Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: observability

19 State Estimation Solution with Optimal Allocation of Phasor Measurement Units Considering Zero Injection Bus Modeling

Authors: M. Ravindra, R. Srinivasa Rao, V. Shanmukha Naga Raju

Abstract:

This paper presents state estimation with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) allocation to obtain complete observability of network. A matrix is designed with modeling of zero injection constraints to minimize PMU allocations. State estimation algorithm is developed with optimal allocation of PMUs to find accurate states of network. The incorporation of PMU into traditional state estimation process improves accuracy and computational performance for large power systems. The nonlinearity integrated with zero injection (ZI) constraints is remodeled to linear frame to optimize number of PMUs. The problem of optimal PMU allocation is regarded with modeling of ZI constraints, PMU loss or line outage, cost factor and redundant measurements. The proposed state estimation with optimal PMU allocation has been compared with traditional state estimation process to show its importance. MATLAB programming on IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 118 bus networks is implemented out by Binary Integer Programming (BIP) method and compared with other methods to show its effectiveness.

Keywords: Observability, phasor measurement units, synchrophasors, SCADA measurements, zero injection bus.

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18 A Genetic Algorithm Approach Considering Zero Injection Bus Constraint Modeling for Optimal Phasor Measurement Unit Placement

Authors: G. Chandana Sushma, T. R. Jyothsna

Abstract:

This paper presents optimal Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) Placement in network using a genetic algorithm approach as it is infeasible and require high installation cost to place PMUs at every bus in network. This paper proposes optimal PMU allocation considering observability and redundancy utilizing Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The nonlinear constraints of buses are modeled to give accurate results. Constraints associated with Zero Injection (ZI) buses and radial buses are modeled to optimize number of locations for PMU placement. GA is modeled with ZI bus constraints to minimize number of locations without losing complete observability. Redundancy of every bus in network is computed to show optimum redundancy of complete system network. The performance of method is measured by Bus Observability Index (BOI) and Complete System Observability Performance Index (CSOPI). MATLAB simulations are carried out on IEEE -14, -30 and -57 bus-systems and compared with other methods in literature survey to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Constraints, genetic algorithm, observability, phasor measurement units, redundancy, synchrophasors, zero injection bus.

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17 An Observer-Based Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Control with Adjustable Membership Functions

Authors: Alireza Gholami, Amir H. D. Markazi

Abstract:

In this paper, an observer-based direct adaptive fuzzy sliding mode (OAFSM) algorithm is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the zero-input dynamics of the plant could be unknown. The input connection matrix is used to combine the sliding surfaces of individual subsystems, and an adaptive fuzzy algorithm is used to estimate an equivalent sliding mode control input directly. The fuzzy membership functions, which were determined by time consuming try and error processes in previous works, are adjusted by adaptive algorithms. The other advantage of the proposed controller is that the input gain matrix is not limited to be diagonal, i.e. the plant could be over/under actuated provided that controllability and observability are preserved. An observer is constructed to directly estimate the state tracking error, and the nonlinear part of the observer is constructed by an adaptive fuzzy algorithm. The main advantage of the proposed observer is that, the measured outputs is not limited to the first entry of a canonical-form state vector. The closed-loop stability of the proposed method is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. The proposed method is applied numerically on a multi-link robot manipulator, which verifies the performance of the closed-loop control. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with some conventional control algorithms.

Keywords: Adaptive algorithm, fuzzy systems, membership functions, observer.

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16 A Multiobjective Damping Function for Coordinated Control of Power System Stabilizer and Power Oscillation Damping

Authors: Jose D. Herrera, Mario A. Rios

Abstract:

This paper deals with the coordinated tuning of the Power System Stabilizer (PSS) controller and Power Oscillation Damping (POD) Controller of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) in a multi-machine power systems. The coordinated tuning is based on the critical eigenvalues of the power system and a model reduction technique where the Hankel Singular Value method is applied. Through the linearized system model and the parameter-constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm, it can compute the parameters of both controllers. Moreover, the parameters are optimized simultaneously obtaining the gains of both controllers. Then, the nonlinear simulation to observe the time response of the controller is performed.

Keywords: Balanced realization, controllability Grammian, electromechanical oscillations, FACTS, Hankel singular values, observability Grammian, POD, PSS.

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15 Search for Flavour Changing Neutral Current Couplings of Higgs-up Sector Quarks at Future Circular Collider (FCC-eh)

Authors: I. Turk Cakir, B. Hacisahinoglu, S. Kartal, A. Yilmaz, A. Yilmaz, Z. Uysal, O. Cakir

Abstract:

In the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model, Flavour Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) is a good research field in terms of the observability at future colliders. Increased Higgs production with higher energy and luminosity in colliders is essential for verification or falsification of our knowledge of physics and predictions, and the search for new physics. Prospective electron-proton collider constituent of the Future Circular Collider project is FCC-eh. It offers great sensitivity due to its high luminosity and low interference. In this work, thq FCNC interaction vertex with off-shell top quark decay at electron-proton colliders is studied. By using [email protected] multi-purpose event generator, observability of tuh and tch couplings are obtained with equal coupling scenario. Upper limit on branching ratio of tree level top quark FCNC decay is determined as 0.012% at FCC-eh with 1 ab ^−1 luminosity.

Keywords: FCC, FCNC, Higgs Boson, Top Quark.

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14 Dynamic State Estimation with Optimal PMU and Conventional Measurements for Complete Observability

Authors: M. Ravindra, R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents a Generalized Binary Integer Linear Programming (GBILP) method for optimal allocation of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and to generate Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) solution with complete observability. The GBILP method is formulated with Zero Injection Bus (ZIB) constraints to reduce the number of locations for placement of PMUs in the case of normal and single line contingency. The integration of PMU and conventional measurements is modeled in DSE process to estimate accurate states of the system. To estimate the dynamic behavior of the power system with proposed method, load change up to 40% considered at a bus in the power system network. The proposed DSE method is compared with traditional Weighted Least Squares (WLS) state estimation method in presence of load changes to show the impact of PMU measurements. MATLAB simulations are carried out on IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 118 bus systems to prove the validity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Observability, phasor measurement units, PMU, state estimation, dynamic state estimation, SCADA measurements, zero injection bus.

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13 Beef Cattle Farmers Perception toward Urea Mineral Molasses Block

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Tanrigiling Rasyid, Aslina Asnawi, Ikrar Muhammad Saleh, Ilham Rasyid

Abstract:

Urea Mineral Molasses Block is very important for beef cattle, because it can increase beef production. The purpose of this research was to know beef cattle farmers’ perception towards Urea Mineral Molasses Block (UMMB). This research was conducted in Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2016. The population of this research were all beef cattle farmers. Sample was chosen through purposive sampling. Data were collected through observation and face to face with deep interview using questionnaire. Variables of perception consisted of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability and triability. There were 10 questions. The answer for each question was scored by 1, 2, 3 which refer to disagree, agree enough, strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively using frequency distribution. The research revealed that beef cattle farmers’ perception towards UMMB was categorized as strongly agree.

Keywords: Beef cattle, farmers, perception, urea mineral molasses block.

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12 Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems

Authors: Walid S. Alfuhaid, Saud A. Alghamdi, John M. Watkins, M. Edwin Sawan

Abstract:

Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Decentralized, optimal control, output, singular perturb.

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11 Selection of Wind Farms to Add Virtual Inertia Control to Assist the Power System Frequency Regulation

Authors: W. Du, X. Wang, Jun Cao, H. F. Wang

Abstract:

Due to the randomness and uncertainty of wind energy, modern power systems integrating large-scale wind generation will be significantly impacted in terms of system performance and technical challenges. System inertia with high wind penetration is decreasing when conventional thermal generators are gradually replaced by wind turbines, which do not naturally contribute to inertia response. The power imbalance caused by wind power or demand fluctuations leads to the instability of system frequency. Accordingly, the need to attach the supplementary virtual inertia control to wind farms (WFs) strongly arises. When multi-wind farms are connected to the grid simultaneously, the selection of which critical WFs to install the virtual inertia control is greatly important to enhance the stability of system frequency. By building the small signal model of wind power systems considering frequency regulation, the installation locations are identified by the geometric measures of the mode observability of WFs. In addition, this paper takes the impacts of grid topology and selection of feedback control signals into consideration. Finally, simulations are conducted on a multi-wind farms power system and the results demonstrate that the designed virtual inertia control method can effectively assist the frequency regulation.

Keywords: Frequency regulation, virtual inertia control, installation locations, observability, wind farms.

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10 Customer Adoption and Attitudes in Mobile Banking in Sri Lanka

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

This paper intends to identify and analyze customer adoption and attitudes towards mobile banking facilities. The study uses six perceived characteristics of innovation that can be used to form a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward an innovation, namely: Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trailability, risk, and observability. Collected data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square test. The results showed that mobile bank users were predominantly males. There is a growing trend among young, educated customers towards converting to mobile banking in Sri Lanka. The research outcomes suggested that all the six factors are statistically highly significant in influencing mobile banking adoption and attitude formation towards mobile banking in Sri Lanka. The major reasons for adopting mobile banking services are the accessibility and availability of services regardless of time and place. Over the 75 percent of the respondents mentioned that savings in time and effort and low financial costs of conducting mobile banking were advantageous. Issue of security was found to be the most important factor that motivated consumer adoption and attitude formation towards mobile banking. Main barriers to mobile banking were the lack of technological skills, the traditional cash‐carry banking culture, and the lack of awareness and insufficient guidance to using mobile banking.

Keywords: Compatibility, complexity, mobile banking, risk.

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9 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units Using Gravitational Search Method

Authors: Satyendra Pratap Singh, S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology using Gravitational Search Algorithm for optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in order to achieve complete observability of the power system. The objective of proposed algorithm is to minimize the total number of PMUs at the power system buses, which in turn minimize installation cost of the PMUs. In this algorithm, the searcher agents are collection of masses which interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. This new Gravitational Search Algorithm based method has been applied to the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. Case studies reveal optimal number of PMUs with better observability by proposed method.

Keywords: Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Law of Motion, Law of Gravity, Observability, Phasor Measurement Unit.

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8 On the Representation of Actuator Faults Diagnosis and Systems Invertibility

Authors: Sallem F., Dahhou B., Kamoun A.

Abstract:

In this work, the main problem considered is the  detection and the isolation of the actuator fault. A new formulation of  the linear system is generated to obtain the conditions of the actuator  fault diagnosis. The proposed method is based on the representation  of the actuator as a subsystem connected with the process system in  cascade manner. The designed formulation is generated to obtain the  conditions of the actuator fault detection and isolation. Detectability  conditions are expressed in terms of the invertibility notions. An  example and a comparative analysis with the classic formulation  illustrate the performances of such approach for simple actuator fault  diagnosis by using the linear model of nuclear reactor.

 

Keywords: Actuator fault, Fault detection, left invertibility, nuclear reactor, observability, parameter intervals, system inversion.

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7 An Anonymity-Based Secure On-Demand Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: M. Gunasekaran, K. Premalatha

Abstract:

Privacy and Security have emerged as an important research issue in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) due to its unique nature such as scarce of resources and absence of centralized authority. There are number of protocols have been proposed to provide privacy and security for data communication in an adverse environment, but those protocols are compromised in many ways by the attackers. The concept of anonymity (in terms of unlinkability and unobservability) and pseudonymity has been introduced in this paper to ensure privacy and security. In this paper, a Secure Onion Throat (SOT) protocol is proposed to provide complete anonymity in an adverse environment. The SOT protocol is designed based on the combination of group signature and onion routing with ID-based encryption for route discovery. The security analysis demonstrates the performance of SOT protocol against all categories of attacks. The simulation results ensure the necessity and importance of the proposed SOT protocol in achieving such anonymity.

Keywords: Routing, anonymity, privacy, security and MANET.

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6 Identifying the Kinematic Parameters of Hexapod Machine Tool

Authors: M. M. Agheli, M. J. Nategh

Abstract:

Hexapod Machine Tool (HMT) is a parallel robot mostly based on Stewart platform. Identification of kinematic parameters of HMT is an important step of calibration procedure. In this paper an algorithm is presented for identifying the kinematic parameters of HMT using inverse kinematics error model. Based on this algorithm, the calibration procedure is simulated. Measurement configurations with maximum observability are decided as the first step of this algorithm for a robust calibration. The errors occurring in various configurations are illustrated graphically. It has been shown that the boundaries of the workspace should be searched for the maximum observability of errors. The importance of using configurations with sufficient observability in calibrating hexapod machine tools is verified by trial calibration with two different groups of randomly selected configurations. One group is selected to have sufficient observability and the other is in disregard of the observability criterion. Simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed identification algorithm.

Keywords: Calibration, Hexapod Machine Tool (HMT), InverseKinematics Error Model, Observability, Parallel Robot, ParameterIdentification.

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5 Measurement Scheme Improving for State Estimation Using Stochastic Tabu Search

Authors: T. Kerdchuen

Abstract:

This paper proposes the stochastic tabu search (STS) for improving the measurement scheme for power system state estimation. If the original measured scheme is not observable, the additional measurements with minimum number of measurements are added into the system by STS so that there is no critical measurement pair. The random bit flipping and bit exchanging perturbations are used for generating the neighborhood solutions in STS. The Pδ observable concept is used to determine the network observability. Test results of 10 bus, IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems are shown that STS can improve the original measured scheme to be observable without critical measurement pair. Moreover, the results of STS are superior to deterministic tabu search (DTS) in terms of the best solution hit.

Keywords: Measurement Scheme, Power System StateEstimation, Network Observability, Stochastic Tabu Search (STS).

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4 COTT – A Testability Framework for Object-Oriented Software Testing

Authors: A. Goel, S.C. Gupta, S.K.Wasan

Abstract:

Testable software has two inherent properties – observability and controllability. Observability facilitates observation of internal behavior of software to required degree of detail. Controllability allows creation of difficult-to-achieve states prior to execution of various tests. In this paper, we describe COTT, a Controllability and Observability Testing Tool, to create testable object-oriented software. COTT provides a framework that helps the user to instrument object-oriented software to build the required controllability and observability. During testing, the tool facilitates creation of difficult-to-achieve states required for testing of difficultto- test conditions and observation of internal details of execution at unit, integration and system levels. The execution observations are logged in a test log file, which are used for post analysis and to generate test coverage reports.

Keywords: Controllability, Observability, Test Coverage and Testing Tool.

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3 A Self Adaptive Genetic Based Algorithm for the Identification and Elimination of Bad Data

Authors: A. A. Hossam-Eldin, E. N. Abdallah, M. S. El-Nozahy

Abstract:

The identification and elimination of bad measurements is one of the basic functions of a robust state estimator as bad data have the effect of corrupting the results of state estimation according to the popular weighted least squares method. However this is a difficult problem to handle especially when dealing with multiple errors from the interactive conforming type. In this paper, a self adaptive genetic based algorithm is proposed. The algorithm utilizes the results of the classical linearized normal residuals approach to tune the genetic operators thus instead of making a randomized search throughout the whole search space it is more likely to be a directed search thus the optimum solution is obtained at very early stages(maximum of 5 generations). The algorithm utilizes the accumulating databases of already computed cases to reduce the computational burden to minimum. Tests are conducted with reference to the standard IEEE test systems. Test results are very promising.

Keywords: Bad Data, Genetic Algorithms, Linearized Normal residuals, Observability, Power System State Estimation.

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2 Optimized Data Fusion in an Intelligent Integrated GPS/INS System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ali Asadian, Behzad Moshiri, Ali Khaki Sedigh, Caro Lucas

Abstract:

Most integrated inertial navigation systems (INS) and global positioning systems (GPS) have been implemented using the Kalman filtering technique with its drawbacks related to the need for predefined INS error model and observability of at least four satellites. Most recently, a method using a hybrid-adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) has been proposed which is trained during the availability of GPS signal to map the error between the GPS and the INS. Then it will be used to predict the error of the INS position components during GPS signal blockage. This paper introduces a genetic optimization algorithm that is used to update the ANFIS parameters with respect to the INS/GPS error function used as the objective function to be minimized. The results demonstrate the advantages of the genetically optimized ANFIS for INS/GPS integration in comparison with conventional ANFIS specially in the cases of satellites- outages. Coping with this problem plays an important role in assessment of the fusion approach in land navigation.

Keywords: Adaptive Network based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Genetic optimization, Global Positioning System (GPS), Inertial Navigation System (INS).

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1 A Critical Survey of Reusability Aspects for Component-Based Systems

Authors: Arun Sharma, Rajesh Kumar, P. S. Grover

Abstract:

The last decade has shown that object-oriented concept by itself is not that powerful to cope with the rapidly changing requirements of ongoing applications. Component-based systems achieve flexibility by clearly separating the stable parts of systems (i.e. the components) from the specification of their composition. In order to realize the reuse of components effectively in CBSD, it is required to measure the reusability of components. However, due to the black-box nature of components where the source code of these components are not available, it is difficult to use conventional metrics in Component-based Development as these metrics require analysis of source codes. In this paper, we survey few existing component-based reusability metrics. These metrics give a border view of component-s understandability, adaptability, and portability. It also describes the analysis, in terms of quality factors related to reusability, contained in an approach that aids significantly in assessing existing components for reusability.

Keywords: Components, Customizability, Reusability, and Observability.

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