Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: non-biodegradable

4 Submicron Laser-Induced Dot, Ripple and Wrinkle Structures and Their Applications

Authors: P. Slepicka, N. Slepickova Kasalkova, I. Michaljanicova, O. Nedela, Z. Kolska, V. Svorcik

Abstract:

Polymers exposed to laser or plasma treatment or modified with different wet methods which enable the introduction of nanoparticles or biologically active species, such as amino-acids, may find many applications both as biocompatible or anti-bacterial materials or on the contrary, can be applied for a decrease in the number of cells on the treated surface which opens application in single cell units. For the experiments, two types of materials were chosen, a representative of non-biodegradable polymers, polyethersulphone (PES) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as biodegradable material. Exposure of solid substrate to laser well below the ablation threshold can lead to formation of various surface structures. The ripples have a period roughly comparable to the wavelength of the incident laser radiation, and their dimensions depend on many factors, such as chemical composition of the polymer substrate, laser wavelength and the angle of incidence. On the contrary, biopolymers may significantly change their surface roughness and thus influence cell compatibility. The focus was on the surface treatment of PES and PHB by pulse excimer KrF laser with wavelength of 248 nm. The changes of physicochemical properties, surface morphology, surface chemistry and ablation of exposed polymers were studied both for PES and PHB. Several analytical methods involving atomic force microscopy, gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy and others were used for the analysis of the treated surface. It was found that the combination of certain input parameters leads not only to the formation of optimal narrow pattern, but to the combination of a ripple and a wrinkle-like structure, which could be an optimal candidate for cell attachment. The interaction of different types of cells and their interactions with the laser exposed surface were studied. It was found that laser treatment contributes as a major factor for wettability/contact angle change. The combination of optimal laser energy and pulse number was used for the construction of a surface with an anti-cellular response. Due to the simple laser treatment, we were able to prepare a biopolymer surface with higher roughness and thus significantly influence the area of growth of different types of cells (U-2 OS cells).

Keywords: Polymer treatment, laser, periodic pattern, cell response.

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3 Impact of Disposed Drinking Water Sachets in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: Meeta Ratawa Tiwary

Abstract:

Damaturu is the capital of Yobe State in northeastern Nigeria where civic amenities and facilities are not adequate even after 24 years of its existence. The volatile security and political situations are most significant causes for the same. The basic facility for the citizens in terms of drinking water and electricity are not available. For the drinking water, they have to rely on personal boreholes or the filtered borehole waters available in packaged sachets in market. The present study is concerned with environmental impact of indiscriminate disposal of drinking synthetic polythene water sachets in Damaturu. The sachet water is popularly called as “pure water”, but its purity is questionable. Increased production and consumption of sachet water has led to indiscriminate dumping and disposal of empty sachets leading to serious environmental threat. The evidence of this is seen for sachets littering the streets and the drainages blocked by ‘blocks’ of water sachet waste. Sachet water gained much popularity in Nigeria because the product is convenient for use, affordable and economically viable. The present study aims to find out the solution to this environmental problem. The fieldbased study has found some significant factors that cause environmental and socio economic effect due to this. Some recommendations have been made based on research findings regarding sustainable waste management, recycling and re-use of the non-biodegradable products in society.

Keywords: Civic amenities, non-biodegradable, pure water, sustainable environment, waste disposal.

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2 Low-Cost Pre-Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater

Authors: A. Abu-Safa, S. Abu-Salah, M. Mosa, S. Gharaibeh

Abstract:

Pharmaceutical industries and effluents of sewage treatment plants are the main sources of residual pharmaceuticals in water resources. These emergent pollutants may adversely impact the biophysical environment. Pharmaceutical industries often generate wastewater that changes in characteristics and quantity depending on the used manufacturing processes. Carbamazepine (CBZ), {5Hdibenzo [b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide, (C15H12N2O)}, is a significant non-biodegradable pharmaceutical contaminant in the Jordanian pharmaceutical wastewater, which is not removed by the activated sludge processes in treatment plants. Activated carbon may potentially remove that pollutant from effluents, but the high cost involved suggests that more attention should be given to the potential use of low-cost materials in order to reduce cost and environmental contamination. Powders of Jordanian non-metallic raw materials namely, Azraq Bentonite (AB), Kaolinite (K), and Zeolite (Zeo) were activated (acid and thermal treatment) and evaluated by removing CBZ. The results of batch and column techniques experiments showed around 46% and 67% removal of CBZ respectively.

Keywords: Azraq bentonite, carbamazepine, pharmaceutical wastewater, zeolite.

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1 Creation of Economic and Social Value by Social Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Development

Authors: Ahaskar Pandey, Gaurav Mukherjee, Sushil Kumar

Abstract:

The ever growing sentiment of environmentalism across the globe has made many people think on the green lines. But most of such ideas halt short of implementation because of the short term economic viability issues with the concept of going green. In this paper we have tried to amalgamate the green concept with social entrepreneurship for solving a variety of issues faced by the society today. In addition the paper also tries to ensure that the short term economic viability does not act as a deterrent. The paper comes up three sustainable models of social entrepreneurship which tackle a wide assortment of issues such as nutrition problem, land problems, pollution problems and employment problems. The models described fall under the following heads: - Spirulina cultivation: The model addresses nutrition, land and employment issues. It deals with cultivation of a blue green alga called Spirulina which can be used as a very nutritious food. Also, the implementation of this model would bring forth employment to the poor people of the area. - Biocomposites: The model comes up with various avenues in which biocomposites can be used in an economically sustainable manner. This model deals with the environmental concerns and addresses the depletion of natural resources. - Packaging material from empty fruit bunches (EFB) of oil palm: This one deals with air and land pollution. It is intended to be a substitute for packaging materials made from Styrofoam and plastics which are non-biodegradable. It takes care of the biodegradability and land pollution issues. It also reduces air pollution as the empty fruit bunches are not incinerated. All the three models are sustainable and do not deplete the natural resources any further. This paper explains each of the models in detail and deals with the operational/manufacturing procedures and cost analysis while also throwing light on the benefits derived and sustainability aspects.

Keywords: Biodegradable, Pollution, Social entrepreneurship, Sustainability.

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