Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: normalization

19 Adaptive Score Normalization: A Novel Approach for Multimodal Biometric Systems

Authors: Anouar Ben Khalifa, Sami Gazzah, Najoua Essoukri BenAmara

Abstract:

Multimodal biometric systems integrate the data presented by multiple biometric sources, hence offering a better performance than the systems based on a single biometric modality. Although the coupling of biometric systems can be done at different levels, the fusion at the scores level is the most common since it has been proven effective than the rest of the fusion levels. However, the scores from different modalities are generally heterogeneous. A step of normalizing the scores is needed to transform these scores into a common domain before combining them. In this paper, we study the performance of several normalization techniques with various fusion methods in a context relating to the merger of three unimodal systems based on the face, the palmprint and the fingerprint. We also propose a new adaptive normalization method that takes into account the distribution of client scores and impostor scores. Experiments conducted on a database of 100 people show that the performances of a multimodal system depend on the choice of the normalization method and the fusion technique. The proposed normalization method has given the best results.

Keywords: Multibiometrics, Fusion, Score level, Score normalization, Adaptive normalization.

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18 A Normalization-based Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Using SVD and DCT

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

Digital watermarking is one of the techniques for copyright protection. In this paper, a normalization-based robust image watermarking scheme which encompasses singular value decomposition (SVD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) techniques is proposed. For the proposed scheme, the host image is first normalized to a standard form and divided into non-overlapping image blocks. SVD is applied to each block. By concatenating the first singular values (SV) of adjacent blocks of the normalized image, a SV block is obtained. DCT is then carried out on the SV blocks to produce SVD-DCT blocks. A watermark bit is embedded in the highfrequency band of a SVD-DCT block by imposing a particular relationship between two pseudo-randomly selected DCT coefficients. An adaptive frequency mask is used to adjust local watermark embedding strength. Watermark extraction involves mainly the inverse process. The watermark extracting method is blind and efficient. Experimental results show that the quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Results also show that the proposed scheme is robust against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Image normalization, Singularvalue decomposition, Discrete cosine transform, Robustness.

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17 Normalization and Constrained Optimization of Measures of Fuzzy Entropy

Authors: K.C. Deshmukh, P.G. Khot, Nikhil

Abstract:

In the literature of information theory, there is necessity for comparing the different measures of fuzzy entropy and this consequently, gives rise to the need for normalizing measures of fuzzy entropy. In this paper, we have discussed this need and hence developed some normalized measures of fuzzy entropy. It is also desirable to maximize entropy and to minimize directed divergence or distance. Keeping in mind this idea, we have explained the method of optimizing different measures of fuzzy entropy.

Keywords: Fuzzy set, Uncertainty, Fuzzy entropy, Normalization, Membership function

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16 Pose Normalization Network for Object Classification

Authors: Bingquan Shen

Abstract:

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have demonstrated their effectiveness in synthesizing 3D views of object instances at various viewpoints. Given the problem where one have limited viewpoints of a particular object for classification, we present a pose normalization architecture to transform the object to existing viewpoints in the training dataset before classification to yield better classification performance. We have demonstrated that this Pose Normalization Network (PNN) can capture the style of the target object and is able to re-render it to a desired viewpoint. Moreover, we have shown that the PNN improves the classification result for the 3D chairs dataset and ShapeNet airplanes dataset when given only images at limited viewpoint, as compared to a CNN baseline.

Keywords: Convolutional neural networks, object classification, pose normalization, viewpoint invariant.

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15 Applying Spanning Tree Graph Theory for Automatic Database Normalization

Authors: Chetneti Srisa-an

Abstract:

In Knowledge and Data Engineering field, relational database is the best repository to store data in a real world. It has been using around the world more than eight decades. Normalization is the most important process for the analysis and design of relational databases. It aims at creating a set of relational tables with minimum data redundancy that preserve consistency and facilitate correct insertion, deletion, and modification. Normalization is a major task in the design of relational databases. Despite its importance, very few algorithms have been developed to be used in the design of commercial automatic normalization tools. It is also rare technique to do it automatically rather manually. Moreover, for a large and complex database as of now, it make even harder to do it manually. This paper presents a new complete automated relational database normalization method. It produces the directed graph and spanning tree, first. It then proceeds with generating the 2NF, 3NF and also BCNF normal forms. The benefit of this new algorithm is that it can cope with a large set of complex function dependencies.

Keywords: Relational Database, Functional Dependency, Automatic Normalization, Primary Key, Spanning tree.

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14 A Normalization-based Robust Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

Digital watermarking has become an important technique for copyright protection but its robustness against attacks remains a major problem. In this paper, we propose a normalizationbased robust image watermarking scheme. In the proposed scheme, original host image is first normalized to a standard form. Zernike transform is then applied to the normalized image to calculate Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of Zernike moments according to the watermark bit stream. The watermark extracting method is a blind method. Security analysis and false alarm analysis are then performed. The quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has very high robustness against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Image normalization, Zernike moments, Robustness.

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13 An Improved Illumination Normalization based on Anisotropic Smoothing for Face Recognition

Authors: Sanghoon Kim, Sun-Tae Chung, Souhwan Jung, Seongwon Cho

Abstract:

Robust face recognition under various illumination environments is very difficult and needs to be accomplished for successful commercialization. In this paper, we propose an improved illumination normalization method for face recognition. Illumination normalization algorithm based on anisotropic smoothing is well known to be effective among illumination normalization methods but deteriorates the intensity contrast of the original image, and incurs less sharp edges. The proposed method in this paper improves the previous anisotropic smoothing-based illumination normalization method so that it increases the intensity contrast and enhances the edges while diminishing the effect of illumination variations. Due to the result of these improvements, face images preprocessed by the proposed illumination normalization method becomes to have more distinctive feature vectors (Gabor feature vectors) for face recognition. Through experiments of face recognition based on Gabor feature vector similarity, the effectiveness of the proposed illumination normalization method is verified.

Keywords: Illumination Normalization, Face Recognition, Anisotropic smoothing, Gabor feature vector.

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12 Normalizing Logarithms of Realized Volatility in an ARFIMA Model

Authors: G. L. C. Yap

Abstract:

Modelling realized volatility with high-frequency returns is popular as it is an unbiased and efficient estimator of return volatility. A computationally simple model is fitting the logarithms of the realized volatilities with a fractionally integrated long-memory Gaussian process. The Gaussianity assumption simplifies the parameter estimation using the Whittle approximation. Nonetheless, this assumption may not be met in the finite samples and there may be a need to normalize the financial series. Based on the empirical indices S&P500 and DAX, this paper examines the performance of the linear volatility model pre-treated with normalization compared to its existing counterpart. The empirical results show that by including normalization as a pre-treatment procedure, the forecast performance outperforms the existing model in terms of statistical and economic evaluations.

Keywords: Long-memory, Gaussian process, Whittle estimator, normalization, volatility, value-at-risk.

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11 A Robust Image Watermarking Scheme using Image Moment Normalization

Authors: Latha Parameswaran, K. Anbumani

Abstract:

Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area of concern. A number of papers on robust digital watermarking have been presented, but there are no standards that have been defined so far. Thus multimedia security is still a posing problem. The aim of this paper is to design a robust image-watermarking scheme, which can withstand a different set of attacks. The proposed scheme provides a robust solution integrating image moment normalization, content dependent watermark and discrete wavelet transformation. Moment normalization is useful to recover the watermark even in case of geometrical attacks. Content dependent watermarks are a powerful means of authentication as the data is watermarked with its own features. Discrete wavelet transforms have been used as they describe image features in a better manner. The proposed scheme finds its place in validating identification cards and financial instruments.

Keywords: Watermarking, moments, wavelets, content-based, benchmarking.

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10 Photograph Based Pair-matching Recognition of Human Faces

Authors: Min Yao, Kota Aoki, Hiroshi Nagahashi

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel system recognition of human faces without using face different color photographs is proposed. It mainly in face detection, normalization and recognition. Foot method of combination of Haar-like face determined segmentation and region-based histogram stretchi (RHST) is proposed to achieve more accurate perf using Haar. Apart from an effective angle norm side-face (pose) normalization, which is almost a might be important and beneficial for the prepr introduced. Then histogram-based and photom normalization methods are investigated and ada retinex (ASR) is selected for its satisfactory illumin Finally, weighted multi-block local binary pattern with 3 distance measures is applied for pair-mat Experimental results show its advantageous perfo with PCA and multi-block LBP, based on a principle.

Keywords: Face detection, pair-matching rec normalization, skin color segmentation.

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9 Normalization Discriminant Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Liew Yee Ping, Pang Ying Han, Lau Siong Hoe, Ooi Shih Yin, Housam Khalifa Bashier Babiker

Abstract:

In face recognition, feature extraction techniques attempts to search for appropriate representation of the data. However, when the feature dimension is larger than the samples size, it brings performance degradation. Hence, we propose a method called Normalization Discriminant Independent Component Analysis (NDICA). The input data will be regularized to obtain the most reliable features from the data and processed using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The proposed method is evaluated on three face databases, Olivetti Research Ltd (ORL), Face Recognition Technology (FERET) and Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC). NDICA showed it effectiveness compared with other unsupervised and supervised techniques.

Keywords: Face recognition, small sample size, regularization, independent component analysis.

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8 Fundamental Equation of Complete Factor Synergetics of Complex Systems with Normalization of Dimension

Authors: Li Zong-Cheng

Abstract:

It is by reason of the unified measure of varieties of resources and the unified processing of the disposal of varieties of resources, that these closely related three of new basic models called the resources assembled node and the disposition integrated node as well as the intelligent organizing node are put forth in this paper; the three closely related quantities of integrative analytical mechanics including the disposal intensity and disposal- weighted intensity as well as the charge of resource charge are set; and then the resources assembled space and the disposition integrated space as well as the intelligent organizing space are put forth. The system of fundamental equations and model of complete factor synergetics is preliminarily approached for the general situation in this paper, to form the analytical base of complete factor synergetics. By the essential variables constituting this system of equations we should set twenty variables respectively with relation to the essential dynamical effect, external synergetic action and internal synergetic action of the system.

Keywords: complex system, disposal of resources, completefactor synergetics, fundamental equation.

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7 Approach for Demonstrating Reliability Targets for Rail Transport during Low Mileage Accumulation in the Field: Methodology and Case Study

Authors: Nipun Manirajan, Heeralal Gargama, Sushil Guhe, Manoj Prabhakaran

Abstract:

In railway industry, train sets are designed based on contractual requirements (mission profile), where reliability targets are measured in terms of mean distance between failures (MDBF). However, during the beginning of revenue services, trains do not achieve the designed mission profile distance (mileage) within the timeframe due to infrastructure constraints, scarcity of commuters or other operational challenges thereby not respecting the original design inputs. Since trains do not run sufficiently and do not achieve the designed mileage within the specified time, car builder has a risk of not achieving the contractual MDBF target. This paper proposes a constant failure rate based model to deal with the situations where mileage accumulation is not a part of the design mission profile. The model provides appropriate MDBF target to be demonstrated based on actual accumulated mileage. A case study of rolling stock running in the field is undertaken to analyze the failure data and MDBF target demonstration during low mileage accumulation. The results of case study prove that with the proposed method, reliability targets are achieved under low mileage accumulation.

Keywords: Mean distance between failures, mileage based reliability, reliability target normalization, rolling stock reliability.

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6 Image Retrieval Based on Multi-Feature Fusion for Heterogeneous Image Databases

Authors: N. W. U. D. Chathurani, Shlomo Geva, Vinod Chandran, Proboda Rajapaksha

Abstract:

Selecting an appropriate image representation is the most important factor in implementing an effective Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system. This paper presents a multi-feature fusion approach for efficient CBIR, based on the distance distribution of features and relative feature weights at the time of query processing. It is a simple yet effective approach, which is free from the effect of features' dimensions, ranges, internal feature normalization and the distance measure. This approach can easily be adopted in any feature combination to improve retrieval quality. The proposed approach is empirically evaluated using two benchmark datasets for image classification (a subset of the Corel dataset and Oliva and Torralba) and compared with existing approaches. The performance of the proposed approach is confirmed with the significantly improved performance in comparison with the independently evaluated baseline of the previously proposed feature fusion approaches.

Keywords: Feature fusion, image retrieval, membership function, normalization.

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5 A New High Speed Neural Model for Fast Character Recognition Using Cross Correlation and Matrix Decomposition

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry

Abstract:

Neural processors have shown good results for detecting a certain character in a given input matrix. In this paper, a new idead to speed up the operation of neural processors for character detection is presented. Such processors are designed based on cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input matrix and the weights of neural networks. This approach is developed to reduce the computation steps required by these faster neural networks for the searching process. The principle of divide and conquer strategy is applied through image decomposition. Each image is divided into small in size sub-images and then each one is tested separately by using a single faster neural processor. Furthermore, faster character detection is obtained by using parallel processing techniques to test the resulting sub-images at the same time using the same number of faster neural networks. In contrast to using only faster neural processors, the speed up ratio is increased with the size of the input image when using faster neural processors and image decomposition. Moreover, the problem of local subimage normalization in the frequency domain is solved. The effect of image normalization on the speed up ratio of character detection is discussed. Simulation results show that local subimage normalization through weight normalization is faster than subimage normalization in the spatial domain. The overall speed up ratio of the detection process is increased as the normalization of weights is done off line.

Keywords: Fast Character Detection, Neural Processors, Cross Correlation, Image Normalization, Parallel Processing.

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4 Using Automated Database Reverse Engineering for Database Integration

Authors: M. R. Abbasifard, M. Rahgozar, A. Bayati, P. Pournemati

Abstract:

One important problem in today organizations is the existence of non-integrated information systems, inconsistency and lack of suitable correlations between legacy and modern systems. One main solution is to transfer the local databases into a global one. In this regards we need to extract the data structures from the legacy systems and integrate them with the new technology systems. In legacy systems, huge amounts of a data are stored in legacy databases. They require particular attention since they need more efforts to be normalized, reformatted and moved to the modern database environments. Designing the new integrated (global) database architecture and applying the reverse engineering requires data normalization. This paper proposes the use of database reverse engineering in order to integrate legacy and modern databases in organizations. The suggested approach consists of methods and techniques for generating data transformation rules needed for the data structure normalization.

Keywords: Reverse Engineering, Database Integration, System Integration, Data Structure Normalization

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3 A Content Based Image Watermarking Scheme Resilient to Geometric Attacks

Authors: Latha Parameswaran, K. Anbumani

Abstract:

Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area of concern. The paper aims to discuss a robust image watermarking scheme, which can withstand geometric attacks. The source image is initially moment normalized in order to make it withstand geometric attacks. The moment normalized image is wavelet transformed. The first level wavelet transformed image is segmented into blocks if size 8x8. The product of mean and standard and standard deviation of each block is computed. The second level wavelet transformed image is divided into 8x8 blocks. The product of block mean and the standard deviation are computed. The difference between products in the two levels forms the watermark. The watermark is inserted by modulating the coefficients of the mid frequencies. The modulated image is inverse wavelet transformed and inverse moment normalized to generate the watermarked image. The watermarked image is now ready for transmission. The proposed scheme can be used to validate identification cards and financial instruments. The performance of this scheme has been evaluated using a set of parameters. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this scheme.

Keywords: Image moments, wavelets, content-based watermarking, moment normalization, geometric attacks.

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2 Normalizing Scientometric Indicators of Individual Publications Using Local Cluster Detection Methods on Citation Networks

Authors: Levente Varga, Dávid Deritei, Mária Ercsey-Ravasz, Răzvan Florian, Zsolt I. Lázár, István Papp, Ferenc Járai-Szabó

Abstract:

One of the major shortcomings of widely used scientometric indicators is that different disciplines cannot be compared with each other. The issue of cross-disciplinary normalization has been long discussed, but even the classification of publications into scientific domains poses problems. Structural properties of citation networks offer new possibilities, however, the large size and constant growth of these networks asks for precaution. Here we present a new tool that in order to perform cross-field normalization of scientometric indicators of individual publications relays on the structural properties of citation networks. Due to the large size of the networks, a systematic procedure for identifying scientific domains based on a local community detection algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is tested with different benchmark and real-world networks. Then, by the use of this algorithm, the mechanism of the scientometric indicator normalization process is shown for a few indicators like the citation number, P-index and a local version of the PageRank indicator. The fat-tail trend of the article indicator distribution enables us to successfully perform the indicator normalization process.

Keywords: Citation networks, scientometric indicator, cross-field normalization, local cluster detection.

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1 Multidimensional Compromise Optimization for Development Ranking of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and Turkey

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this research, a multidimensional  compromise optimization method is proposed for multidimensional decision making analysis in the development ranking of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and Turkey. The proposed approach presents ranking solutions resulting from different multicriteria decision analyses, which yield different ranking orders for the same ranking problem, consisting of a set of alternatives in terms of numerous competing criteria when they are applied with the same numerical data. The multiobjective optimization decision making problem is considered in three sequential steps. In the first step, five different criteria related to the development ranking are gathered from the research field. In the second step, identified evaluation criteria are, objectively, weighted using standard deviation procedure. In the third step, a country selection problem is illustrated with a numerical example as an application of the proposed multidimensional  compromise optimization model. Finally, multidimensional  compromise optimization approach is applied to rank the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and Turkey. 

Keywords: Standard deviation, performance evaluation, multicriteria decision making, multidimensional compromise optimization, vector normalization, multicriteria decision making, multicriteria analysis, multidimensional decision analysis.

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