Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: nonlinear analysis

36 Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance of Trapezoidally Corrugated Web Girders

Authors: Annamária Käferné Rácz, Bence Jáger, Balázs Kövesdi, László Dunai

Abstract:

Due to the numerous advantages of steel corrugated web girders, its application field is growing for bridges as well as for buildings. The global stability behavior of such girders is significantly larger than those of conventional I-girders with flat web, thus the application of the structural steel material can be significantly reduced. Design codes and specifications do not provide clear and complete rules or recommendations for the determination of the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) resistance of corrugated web girders. Therefore, the authors made a thorough investigation regarding the LTB resistance of the corrugated web girders. Finite element (FE) simulations have been performed to develop new design formulas for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders. FE model is developed considering geometrical and material nonlinear analysis using equivalent geometric imperfections (GMNI analysis). The equivalent geometric imperfections involve the initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses coming from rolling, welding and flame cutting. Imperfection sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the necessary magnitudes regarding only the first eigenmodes shape imperfections. By the help of the validated FE model, an extended parametric study is carried out to investigate the LTB resistance for different trapezoidal corrugation profiles. First, the critical moment of a specific girder was calculated by FE model. The critical moments from the FE calculations are compared to the previous analytical calculation proposals. Then, nonlinear analysis was carried out to determine the ultimate resistance. Due to the numerical investigations, new proposals are developed for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders through a modification factor on the design method related to the conventional flat web girders.

Keywords: Critical moment, FE modeling, lateral torsional buckling, trapezoidally corrugated web girders.

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35 Structural Analysis and Strengthening of the National Youth Foundation Building in Igoumenitsa, Greece

Authors: Chrysanthos Maraveas, Argiris Plesias, Garyfalia G. Triantafyllou, Konstantinos Petronikolos

Abstract:

The current paper presents a structural assessment and proposals for retrofit of the National Youth Foundation Building, an existing reinforced concrete (RC) building in the city of Igoumenitsa, Greece. The building is scheduled to be renovated in order to create a Municipal Cultural Center. The bearing capacity and structural integrity have been investigated in relation to the provisions and requirements of the Greek Retrofitting Code (KAN.EPE.) and European Standards (Eurocodes). The capacity of the existing concrete structure that makes up the two central buildings in the complex (buildings II and IV) has been evaluated both in its present form and after including several proposed architectural interventions. The structural system consists of spatial frames of columns and beams that have been simulated using beam elements. Some RC elements of the buildings have been strengthened in the past by means of concrete jacketing and have had cracks sealed with epoxy injections. Static-nonlinear analysis (Pushover) has been used to assess the seismic performance of the two structures with regard to performance level B1 from KAN.EPE. Retrofitting scenarios are proposed for the two buildings, including type Λ steel bracings and placement of concrete shear walls in the transverse direction in order to achieve the design-specification deformation in each applicable situation, improve the seismic performance, and reduce the number of interventions required.

Keywords: Earthquake resistance, pushover analysis, reinforced concrete, retrofit, strengthening.

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34 Numerical Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panels Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: H. Meddah, M. Berediaf-Bourahla, B. El-Djouzi, N. Bourahla

Abstract:

Shear walls made of cold formed steel are used as lateral force resisting components in residential and low-rise commercial and industrial constructions. The seismic design analysis of such structures is often complex due to the slenderness of members and their instability prevalence. In this context, a simplified modeling technique across the panel is proposed by using the finite element method. The approach is based on idealizing the whole panel by a nonlinear shear link element which reflects its shear behavior connected to rigid body elements which transmit the forces to the end elements (studs) that resist the tension and the compression. The numerical model of the shear wall panel was subjected to cyclic loads in order to evaluate the seismic performance of the structure in terms of lateral displacement and energy dissipation capacity. In order to validate this model, the numerical results were compared with those from literature tests. This modeling technique is particularly useful for the design of cold formed steel structures where the shear forces in each panel and the axial forces in the studs can be obtained using spectrum analysis.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, cyclic loading, modeling technique, nonlinear analysis, shear wall panel.

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33 Dissipation Capacity of Steel Building with Fiction Pendulum Base-Isolation System

Authors: A. Ras, I. Nait Zerrad, N. Benmouna, N. Boumechra

Abstract:

Use of base isolators in the seismic design of structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years. The major concern in the design of these structures is to have enough lateral stability to resist wind and seismic forces. There are different systems providing such isolation, among them there are friction- pendulum base isolation systems (FPS) which are rather widely applied nowadays involving to both affordable cost and high fundamental periods. These devices are characterised by a stiff resistance against wind loads and to be flexible to the seismic tremors, which make them suitable for different situations. In this paper, a 3D numerical investigation is done considering the seismic response of a twelve-storey steel building retrofitted with a FPS. Fast nonlinear time history analysis (FNA) of Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 2003) is considered for analysis and carried out using SAP2000 software. Comparisons between fixed base, bearing base isolated and braced structures are shown in a tabulated and graphical format. The results of the various alternatives studies to compare the structural response without and with this device of dissipation energy thus obtained were discussed and the conclusions showed the interesting potential of the FPS isolator. This system may to improve the dissipative capacities of the structure without increasing its rigidity in a significant way which contributes to optimize the quantity of steel necessary for its general stability.

Keywords: Steel structure, energy dissipation, friction-pendulum system, nonlinear analysis.

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32 Frequency Response of Complex Systems with Localized Nonlinearities

Authors: E. Menga, S. Hernandez

Abstract:

Finite Element Models (FEMs) are widely used in order to study and predict the dynamic properties of structures and usually, the prediction can be obtained with much more accuracy in the case of a single component than in the case of assemblies. Especially for structural dynamics studies, in the low and middle frequency range, most complex FEMs can be seen as assemblies made by linear components joined together at interfaces. From a modelling and computational point of view, these types of joints can be seen as localized sources of stiffness and damping and can be modelled as lumped spring/damper elements, most of time, characterized by nonlinear constitutive laws. On the other side, most of FE programs are able to run nonlinear analysis in time-domain. They treat the whole structure as nonlinear, even if there is one nonlinear degree of freedom (DOF) out of thousands of linear ones, making the analysis unnecessarily expensive from a computational point of view. In this work, a methodology in order to obtain the nonlinear frequency response of structures, whose nonlinearities can be considered as localized sources, is presented. The work extends the well-known Structural Dynamic Modification Method (SDMM) to a nonlinear set of modifications, and allows getting the Nonlinear Frequency Response Functions (NLFRFs), through an ‘updating’ process of the Linear Frequency Response Functions (LFRFs). A brief summary of the analytical concepts is given, starting from the linear formulation and understanding what the implications of the nonlinear one, are. The response of the system is formulated in both: time and frequency domain. First the Modal Database is extracted and the linear response is calculated. Secondly the nonlinear response is obtained thru the NL SDMM, by updating the underlying linear behavior of the system. The methodology, implemented in MATLAB, has been successfully applied to estimate the nonlinear frequency response of two systems. The first one is a two DOFs spring-mass-damper system, and the second example takes into account a full aircraft FE Model. In spite of the different levels of complexity, both examples show the reliability and effectiveness of the method. The results highlight a feasible and robust procedure, which allows a quick estimation of the effect of localized nonlinearities on the dynamic behavior. The method is particularly powerful when most of the FE Model can be considered as acting linearly and the nonlinear behavior is restricted to few degrees of freedom. The procedure is very attractive from a computational point of view because the FEM needs to be run just once, which allows faster nonlinear sensitivity analysis and easier implementation of optimization procedures for the calibration of nonlinear models.

Keywords: Frequency response, nonlinear dynamics, structural dynamic modification, softening effect, rubber.

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31 Performance of Stiffened Slender Built up Steel I-Columns

Authors: M. E. Abou-Hashem El Dib, M. K. Swailem, M. M. Metwally, A. I. El Awady

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The present work illustrates a parametric study for the effect of stiffeners on the performance of slender built up steel I-columns. To achieve the desired analysis, finite element technique is used to develop nonlinear three-dimensional models representing the investigated columns. The finite element program (ANSYS 13.0) is used as a calculation tool for the necessary nonlinear analysis. A validation of the obtained numerical results is achieved. The considered parameters in the study are the column slenderness ratio and the horizontal stiffener's dimensions as well as the number of stiffeners. The dimensions of the stiffeners considered in the analysis are the stiffener width and the stiffener thickness. Numerical results signify a considerable effect of stiffeners on the performance and failure load of slender built up steel I-columns.

Keywords: Steel I-columns, local buckling, slender, stiffener, thin walled section.

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30 Nonlinear Analysis of a Building Surmounted by a RC Water Tank under Hydrodynamic Load

Authors: Hocine Hammoum, Karima Bouzelha, Lounis Ziani, Lounis Hamitouche

Abstract:

In this paper, we study a complex structure which is an apartment building surmounted by a reinforced concrete water tank. The tank located on the top floor of the building is a container with capacity of 1000 m3. The building is complex in its design, its calculation and by its behavior under earthquake effect. This structure located in Algiers and aged of 53 years has been subjected to several earthquakes, but the earthquake of May 21st, 2003 with a magnitude of 6.7 on the Richter scale that struck Boumerdes region at 40 Kms East of Algiers was fatal for it. It was downgraded after an investigation study because the central core sustained serious damage. In this paper, to estimate the degree of its damages, the seismic performance of the structure will be evaluated taking into account the hydrodynamic effect, using a static equivalent nonlinear analysis called pushover.

Keywords: Performance analysis, building, reinforced concrete tank, seismic analysis, nonlinear analysis, hydrodynamic, pushover.

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29 Effects of Damper Locations and Base Isolators on Seismic Response of a Building Frame

Authors: Azin Shakibabarough, Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi

Abstract:

Structural vibration means repetitive motion that causes fatigue and reduction of the performance of a structure. An earthquake may release high amount of energy that can have adverse effect on all components of a structure. Therefore, decreasing of vibration or maintaining performance of structures such as bridges, dams, roads and buildings is important for life safety and reducing economic loss. When earthquake or any vibration happens, investigation on parts of a structure which sustain the seismic loads is mandatory to provide a safe condition for the occupants. One of the solutions for reducing the earthquake vibration in a structure is using of vibration control devices such as dampers and base isolators. The objective of this study is to investigate the optimal positions of friction dampers and base isolators for better seismic response of 2D frame. For this purpose, a two bay and six story frame with different distribution formats was modeled and some of their responses to earthquake such as inter-story drift, max joint displacement, max axial force and max bending moment were determined and compared using non-linear dynamic analysis.

Keywords: Fast nonlinear analysis, friction damper, base isolator, seismic vibration control, seismic response.

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28 'Performance-Based' Seismic Methodology and Its Application in Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Jelena R. Pejović, Nina N. Serdar

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the “Performance-Based” seismic design method, in order to overcome the perceived disadvantages and limitations of the existing seismic design approach based on force, in engineering practice. Bearing in mind, the specificity of the earthquake as a load and the fact that the seismic resistance of the structures solely depends on its behaviour in the nonlinear field, traditional seismic design approach based on force and linear analysis is not adequate. “Performance-Based” seismic design method is based on nonlinear analysis and can be used in everyday engineering practice. This paper presents the application of this method to eight-story high reinforced concrete building with combined structural system (reinforced concrete frame structural system in one direction and reinforced concrete ductile wall system in other direction). The nonlinear time-history analysis is performed on the spatial model of the structure using program Perform 3D, where the structure is exposed to forty real earthquake records. For considered building, large number of results were obtained. It was concluded that using this method we could, with a high degree of reliability, evaluate structural behavior under earthquake. It is obtained significant differences in the response of structures to various earthquake records. Also analysis showed that frame structural system had not performed well at the effect of earthquake records on soil like sand and gravel, while a ductile wall system had a satisfactory behavior on different types of soils.

Keywords: Ductile wall, frame system, nonlinear time-history analysis, performance-based methodology, RC building.

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27 CO2 Emission and Cost Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Frame Designed by Performance Based Design Approach

Authors: Jin Woo Hwang, Byung Kwan Oh, Yousok Kim, Hyo Seon Park

Abstract:

As greenhouse effect has been recognized as serious environmental problem of the world, interests in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission which comprises major part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been increased recently. Since construction industry takes a relatively large portion of total CO2 emissions of the world, extensive studies about reducing CO2 emissions in construction and operation of building have been carried out after the 2000s. Also, performance based design (PBD) methodology based on nonlinear analysis has been robustly developed after Northridge Earthquake in 1994 to assure and assess seismic performance of building more exactly because structural engineers recognized that prescriptive code based design approach cannot address inelastic earthquake responses directly and assure performance of building exactly. Although CO2 emissions and PBD approach are recent rising issues on construction industry and structural engineering, there were few or no researches considering these two issues simultaneously. Thus, the objective of this study is to minimize the CO2 emissions and cost of building designed by PBD approach in structural design stage considering structural materials. 4 story and 4 span reinforced concrete building optimally designed to minimize CO2 emissions and cost of building and to satisfy specific seismic performance (collapse prevention in maximum considered earthquake) of building satisfying prescriptive code regulations using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Optimized design result showed that minimized CO2 emissions and cost of building were acquired satisfying specific seismic performance. Therefore, the methodology proposed in this paper can be used to reduce both CO2 emissions and cost of building designed by PBD approach.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, performance based design, optimization, sustainable design.

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26 Numerical Evaluation of Shear Strength for Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panel

Authors: Rouaz Idriss, Bourahla Nour-Eddine, Kahlouche Farah, Rafa Sid Ali

Abstract:

The stability of structures made of light-gauge steel depends highly on the contribution of Shear Wall Panel (SWP) systems under horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake loads. Steel plate sheathing is often used with these panels made of cold formed steel (CFS) to improve its shear strength. In order to predict the shear strength resistance, two methods are presented in this paper. In the first method, the steel plate sheathing is modeled with plats strip taking into account only the tension and compression force due to the horizontal load, where both track and stud are modeled according to the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the specimen used in the experiments. The theoretical background and empirical formulations of this method are presented in this paper. However, the second method is based on a micro modeling of the cold formed steel Shear Wall Panel “CFS-SWP” using Abaqus software. A nonlinear analysis was carried out with an in-plan monotonic load. Finally, the comparison between these two methods shows that the micro modeling with Abaqus gives better prediction of shear resistance of SWP than strips method. However, the latter is easier and less time consuming than the micro modeling method.

Keywords: Cold Formed Steel Shear Wall Panel, CFS-SWP, micro modeling, nonlinear analysis, strip method.

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25 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Deep Beam Resting on Linear and Nonlinear Random Soil

Authors: M. Seguini, D. Nedjar

Abstract:

An accuracy nonlinear analysis of a deep beam resting on elastic perfectly plastic soil is carried out in this study. In fact, a nonlinear finite element modeling for large deflection and moderate rotation of Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on linear and nonlinear random soil is investigated. The geometric nonlinear analysis of the beam is based on the theory of von Kàrmàn, where the Newton-Raphson incremental iteration method is implemented in a Matlab code to solve the nonlinear equation of the soil-beam interaction system. However, two analyses (deterministic and probabilistic) are proposed to verify the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed model where the theory of the local average based on the Monte Carlo approach is used to analyze the effect of the spatial variability of the soil properties on the nonlinear beam response. The effect of six main parameters are investigated: the external load, the length of a beam, the coefficient of subgrade reaction of the soil, the Young’s modulus of the beam, the coefficient of variation and the correlation length of the soil’s coefficient of subgrade reaction. A comparison between the beam resting on linear and nonlinear soil models is presented for different beam’s length and external load. Numerical results have been obtained for the combination of the geometric nonlinearity of beam and material nonlinearity of random soil. This comparison highlighted the need of including the material nonlinearity and spatial variability of the soil in the geometric nonlinear analysis, when the beam undergoes large deflections.

Keywords: Finite element method, geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity, soil-structure interaction, spatial variability.

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24 Nonlinear Analysis of Postural Sway in Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Hua Cao, Laurent Peyrodie, Olivier Agnani, Cécile Donzé

Abstract:

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease which affects the central nervous system and causes balance problem. In clinical, this disorder is usually evaluated using static posturography. Some linear or nonlinear measures, extracted from the posturographic data (i.e. center of pressure, COP) recorded during a balance test, has been used to analyze postural control of MS patients. In this study, the trend (TREND) and the sample entropy (SampEn), two nonlinear parameters were chosen to investigate their relationships with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score. 40 volunteers with different EDSS scores participated in our experiments with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). TREND and 2 types of SampEn (SampEn1 and SampEn2) were calculated for each combined COP’s position signal. The results have shown that TREND had a weak negative correlation to EDSS while SampEn2 had a strong positive correlation to EDSS. Compared to TREND and SampEn1, SampEn2 showed a better significant correlation to EDSS and an ability to discriminate the MS patients in the EC case. In addition, the outcome of the study suggests that the multi-dimensional nonlinear analysis could provide some information about the impact of disability progression in MS on dynamics of the COP data.

Keywords: Balance, multiple sclerosis, nonlinear analysis, postural sway.

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23 Pushover Analysis of Masonry Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames for Performance Based Design for Near Field Earthquakes

Authors: Alok Madan, Ashok Gupta, Arshad K. Hashmi

Abstract:

Non-linear dynamic time history analysis is considered as the most advanced and comprehensive analytical method for evaluating the seismic response and performance of multi-degree-of-freedom building structures under the influence of earthquake ground motions. However, effective and accurate application of the method requires the implementation of advanced hysteretic constitutive models of the various structural components including masonry infill panels. Sophisticated computational research tools that incorporate realistic hysteresis models for non-linear dynamic time-history analysis are not popular among the professional engineers as they are not only difficult to access but also complex and time-consuming to use. In addition, commercial computer programs for structural analysis and design that are acceptable to practicing engineers do not generally integrate advanced hysteretic models which can accurately simulate the hysteresis behavior of structural elements with a realistic representation of strength degradation, stiffness deterioration, energy dissipation and ‘pinching’ under cyclic load reversals in the inelastic range of behavior. In this scenario, push-over or non-linear static analysis methods have gained significant popularity, as they can be employed to assess the seismic performance of building structures while avoiding the complexities and difficulties associated with non-linear dynamic time-history analysis. “Push-over” or non-linear static analysis offers a practical and efficient alternative to non-linear dynamic time-history analysis for rationally evaluating the seismic demands. The present paper is based on the analytical investigation of the effect of distribution of masonry infill panels over the elevation of planar masonry infilled reinforced concrete [R/C] frames on the seismic demands using the capacity spectrum procedures implementing nonlinear static analysis [pushover analysis] in conjunction with the response spectrum concept. An important objective of the present study is to numerically evaluate the adequacy of the capacity spectrum method using pushover analysis for performance based design of masonry infilled R/C frames for near-field earthquake ground motions.

Keywords: Nonlinear analysis, capacity spectrum method, response spectrum, seismic demand, near-field earthquakes.

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22 Multi-fidelity Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Membrane Wing

Authors: M. Saeedi, R. Wuchner, K.-U. Bletzinger

Abstract:

In order to study the aerodynamic performance of a semi-flexible membrane wing, Fluid-Structure Interaction simulations have been performed. The fluid problem has been modeled using two different approaches which are the vortex panel method and the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Nonlinear analysis of the structural problem is performed using the Finite Element Method. Comparison between the two fluid solvers has been made. Aerodynamic performance of the wing is discussed regarding its lift and drag coefficients and they are compared with those of the equivalent rigid wing.

Keywords: CFD, FSI, Membrane wing, Vortex panel method.

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21 On the Seismic Response of Collided Structures

Authors: George D. Hatzigeorgiou, Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

Abstract:

This study examines the inelastic behavior of adjacent planar reinforced concrete (R.C.) frames subjected to strong ground motions. The investigation focuses on the effects of vertical ground motion on the seismic pounding. The examined structures are modeled and analyzed by RUAUMOKO dynamic nonlinear analysis program using reliable hysteretic models for both structural members and contact elements. It is found that the vertical ground motion mildly affects the seismic response of adjacent buildings subjected to structural pounding and, for this reason, it can be ignored from the displacement and interstorey drifts assessment. However, the structural damage is moderately affected by the vertical component of earthquakes.

Keywords: Nonlinear seismic behavior, reinforced concrete structures, structural pounding, vertical ground motions.

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20 Seismic Response of Braced Steel Frames with Shape Memory Alloy and Mega Bracing Systems

Authors: Mohamed Omar

Abstract:

Steel bracing members are widely used in steel  structures to reduce lateral displacement and dissipate energy during  earthquake motions. Concentric steel bracing provide an excellent  approach for strengthening and stiffening steel buildings. Using these  braces the designer can hardly adjust the stiffness together with  ductility as needed because of buckling of braces in compression. In  this study the use of SMA bracing and steel bracing (Mega) utilized  in steel frames are investigated. The effectiveness of these two  systems in rehabilitating a mid-rise eight-storey steel frames were  examined using time-history nonlinear analysis utilizing seismostruct  software. Results show that both systems improve the strength and  stiffness of the original structure but due to excellent behavior of  SMA in nonlinear phase and under compressive forces this system  shows much better performance than the rehabilitation system of  Mega bracing.

 

Keywords: Finite element analysis, seismic response, shapes memory alloy, steel frame, mega bracing.

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19 Axisymmetric Nonlinear Analysis of Point Supported Shallow Spherical Shells

Authors: M. Altekin, R. F. Yükseler

Abstract:

Geometrically nonlinear axisymmetric bending of a shallow spherical shell with a point support at the apex under linearly varying axisymmetric load was investigated numerically. The edge of the shell was assumed to be simply supported or clamped. The solution was obtained by the finite difference and the Newton-Raphson methods. The thickness of the shell was considered to be uniform and the material was assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. Sensitivity analysis was made for two geometrical parameters. The accuracy of the algorithm was checked by comparing the deflection with the solution of point supported circular plates and good agreement was obtained.

Keywords: Bending, nonlinear, plate, point support, shell.

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18 Study Punching Shear of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete Slabs by Nonlinear Analysis

Authors: Khaled S. Ragab

Abstract:

This paper deals with behavior and capacity of punching shear force for flat slabs produced from steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC) by application nonlinear finite element method. Nonlinear finite element analysis on nine slab specimens was achieved by using ANSYS software. A general description of the finite element method, theoretical modeling of concrete and reinforcement are presented. The nonlinear finite element analysis program ANSYS is utilized owing to its capabilities to predict either the response of reinforced concrete slabs in the post elastic range or the ultimate strength of a flat slabs produced from steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC). In order to verify the analytical model used in this research using test results of the experimental data, the finite element analysis were performed then a parametric study of the effect ratio of flexural reinforcement, ratio of the upper reinforcement, and volume fraction of steel fibers were investigated. A comparison between the experimental results and those predicted by the existing models are presented. Results and conclusions may be useful for designers, have been raised, and represented.

Keywords: Nonlinear FEM, Punching shear behavior, Flat slabs and Steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC).

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17 Evaluation of Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis of Thin Shells by Flat Shell Finite Elements

Authors: Djamel Boutagouga, Kamel Djeghaba

Abstract:

The choice of finite element to use in order to predict nonlinear static or dynamic response of complex structures becomes an important factor. Then, the main goal of this research work is to focus a study on the effect of the in-plane rotational degrees of freedom in linear and geometrically non linear static and dynamic analysis of thin shell structures by flat shell finite elements. In this purpose: First, simple triangular and quadrilateral flat shell finite elements are implemented in an incremental formulation based on the updated lagrangian corotational description for geometrically nonlinear analysis. The triangular element is a combination of DKT and CST elements, while the quadrilateral is a combination of DKQ and the bilinear quadrilateral membrane element. In both elements, the sixth degree of freedom is handled via introducing fictitious stiffness. Secondly, in the same code, the sixth degrees of freedom in these elements is handled differently where the in-plane rotational d.o.f is considered as an effective d.o.f in the in-plane filed interpolation. Our goal is to compare resulting shell elements. Third, the analysis is enlarged to dynamic linear analysis by direct integration using Newmark-s implicit method. Finally, the linear dynamic analysis is extended to geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis where Newmark-s method is used to integrate equations of motion and the Newton-Raphson method is employed for iterating within each time step increment until equilibrium is achieved. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the interpolation of the in-plane rotational d.o.f. and present deficiencies of using fictitious stiffness in dynamic linear and nonlinear analysis.

Keywords: Flat shell, dynamic analysis, nonlinear, Newmark, drilling rotation.

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16 Effect of Gravity Modulation on Weakly Non-Linear Stability of Stationary Convection in a Dielectric Liquid

Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, B. R. Revathi

Abstract:

The effect of time-periodic oscillations of the Rayleigh- Benard system on the heat transport in dielectric liquids is investigated by weakly nonlinear analysis. We focus on stationary convection using the slow time scale and arrive at the real Ginzburg- Landau equation. Classical fourth order Runge-kutta method is used to solve the Ginzburg-Landau equation which gives the amplitude of convection and this helps in quantifying the heat transfer in dielectric liquids in terms of the Nusselt number. The effect of electrical Rayleigh number and the amplitude of modulation on heat transport is studied.

Keywords: Dielectric liquid, Nusselt number, amplitude equation.

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15 Geometric and Material Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structure Considering Soil-Structure Interaction

Authors: Mohamed M. El-Gendy, Ibrahim A. El-Arabi, Rafik W. Abdel-Missih, Omar A. Kandil

Abstract:

In the present research, a finite element model is presented to study the geometrical and material nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete plane frames considering soil-structure interaction. The nonlinear behaviors of concrete and reinforcing steel are considered both in compression and tension up to failure. The model takes account also for the number, diameter, and distribution of rebar along every cross section. Soil behavior is taken into consideration using four different models; namely: linear-, nonlinear Winkler's model, and linear-, nonlinear continuum model. A computer program (NARC) is specially developed in order to perform the analysis. The results achieved by the present model show good agreement with both theoretical and experimental published literature. The nonlinear behavior of a rectangular frame resting on soft soil up to failure using the proposed model is introduced for demonstration.

Keywords: Nonlinear analysis, Geometric nonlinearity, Material nonlinearity, Reinforced concrete, Finite element method, Soilstructure interaction, Winkler's soil model, Continuum soil model

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14 Investigation into Behavior of Suspen-Domes in Comparison with Single-Layer Domes

Authors: Behnam Shirkhanghah, Ali Darabadi-Zare, Houshyar Eimani-Kalesar, Babak Pahlevan

Abstract:

Prestressing in structure increases ratio of load-bearing capacity to weight. Suspendomes are single-layer braced domes reinforced with cable and strut. Prestressing of cables alter value and distribution of stress in structure. In this study two configuration, diamatic and lamella domes is selected. Investigated domes have span of 100m with rise-to-span ratios of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3. Single layer domes loaded under service load combinations according to ISO code. After geometric nonlinear analysis, models are designed with tubular and I-shaped sections then reinforced with cable and strut and converted to suspendomes. Displacements and stresses of some groups of nodes and elements in all of single-layer domes and suspendomes for three load combinations, symmetric snow, asymmetric snow and wind are compared. Variation due to suspending system is investigated. Suspendomes are redesigned and minimum possible weight after addition of cable and strut is obtained.

Keywords: Braced dome, Prestressing, Single-layer, Suspendome.

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13 Ginzburg-Landau Model for Curved Two-Phase Shallow Mixing Layers

Authors: Irina Eglite, Andrei A. Kolyshkin

Abstract:

Method of multiple scales is used in the paper in order to derive an amplitude evolution equation for the most unstable mode from two-dimensional shallow water equations under the rigid-lid assumption. It is assumed that shallow mixing layer is slightly curved in the longitudinal direction and contains small particles. Dynamic interaction between carrier fluid and particles is neglected. It is shown that the evolution equation is the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. Explicit formulas for the computation of the coefficients of the equation are obtained.

Keywords: Shallow water equations, mixing layer, weakly nonlinear analysis, Ginzburg-Landau equation

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12 The Effect of Frame Geometry on the Seismic Response of Self-Centering Concentrically- Braced Frames

Authors: David A. Roke, M. R. Hasan

Abstract:

Conventional concentrically-braced frame (CBF) systems have limited drift capacity before brace buckling and related damage leads to deterioration in strength and stiffness. Self-centering concentrically-braced frame (SC-CBF) systems have been developed to increase drift capacity prior to initiation of damage and minimize residual drift. SC-CBFs differ from conventional CBFs in that the SC-CBF columns are designed to uplift from the foundation at a specified level of lateral loading, initiating a rigid-body rotation (rocking) of the frame. Vertically-aligned post-tensioning bars resist uplift and provide a restoring force to return the SC-CBF columns to the foundation (self-centering the system). This paper presents a parametric study of different prototype buildings using SC-CBFs. The bay widths of the SC-CBFs have been varied in these buildings to study different geometries. Nonlinear numerical analyses of the different SC-CBFs are presented to illustrate the effect of frame geometry on the behavior and dynamic response of the SC-CBF system.

Keywords: Earthquake resistant structures, nonlinear analysis, seismic analysis, self-centering structural systems.

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11 The Effect of Slow Variation of Base Flow Profile on the Stability of Slightly Curved Mixing Layers

Authors: Irina Eglite, Andrei A. Kolyshkin

Abstract:

The effect of small non-parallelism of the base flow on the stability of slightly curved mixing layers is analyzed in the present paper. Assuming that the instability wavelength is much smaller than the length scale of the variation of the base flow we derive an amplitude evolution equation using the method of multiple scales. The proposed asymptotic model provides connection between parallel flow approximations and takes into account slow longitudinal variation of the base flow.

Keywords: shallow water, parallel flow assumption, weaklynonlinear analysis, method of multiple scales

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10 Effect of Concrete Nonlinear Parameters on the Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

Authors: Z. Heirany, M. Ghaemian

Abstract:

Behavior of dams against the seismic loads has been studied by many researchers. Most of them proposed new numerical methods to investigate the dam safety. In this paper, to study the effect of nonlinear parameters of concrete in gravity dams, a twodimensional approach was used including the finite element method, staggered method and smeared crack approach. Effective parameters in the models are physical properties of concrete such as modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and specific fracture energy. Two different models were used in foundation (mass-less and massed) in order to determine the seismic response of concrete gravity dams. Results show that when the nonlinear analysis includes the dam- foundation interaction, the foundation-s mass, flexibility and radiation damping are important in gravity dam-s response.

Keywords: Numerical methods; concrete gravity dams; finiteelement method; boundary condition

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9 Designing a Single-Floor Structure for the Control Room of a Petroleum Refinery and Assessing the Resistance of Such a Structure against Gas Explosion Load

Authors: Amin Lotfi Eghlim, Mehran pourgholi

Abstract:

Explosion occurs due to sudden release of energy. Common examples of explosion include chemical, atomic, heat, and pressure tank (due to ignition) explosions. Petroleum, gas, and petrochemical industries operations are threatened by natural risks and processes. Fires and explosions are the greatest process risks which cause financial damages. This study aims at designing a single-floor structure for the control room of a petroleum refinery to be resistant against gas explosion loads, and the information related to the structure specifications have been provided regarding the fact that the structure is made on the ground's surface. In this research, the lateral stiffness of single pile is calculated by SPPLN.FOR computer program, and its value for 13624 KN/m single pile has been assessed. The analysis used due to the loading conditions, is dynamic nonlinear analysis with direct integration method.

Keywords: Gas Explosion Load, Petroleum Refinery, Single-Floor Structure

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8 Nonlinear Analysis of Shear Wall Using Finite Element Model

Authors: M. A. Ghorbani, M. Pasbani Khiavi, F. Rezaie Moghaddam

Abstract:

In the analysis of structures, the nonlinear effects due to large displacement, large rotation and materially-nonlinear are very important and must be considered for the reliable analysis. The non-linear fmite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of fmite element code using the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation. Two-dimensional plane stress model was carried out to present the shear wall response. Total Lagangian formulation, which is computationally more effective, is used in the formulation of stiffness matrices and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The details of the program formulation are highlighted and the results of the analyses are presented, along with a comparison of the response of the structure with Ansys software results. The presented model in this paper can be developed for nonlinear analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.

Keywords: Finite element, large displacements, materially nonlinear, shear wall.

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7 The Effects of Asymmetric Bracing on Steel Structures under Seismic Loads

Authors: Mahmoud Miri, Soleiman Maramaee

Abstract:

Because of architectural condition and structure application, sometimes mass source and stiffness source are not coincidence, and the structure is irregular. The structure is also might be asymmetric as an asymmetric bracing in plan which leads to unbalance distribution of stiffness or because of unbalance distribution of the mass. Both condition lead to eccentricity and torsion in the structure. The deficiency of ordinary code to evaluate the performance of steel structures against earthquake has been caused designing based on performance level or capacity spectrum be used. By using the mentioned methods it is possible to design a structure that its behavior against different earthquakes be predictive. In this article 5- story buildings with different percentage of asymmetric which is because of stiffness changes have been designed. The static and dynamic nonlinear analysis under three acceleration recording has been done. Finally performance level of the structure has been evaluated.

Keywords: Seismic analysis, torsion, asymmetric, irregular building, stiffness source.

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