Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: palm shell

8 Thermal Regeneration of CO2 Spent Palm Shell-Polyetheretherketone Activated Carbon Sorbents

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Mohammed Jibril, Husna Mohd Zain

Abstract:

Activated carbons (M4P0, M4P2, and M5P2) used in this research were produced from palm shell and polyetherether ketone (PEEK) via carbonization, impregnation and microwave activation. The adsorption/desorption process was carried out using static volumetric adsorption. Regeneration is important in the overall economy of the process and waste minimization. This work focuses on the thermal regeneration of the CO2 exhausted microwave activated carbons. The regeneration strategy adopted was thermal with nitrogen purge desorption with N2 feed flow rate of 20 ml/min for 1 h at atmospheric pressure followed by drying at 150oC.Seven successive adsorption/regeneration processes were carried out on the material. It was found that after seven adsorption regeneration cycles; the regeneration efficiency (RE) for CO2 activated carbon from palm shell only (M4P0) was more than 90% while that of hybrid palm shell-PEEK (M4P2, M5P2) was above 95%. The cyclic adsorption and regeneration shows the stability of the adsorbent materials.

Keywords: Thermal, Regeneration, activated carbon, palm shell-PEEK

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1931
7 Kinetic Rate Comparison of Methane Catalytic Combustion of Palladium Catalysts Impregnated onto γ-Alumina and Bio-Char

Authors: Noor S. Nasri, Eric C. A. Tatt, Usman D. Hamza, Jibril Mohammed, Husna M. Zain

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion of methane is imperative due to stability of methane at low temperature. Methane (CH4), therefore, remains unconverted in vehicle exhausts thereby causing greenhouse gas GHG emission problem. In this study, heterogeneous catalysts of palladium with bio-char (2 wt% Pd/Bc) and Al2O3 (2wt% Pd/ Al2O3) supports were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and then subsequently tested for catalytic combustion of CH4. Support-porous heterogeneous catalytic combustion (HCC) material were selected based on factors such as surface area, porosity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, reactivity with reactants or products, chemical stability, catalytic activity, and catalyst life. Sustainable and renewable support-material of bio-mass char derived from palm shell waste material was compared with those from the conventional support-porous materials. Kinetic rate of reaction was determined for combustion of methane on Palladium (Pd) based catalyst with Al2O3 support and bio-char (Bc). Material characterization was done using TGA, SEM, and BET surface area. The performance test was accomplished using tubular quartz reactor with gas mixture ratio of 3% methane and 97% air. The methane porous-HCC conversion was carried out using online gas analyzer connected to the reactor that performed porous-HCC. BET surface area for prepared 2 wt% Pd/Bc is smaller than prepared 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 due to its low porosity between particles. The order of catalyst activity based on kinetic rate on reaction of catalysts in low temperature was 2wt% Pd/Bc>calcined 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3> 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3>calcined 2wt% Pd/Bc. Hence agro waste material can successfully be utilized as an inexpensive catalyst support material for enhanced CH4 catalytic combustion.

Keywords: Sustainable, Environmental, Renewable Material, catalytic-combustion, Support-bio-char material

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5468
6 Oil Palm Shell Ash - Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya

Abstract:

The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of 7 days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.

Keywords: Minerals, compressive strength, flexural strength, additive, modulus of elasticity

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2353
5 Synthesis of Activated Carbon Using Agricultural Wastes from Biodiesel Production

Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, V. Loryuenyong, E. Phakdeepataraphan, S. Watpathomsub, V. Kunakemakorn

Abstract:

In this research, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of activated carbon from biodiesel wastes such as palm shells (PS) and Jatropha curcas fruit shells (JS) by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent under nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. The effects of soaking in hydrofluoric acid (HF), impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time on adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and iodine (I2) solution were examined. The results showed that HF-treated activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities by eliminating ash residues, which might fill up the pores. In addition, the adsorption capacities of methylene blue and iodine solution were also significantly influenced by the types of raw materials, the activation temperature and the activation time. The highest adsorption capacity of methylene blue 257.07mg/g and iodine 847.58mg/g were obtained from Jatropha curcas wastes.

Keywords: Agricultural wastes, activated carbon, optimum conditions, Palm Shells (PS), Jatropha Curcas Fruit Shells (JS), Biodiesel Wastes

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3799
4 Removal of Copper and Zinc Ions onto Biomodified Palm Shell Activated Carbon

Authors: Gulnaziya Issabayeva, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua

Abstract:

commercially produced in Malaysia granular palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) was biomodified with bacterial biomass (Bacillus subtilis) to produce a hybrid biosorbent of higher efficiency. The obtained biosorbent was evaluated in terms of adsorption capacity to remove copper and zinc metal ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments where concentrations of metal ions varied from 20 to 350 mg/L. A range of pH from 3 to 6 of aqueous solutions containing metal ions was tested. Langmuir adsorption model was used to interpret the experimental data. Comparison of the adsorption data of the biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon showed higher uptake of metal ions by the hybrid biosorbent. A trend in metal ions uptake increase with the increase in the solution-s pH was observed. The surface characterization data indicated a decrease in the total surface area for the hybrid biosorbent; however the uptake of copper and zinc by it was at least equal to the original PSAC at pH 4 and 5. The highest capacity of the hybrid biosorbent was observed at pH 5 and comprised 22 mg/g and 19 mg/g for copper and zinc, respectively. The adsorption capacity at the lowest pH of 3 was significantly low. The experimental results facilitated identification of potential factors influencing the adsorption of copper and zinc onto biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon.

Keywords: Adsorption, Copper, zinc, biomodification, palm shell carbon

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1504
3 Thermogravimetry Study on Pyrolysis of Various Lignocellulosic Biomass for Potential Hydrogen Production

Authors: S.S. Abdullah, S. Yusup, M.M. Ahmad, A. Ramli, L. Ismail

Abstract:

This paper aims to study decomposition behavior in pyrolytic environment of four lignocellulosic biomass (oil palm shell, oil palm frond, rice husk and paddy straw), and two commercial components of biomass (pure cellulose and lignin), performed in a thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). The unit which consists of a microbalance and a furnace flowed with 100 cc (STP) min-1 Nitrogen, N2 as inert. Heating rate was set at 20⁰C min-1 and temperature started from 50 to 900⁰C. Hydrogen gas production during the pyrolysis was observed using Agilent Gas Chromatography Analyzer 7890A. Oil palm shell, oil palm frond, paddy straw and rice husk were found to be reactive enough in a pyrolytic environment of up to 900°C since pyrolysis of these biomass starts at temperature as low as 200°C and maximum value of weight loss is achieved at about 500°C. Since there was not much different in the cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin fractions between oil palm shell, oil palm frond, paddy straw and rice husk, the T-50 and R-50 values obtained are almost similar. H2 productions started rapidly at this temperature as well due to the decompositions of biomass inside the TGA. Biomass with more lignin content such as oil palm shell was found to have longer duration of H2 production compared to materials of high cellulose and hemicelluloses contents.

Keywords: biomass, Hydrogen, Decomposition, thermogravimetry, lignocellulosic

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1893
2 Adsorption of Textile Reactive Dye by Palm Shell Activated Carbon: Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Siti Maryam Rusly, Shaliza Ibrahim

Abstract:

The adsorption of simulated aqueous solution containing textile remazol reactive dye, namely Red 3BS by palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) as adsorbent was carried out using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design in three most important operating variables; initial dye concentration, dosage of adsorbent and speed of impeller was employed for experimental design and optimization of results. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limits. Model indicated that with the increasing of dosage and speed give the result of removal up to 90% with the capacity uptake more than 7 mg/g. High regression coefficient between the variables and the response (R-Sq = 93.9%) showed of good evaluation of experimental data by polynomial regression model.

Keywords: Adsorption, RSM, Box-Behnken design, Palm ShellActivated Carbon, Red 3BS

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1656
1 Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies for Adsorption of Hg (II) on Palm Shell Powder

Authors: Shilpi Kushwaha, Suparna Sodaye, P. Padmaja

Abstract:

Palm shell obtained from coastal part of southern India was studied for the removal for the adsorption of Hg (II) ions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, concentration of Hg (II) ions, time, temperature and adsorbent dose. Maximum removal was seen in the range pH 4.0- pH 7.0. The palm shell powder used as adsorbent was characterized for its surface area, SEM, PXRD, FTIR, ion exchange capacity, moisture content, and bulk density, soluble content in water and acid and pH. The experimental results were analyzed using Langmuir I, II, III, IV and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The batch sorption kinetics was studied for the first order reversible reaction, pseudo first order; pseudo second order reaction and the intra-particle diffusion reaction. The biomass was successfully used for removal Hg (II) from synthetic and industrial effluents and the technique appears industrially applicable and viable.

Keywords: Kinetics, isotherms, biosorbent, mercury removal, borassus flabellifer, palm shell

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1707