi Hamuda, András Medve, András Szeder

Abstract:

In order to efficiently solve the problems created by the deepening energy crisis affecting Europe and the world, governments cannot neglect the opportunities of using the energy produced by sun collectors. In many of the EU countries there are sun collectors producing heat energy, e.g. in 2011 in the area of EU27 (countries which belong to European Union) + Switzerland altogether 37519126 m2 were operated, which are capable of producing 26.3 GWh heat energy. The energy produced by these sun collectors is utilized at the place of production. In the near future governments will have to focus more on spreading and using sun collectors. Among the complex problems of operating sun collectors, this article deals with determining the optimal tilt angle, directions of sun collectors. We evaluate the contamination of glass surface of sun collector to the produced energy. Our theoretically results are confirmed by laboratory measurements. The purpose of our work is to help users and engineers in determination of optimal operation parameters of sun collectors.

Keywords: Heat energy, tilt angle, direction of sun collector, contamination of surface.

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88 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Optimum tilt angle, global solar radiation, tilted surface.

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87 Real-time Target Tracking Using a Pan and Tilt Platform

Authors: Moulay A. Akhloufi

Abstract:

In recent years, we see an increase of interest for efficient tracking systems in surveillance applications. Many of the proposed techniques are designed for static cameras environments. When the camera is moving, tracking moving objects become more difficult and many techniques fail to detect and track the desired targets. The problem becomes more complex when we want to track a specific object in real-time using a moving Pan and Tilt camera system to keep the target within the image. This type of tracking is of high importance in surveillance applications. When a target is detected at a certain zone, the possibility of automatically tracking it continuously and keeping it within the image until action is taken is very important for security personnel working in very sensitive sites. This work presents a real-time tracking system permitting the detection and continuous tracking of targets using a Pan and Tilt camera platform. A novel and efficient approach for dealing with occlusions is presented. Also a new intelligent forget factor is introduced in order to take into account target shape variations and avoid learning non desired objects. Tests conducted in outdoor operational scenarios show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Tracking, surveillance, target detection, Pan and tilt.

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86 Development of a Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Model Using System Identification Technique

Authors: Antonio Vitale, Nicola Genito, Giovanni Cuciniello, Ferdinando Montemari

Abstract:

The introduction of tilt-rotor aircraft into the existing civilian air transportation system will provide beneficial effects due to tilt-rotor capability to combine the characteristics of a helicopter and a fixed-wing aircraft into one vehicle. The disposability of reliable tilt-rotor simulation models supports the development of such vehicle. Indeed, simulation models are required to design automatic control systems that increase safety, reduce pilot's workload and stress, and ensure the optimal aircraft configuration with respect to flight envelope limits, especially during the most critical flight phases such as conversion from helicopter to aircraft mode and vice versa. This article presents a process to build a simplified tilt-rotor simulation model, derived from the analysis of flight data. The model aims to reproduce the complex dynamics of tilt-rotor during the in-flight conversion phase. It uses a set of scheduled linear transfer functions to relate the autopilot reference inputs to the most relevant rigid body state variables. The model also computes information about the rotor flapping dynamics, which are useful to evaluate the aircraft control margin in terms of rotor collective and cyclic commands. The rotor flapping model is derived through a mixed theoretical-empirical approach, which includes physical analytical equations (applicable to helicopter configuration) and parametric corrective functions. The latter are introduced to best fit the actual rotor behavior and balance the differences existing between helicopter and tilt-rotor during flight. Time-domain system identification from flight data is exploited to optimize the model structure and to estimate the model parameters. The presented model-building process was applied to simulated flight data of the ERICA Tilt-Rotor, generated by using a high fidelity simulation model implemented in FlightLab environment. The validation of the obtained model was very satisfying, confirming the validity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Flapping Dynamics, Flight Dynamics, System Identification, Tilt-Rotor Modeling and Simulation.

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85 Dynamic Response of a Water Tower Composed of Interlocked Panels

Authors: F. Gurkalo, K. Poutos

Abstract:

Earthquakes produce some of the most violent loading situations that a structure can be subjected to and if a structure fails under these loads then inevitably human life is put at risk. One of the most common methods by which a structure fails under seismic loading is at the connection of structural elements. The research presented in this paper investigates the interlock systems as a novel method for building structures. The main objective of this experimental study wasto determine the dynamic characteristics and the seismic behaviour of the proposed structures compared to conventional structural systemsduring seismic motions. Results of this study indicate that the interlock mechanism of the panels influences the behaviour of lateral load-resisting systems of the structures during earthquakes, contributing to better structural flexibility and easier maintenance.

Keywords: Watertower, earthquake, seismic, interlocked panels

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84 Dynamic Model and Control of a New Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Tilt-Wing Mechanism

Authors: Kaan T. Oner, Ertugrul Cetinsoy, Mustafa Unel, Mahmut F. Aksit, Ilyas Kandemir, Kayhan Gulez

Abstract:

In this work a dynamic model of a new quadrotor aerial vehicle that is equipped with a tilt-wing mechanism is presented. The vehicle has the capabilities of vertical take-off/landing (VTOL) like a helicopter and flying horizontal like an airplane. Dynamic model of the vehicle is derived both for vertical and horizontal flight modes using Newton-Euler formulation. An LQR controller for the vertical flight mode has also been developed and its performance has been tested with several simulations.

Keywords: Control, Dynamic model, LQR, Quadrotor, Tilt-wing, VTOL.

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83 An Eigen-Approach for Estimating the Direction-of Arrival of Unknown Number of Signals

Authors: Dia I. Abu-Al-Nadi, M. J. Mismar, T. H. Ismail

Abstract:

A technique for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of unknown number of source signals is presented using the eigen-approach. The eigenvector corresponding to the minimum eigenvalue of the autocorrelation matrix yields the minimum output power of the array. Also, the array polynomial with this eigenvector possesses roots on the unit circle. Therefore, the pseudo-spectrum is found by perturbing the phases of the roots one by one and calculating the corresponding array output power. The results indicate that the DOAs and the number of source signals are estimated accurately in the presence of a wide range of input noise levels.

Keywords: Array signal processing, direction-of-arrival, antenna arrays, eigenvalues, eigenvectors.

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82 Free Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Laminated Composite Panels

Authors: B. Ramgopal Reddy, K. Ramji, B. Satyanarayana

Abstract:

In this paper, free vibration analysis of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced laminated composite panels is presented. Three types of panels such as flat, concave and convex are considered for study. Numerical simulation is carried out using commercially available finite element analysis software ANSYS. Numerical homogenization is employed to calculate the effective elastic properties of randomly distributed carbon nanotube reinforced composites. To verify the accuracy of the finite element method, comparisons are made with existing results available in the literature for conventional laminated composite panels and good agreements are obtained. The results of the CNT reinforced composite materials are compared with conventional composite materials under different boundary conditions.

Keywords: CNT Reinforced Composite Panels, Effective ElasticProperties, Finite Element Method, Natural Frequency.

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81 Derivation of Empirical Formulae to Predict Pressure and Impulsive Asymptotes for P-I Diagrams of One-way RC Panels

Authors: Azrul A. Mutalib, Masoud Abedini, Shahrizan Baharom, Hong Hao

Abstract:

There are only limited studies that directly correlate the increase in reinforced concrete (RC) panel structural capacities in resisting the blast loads with different RC panel structural properties in terms of blast loading characteristics, RC panel dimensions, steel reinforcement ratio and concrete material strength. In this paper, numerical analyses of dynamic response and damage of the one-way RC panel to blast loads are carried out using the commercial software LS-DYNA. A series of simulations are performed to predict the blast response and damage of columns with different level and magnitude of blast loads. The numerical results are used to develop pressureimpulse (P-I) diagrams of one-way RC panels. Based on the numerical results, the empirical formulae are derived to calculate the pressure and impulse asymptotes of the P-I diagrams of RC panels. The results presented in this paper can be used to construct P-I diagrams of RC panels with different concrete and reinforcement properties. The P-I diagrams are very useful to assess panel capacities in resisting different blast loads.

Keywords: One-way reinforced concrete (RC) panels, Explosive loads, LS-DYNA Software, Pressure-Impulse (P-I) diagram, Numerical.

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80 Effect of Muscle Energy Technique on Anterior Pelvic Tilt in Lumbar Spondylosis Patients

Authors: Enas Elsayed Abutaleb, Mohamed Taher Eldesoky, Shahenda Abd El Rasol

Abstract:

Background: Muscle Energy Techniques (MET) have been widely used by manual therapists over the past years, but still limited research validated its use and there was limited evidence to substantiate the theories used to explain its effects. Objective: To investigate the effect of Muscle Energy Technique (MET) on anterior pelvic tilt in patients with lumbar spondylosis. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Subjects: Thirty patients with anterior pelvic tilt from both sexes were involved, aged between 35 to 50 years old and they were divided into MET and control groups with 15 patients in each. Methods: All patients received 3sessions/week for 4 weeks where the study group received MET, Ultrasound and Infrared, and the control group received U.S and I.R only. Pelvic angle was measured by palpation meter, pain severity by the visual analogue scale and functional disabilities by the Oswestry disability index. Results: Both groups showed significant improvement in all measured variables. The MET group was significantly better than the control group in pelvic angle, pain severity, and functional disability as p-value were (0.001, 0.0001, 0.0001) respectively. Conclusion and implication: the study group fulfilled greater improvement in all measured variables than the control group which implies that application of MET in combination with U.S and I.R were more effective in improving pelvic tilting angle, pain severity and functional disabilities than using electrotherapy only.

Keywords: Anterior pelvic tilt, lumbar spondylosis, muscle energy technique exercise, palpation meter.

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79 Dynamic Analysis of Composite Doubly Curved Panels with Variable Thickness

Authors: I. Algul, G. Akgun, H. Kurtaran

Abstract:

Dynamic analysis of composite doubly curved panels with variable thickness subjected to different pulse types using Generalized Differential Quadrature method (GDQ) is presented in this study. Panels with variable thickness are used in the construction of aerospace and marine industry. Giving variable thickness to panels can allow the designer to get optimum structural efficiency. For this reason, estimating the response of variable thickness panels is very important to design more reliable structures under dynamic loads. Dynamic equations for composite panels with variable thickness are obtained using virtual work principle. Partial derivatives in the equation of motion are expressed with GDQ and Newmark average acceleration scheme is used for temporal discretization. Several examples are used to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared with finite element method. Effects of taper ratios, boundary conditions and loading type on the response of composite panel are investigated.

Keywords: Generalized differential quadrature method, doubly curved panels, laminated composite materials, small displacement.

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78 Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of AAC infilled Sandwich Panels for out of Plane Loads

Authors: Al-Kashif M., Abdel-Mooty M., Fahmy E., Abou Zeid M., Haroun M.

Abstract:

Sandwich panels are widely used in the construction industry for their ease of assembly, light weight and efficient thermal performance. They are composed of two RC thin outer layers separated by an insulating inner layer. In this research the inner insulating layer is made of lightweight Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) blocks which has good thermal insulation properties and yet possess reasonable mechanical strength. The shear strength of the AAC infill is relied upon to replace the traditionally used insulating foam and to provide the shear capacity of the panel. A comprehensive experimental program was conducted on full scale sandwich panels subjected to bending. In this paper, detailed numerical modeling of the tested sandwich panels is reported. Nonlinear 3-D finite element modeling of the composite action of the sandwich panel is developed using ANSYS. Solid elements with different crashing and cracking capabilities and different constitutive laws were selected for the concrete and the AAC. Contact interface elements are used in this research to adequately model the shear transfer at the interface between the different layers. The numerical results showed good correlation with the experimental ones indicating the adequacy of the model in estimating the loading capacity of panels.

Keywords: Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, Concrete Sandwich Panels, Finite Element Modeling.

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77 Effect of One-Handed Pushing and Puling Strength at Different Handle Heights in Vertical Direction

Authors: Tarik H. Badi, Amer A. Boushaala

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to measure the maximal isometric strength and to investigate the effects of different handleheights and elbow angles with respect to Mid. sagittal plane on the pushing and pulling strength in vertical direction. Eight male subjects performed a series of static strength measurement for each subject. The highest isometric strength was found in pulling at shoulder height (S.H.) (Mean = 60.29 lb., SD = 16.78 lb.) and the lowest isometric strength was found also in pulling at elbow height (E.H.) (Mean = 33.06 lb., SD = 6.56 lb.). Although the isometric strengths were higher at S.H than at E.H. for both activities, the maximal isometric strengths were compared statistically. ANOVA was performed. The results of the experiment revealed that there was a significant different between handle heights. However, there were no significant different between angles and activities, also no correlation between grip strength and activities.

Keywords: Pushing and pulling, one arm, vertical direction, isometric strength.

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76 Computational Study of Improving the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Panels in the UAE

Authors: Ben Richard Hughes, Ng Ping Sze Cherisa, Osman Beg

Abstract:

Various solar energy technologies exist and they have different application techniques in the generation of electrical power. The widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) modules in such technologies has been limited by relatively high costs and low efficiencies. The efficiency of PV panels decreases as the operating temperatures increase. This is due to the affect of solar intensity and ambient temperature. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to model the heat transfer from a standard PV panel and thus determine the rate of dissipation of heat. To accurately model the specific climatic conditions of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a case study of a new build green building in Dubai was used. A finned heat pipe arrangement is proposed and analyzed to determine the improved heat dissipation and thus improved performance efficiency of the PV panel. A prototype of the arrangement is built for experimental testing to validate the CFD modeling and proof of concept.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Improving Efficiency, Photovoltaic (PV) Panels, Heat-pipe

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75 Investigation of Long-Term Thermal Insulation Performance of Vacuum Insulation Panels with Various Enveloping Methods

Authors: Inseok Yeo, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

To practically apply vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) to buildings or home appliances, VIPs have demanded long-term lifespan with outstanding insulation performance. Service lives of VIPs enveloped with Al-foil and three-layer Al-metallized envelope are calculated. For Al-foil envelope, the service life is longer but edge conduction is too large compared with the Al-metallized envelope. To increase service life even more, the proposed double enveloping method and metal-barrier-added enveloping method are further analyzed. The service lives of the VIP to employ two enveloping methods are calculated. Also, pressure increase and thermal insulation performance characteristics are investigated. For the metalbarrier- added enveloping method, effective thermal conductivity increase with time is close to that of Al-foil envelope, especially, for getter-inserted VIPs. For double enveloping method, if water vapor is perfectly adsorbed, the effect of service life enhancement becomes much greater. From these methods, the VIP can be guaranteed for service life of more than 20 years.

Keywords: Vacuum insulation panels, Service life, Double enveloping, Metal-barrier-added enveloping, Edge conduction.

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74 Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles

Authors: Hee-Chang Lim

Abstract:

The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.

Keywords: Rectangular bodies, wind direction, aspect ratio, surface pressure distribution, wind-tunnel measurement, k-ε model, DES model, CFD.

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73 Source Direction Detection based on Stationary Electronic Nose System

Authors: Jie Cai, David C. Levy

Abstract:

Electronic nose (array of chemical sensors) are widely used in food industry and pollution control. Also it could be used to locate or detect the direction of the source of emission odors. Usually this task is performed by electronic nose (ENose) cooperated with mobile vehicles, but when a source is instantaneous or surrounding is hard for vehicles to reach, problem occurs. Thus a method for stationary ENose to detect the direction of the source and locate the source will be required. A novel method which uses the ratio between the responses of different sensors as a discriminant to determine the direction of source in natural wind surroundings is presented in this paper. The result shows that the method is accurate and easily to be implemented. This method could be also used in movably, as an optimized algorithm for robot tracking source location.

Keywords: Electronic nose, Nature wind situation, Source direction detection.

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72 Influence of Single and Multiple Skin-Core Debonding on Free Vibration Characteristics of Innovative GFRP Sandwich Panels

Authors: Indunil Jayatilake, Warna Karunasena, Weena Lokuge

Abstract:

An Australian manufacturer has fabricated an innovative GFRP sandwich panel made from E-glass fiber skin and a modified phenolic core for structural applications. Debonding, which refers to separation of skin from the core material in composite sandwiches, is one of the most common types of damage in composites. The presence of debonding is of great concern because it not only severely affects the stiffness but also modifies the dynamic behaviour of the structure. Generally it is seen that the majority of research carried out has been concerned about the delamination of laminated structures whereas skin-core debonding has received relatively minor attention. Furthermore it is observed that research done on composite slabs having multiple skin-core debonding is very limited. To address this gap, a comprehensive research investigating dynamic behaviour of composite panels with single and multiple debonding is presented. The study uses finite-element modelling and analyses for investigating the influence of debonding on free vibration behaviour of single and multilayer composite sandwich panels. A broad parametric investigation has been carried out by varying debonding locations, debonding sizes and support conditions of the panels in view of both single and multiple debonding. Numerical models were developed with Strand7 finite element package by innovatively selecting the suitable elements to diligently represent their actual behavior. Three-dimensional finite element models were employed to simulate the physically real situation as close as possible, with the use of an experimentally and numerically validated finite element model. Comparative results and conclusions based on the analyses are presented. For similar extents and locations of debonding, the effect of debonding on natural frequencies appears greatly dependent on the end conditions of the panel, giving greater decrease in natural frequency when the panels are more restrained. Some modes are more sensitive to debonding and this sensitivity seems to be related to their vibration mode shapes. The fundamental mode seems generally the least sensitive mode to debonding with respect to the variation in free vibration characteristics. The results indicate the effectiveness of the developed three dimensional finite element models in assessing debonding damage in composite sandwich panels.

Keywords: Debonding, free vibration behaviour, GFRP sandwich panels, three dimensional finite element modelling.

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71 Sensitivity Analysis for Direction of Arrival Estimation Using Capon and Music Algorithms in Mobile Radio Environment

Authors: Mustafa Abdalla, Khaled A. Madi, Rajab Farhat

Abstract:

An array antenna system with innovative signal processing can improve the resolution of a source direction of arrival (DoA) estimation. High resolution techniques take the advantage of array antenna structures to better process the incoming waves. They also have the capability to identify the direction of multiple targets. This paper investigates performance of the DOA estimation algorithm namely; Capon and MUSIC on the uniform linear array (ULA). The simulation results show that in Capon and MUSIC algorithm the resolution of the DOA techniques improves as number of snapshots, number of array elements, signal-to-noise ratio and separation angle between the two sources θ increases.

Keywords: Antenna array, Capon, MUSIC, Direction-of-arrival estimation, signal processing, uniform linear arrays.

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70 Using 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles to Improve Flexural Properties of Glass Fibers/Epoxy Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels

Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamed Khosravi, Saba Fayazzadeh

Abstract:

Lightweight and efficient structures have the aim to enhance the efficiency of the components in various industries. Toward this end, composites are one of the most widely used materials because of durability, high strength and modulus, and low weight. One type of the advanced composites is grid-stiffened composite (GSC) structures, which have been extensively considered in aerospace, automotive, and aircraft industries. They are one of the top candidates for replacing some of the traditional components, which are used here. Although there are a good number of published surveys on the design aspects and fabrication of GSC structures, little systematic work has been reported on their material modification to improve their properties, to our knowledge. Matrix modification using nanoparticles is an effective method to enhance the flexural properties of the fibrous composites. In the present study, a silanecoupling agent (3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane/3-GPTS) was introduced onto the silica (SiO2) nanoparticle surface and its effects on the three-point flexural response of isogrid E-glass/epoxy composites were assessed. Based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) spectra, it was inferred that the 3-GPTS coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles after modification. Flexural test revealed an improvement of 16%, 14%, and 36% in stiffness, maximum load and energy absorption of the isogrid specimen filled with 3 wt.% 3- GPTS/SiO2 compared to the neat one. It would be worth mentioning that in these structures, considerable energy absorption was observed after the primary failure related to the load peak. In addition, 3- GPTMS functionalization had a positive effect on the flexural behavior of the multiscale isogrid composites. In conclusion, this study suggests that the addition of modified silica nanoparticles is a promising method to improve the flexural properties of the gridstiffened fibrous composite structures.

Keywords: Isogrid-stiffened composite panels, silica nanoparticles, surface modification, flexural properties.

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69 Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on a Single Port Smart Antenna Using MUSIC Algorithm with Periodic Signals

Authors: Chen Sun, Nemai Chandra Karmakar

Abstract:

A novel direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation technique, which uses a conventional multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm with periodic signals, is applied to a single RF-port parasitic array antenna for direction finding. Simulation results show that the proposed method gives high resolution (1 degree) DOA estimation in an uncorrelated signal environment. The novelty lies in that the MUSIC algorithm is applied to a simplified antenna configuration. Only one RF port and one analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) are used in this antenna, which features low DC power consumption, low cost, and ease of fabrication. Modifications to the conventional MUSIC algorithm do not bring much additional complexity. The proposed technique is also free from the negative influence by the mutual coupling between elements. Therefore, the technique has great potential to be implemented into the existing wireless mobile communications systems, especially at the power consumption limited mobile terminals, to provide additional position location (PL) services.

Keywords: Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR), multiple single classifications (MUSIC), position location.

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68 Inexact Alternating Direction Method for Variational Inequality Problems with Linear Equality Constraints

Authors: Min Sun, Jing Liu

Abstract:

In this article, a new inexact alternating direction method(ADM) is proposed for solving a class of variational inequality problems. At each iteration, the new method firstly solves the resulting subproblems of ADM approximately to generate an temporal point ˜xk, and then the multiplier yk is updated to get the new iterate yk+1. In order to get xk+1, we adopt a new descent direction which is simple compared with the existing prediction-correction type ADMs. For the inexact ADM, the resulting proximal subproblem has closedform solution when the proximal parameter and inexact term are chosen appropriately. We show the efficiency of the inexact ADM numerically by some preliminary numerical experiments.

Keywords: variational inequality problems, alternating direction method, global convergence

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67 Local Buckling of Web-Core and Foam-Core Sandwich Panels

Authors: Ali N. Suri, Ahmad A. Al-Makhlufi

Abstract:

Sandwich construction is widely accepted as a method of construction especially in the aircraft industry. It is a type of stressed skin construction formed by bonding two thin faces to a thick core, the faces resist all of the applied edge loads and provide all or nearly all of the required rigidities, the core spaces the faces to increase cross section moment of inertia about common neutral axis and transmit shear between them provides a perfect bond between core and faces is made.

Material for face sheets can be of metal or reinforced plastics laminates, core material can be metallic cores of thin sheets forming corrugation or honeycomb, or non metallic core of Balsa wood, plastic foams, or honeycomb made of reinforced plastics.

For in plane axial loading web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels can fail by local buckling of plates forming the cross section with buckling wave length of the order of length of spacing between webs.

In this study local buckling of web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels is carried out for given materials of facing and core, and given panel overall dimension for different combinations of cross section geometries.

The Finite Strip Method is used for the analysis, and Fortran based computer program is developed and used.

Keywords: Local Buckling, Finite Strip, Sandwich panels, Web and foam core.

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66 Dynamics of the Moving Ship at Complex and Sudden Impact of External Forces

Authors: Bo Liu, Liangtian Gao, Idrees Qasim

Abstract:

The impact of the storm leads to accidents even in the case of vessels that meet the computed safety criteria for stability. That is why, in order to clarify the causes of the accident and shipwreck, it is necessary to study the dynamics of the ship under the complex sudden impact of external forces. The task is to determine the movement and landing of the ship in the complex and sudden impact of external forces, i.e. when the ship's load changes over a relatively short period of time. For the solution, a technique was used to study the ship's dynamics, which is based on the compilation of a system of differential equations of motion. A coordinate system was adopted for the equation of motion of the hull and the determination of external forces. As a numerical method of integration, the 4th order Runge-Kutta method was chosen. The results of the calculation show that dynamic deviations were lower for high-altitude vessels. The study of the movement of the hull under a difficult situation is performed: receiving of cargo, impact of a flurry of wind and subsequent displacement of the cargo. The risk of overturning and flooding was assessed.

Keywords: Dynamics, statics, roll, trim, dynamic load, tilt, vertical displacement.

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65 Computer Models of the Vestibular Head Tilt Response, and Their Relationship to EVestG and Meniere's Disease

Authors: Daniel Heibert, Brian Lithgow, Kerry Hourigan

Abstract:

This paper attempts to explain response components of Electrovestibulography (EVestG) using a computer simulation of a three-canal model of the vestibular system. EVestG is a potentially new diagnostic method for Meniere's disease. EVestG is a variant of Electrocochleography (ECOG), which has been used as a standard method for diagnosing Meniere's disease - it can be used to measure the SP/AP ratio, where an SP/AP ratio greater than 0.4-0.5 is indicative of Meniere-s Disease. In EVestG, an applied head tilt replaces the acoustic stimulus of ECOG. The EVestG output is also an SP/AP type plot, where SP is the summing potential, and AP is the action potential amplitude. AP is thought of as being proportional to the size of a population of afferents in an excitatory neural firing state. A simulation of the fluid volume displacement in the vestibular labyrinth in response to various types of head tilts (ipsilateral, backwards and horizontal rotation) was performed, and a simple neural model based on these simulations developed. The simple neural model shows that the change in firing rate of the utricle is much larger in magnitude than the change in firing rates of all three semi-circular canals following a head tilt (except in a horizontal rotation). The data suggests that the change in utricular firing rate is a minimum 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than changes in firing rates of the canals during ipsilateral/backward tilts. Based on these results, the neural response recorded by the electrode in our EVestG recordings is expected to be dominated by the utricle in ipsilateral/backward tilts (It is important to note that the effect of the saccule and efferent signals were not taken into account in this model). If the utricle response dominates the EVestG recordings as the modeling results suggest, then EVestG has the potential to diagnose utricular hair cell damage due to a viral infection (which has been cited as one possible cause of Meniere's Disease).

Keywords: Diagnostic, endolymph hydrops, Meniere's disease, modeling.

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64 The Mechanistic Deconvolutive Image Sensor Model for an Arbitrary Pan–Tilt Plane of View

Authors: S. H. Lim, T. Furukawa

Abstract:

This paper presents a generalized form of the mechanistic deconvolution technique (GMD) to modeling image sensors applicable in various pan–tilt planes of view. The mechanistic deconvolution technique (UMD) is modified with the given angles of a pan–tilt plane of view to formulate constraint parameters and characterize distortion effects, and thereby, determine the corrected image data. This, as a result, does not require experimental setup or calibration. Due to the mechanistic nature of the sensor model, the necessity for the sensor image plane to be orthogonal to its z-axis is eliminated, and it reduces the dependency on image data. An experiment was constructed to evaluate the accuracy of a model created by GMD and its insensitivity to changes in sensor properties and in pan and tilt angles. This was compared with a pre-calibrated model and a model created by UMD using two sensors with different specifications. It achieved similar accuracy with one-seventh the number of iterations and attained lower mean error by a factor of 2.4 when compared to the pre-calibrated and UMD model respectively. The model has also shown itself to be robust and, in comparison to pre-calibrated and UMD model, improved the accuracy significantly.

Keywords: Image sensor modeling, mechanistic deconvolution, calibration, lens distortion

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63 Interactive PTZ Camera Control System Using Wii Remote and Infrared Sensor Bar

Authors: A. H. W. Goh, Y. S. Yong, C. H. Chan, S. J. Then, L. P. Chu, S. W. Chau, H. W. Hon

Abstract:

This paper proposes an alternative control mechanism for an interactive Pan/Tilt/Zoom (PTZ) camera control system. Instead of using a mouse or a joystick, the proposed mechanism utilizes a Nintendo Wii remote and infrared (IR) sensor bar. The Wii remote has buttons that allows the user to control the movement of a PTZ camera through Bluetooth connectivity. In addition, the Wii remote has a built-in motion sensor that allows the user to give control signals to the PTZ camera through pitch and roll movement. A stationary IR sensor bar, placed at some distance away opposite the Wii remote, enables the detection of yaw movement. In addition, the Wii remote-s built-in IR camera has the ability to detect its spatial position, and thus generates a control signal when the user moves the Wii remote. Some experiments are carried out and their performances are compared with an industry-standard PTZ joystick.

Keywords: Bluetooth, Infrared, Pan/Tilt/Zoom, PTZ Camera, Visual Surveillance, Wii Remote

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62 Tool Path Generation and Manufacturing Process for Blades of a Compressor Rotor

Authors: C. Tung, P.-L. Tso

Abstract:

This paper presents a complete procedure for tool path planning and blade machining in 5-axis manufacturing. The actual cutting contact and cutter locations can be determined by lead and tilt angles. The tool path generation is implemented by piecewise curved approximation and chordal deviation detection. An application about drive surface method promotes flexibility of tool control and stability of machine motion. A real manufacturing process is proposed to separate the operation into three regions with five stages and to modify the local tool orientation with an interactive algorithm.

Keywords: 5-axis machining, tool orientation, lead and tilt angles, tool path generation.

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