Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: nitric oxide

18 The Effect of Physical Exercise to Level of Nuclear Factor Kappa B on Serum, Macrophages and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Eka Fithra Elfi, Indria Hafizah

Abstract:

Background: Physical exercise induces a pattern of hormonal and immunological responses that prevent endothelial dysfunction by maintaining the availability of nitric oxide (NO). Regular and moderate exercise stimulates NO release, that can be considered as protective factor of cardiovascular diseases, while strenuous exercise induces increased levels in a number of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers endothelial activation which results in an increased vascular permeability. Nuclear gene factor kappa B (NF-κB) activates biological effect of TNF-α. Aim of Study: To determine the effect of physical exercise on the endothelial and skeletal muscle, we measured the level of NF-κB on rats’ serum, macrophages, and myocytes after strenuous physical exercise. Methods: 30 male Rattus norvegicus in the age of eight weeks were randomly divided into five groups (each containing six), and there were treated groups (T) and control group (C). The treated groups obtain strenuous physical exercise by ran on treadmill at 32 m/minutes for 1 hour or until exhaustion. Blood samples, myocytes of gastrocnemius muscle, and intraperitoneal macrophages were collected sequentially. There were investigated immediately, 2 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours (T1, T2, T3, and T4) after sacrifice. The levels of NF-κB were measured by ELISA methods. Results: From our study, we found that the levels of NF-κB on myocytes in treated group from which its specimen was taken immediately (T1), 2 hours after treadmill (T2), and 6 hours after treadmill (T3) were significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), while the group from which its specimen was taken 24 hours after treadmill, was no significantly different (p>0.05). Also on macrophages, NF-κB in treated groups T1, T2, and T3 was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), but there was no difference between T4 and control group (p>0.05). The level of serum NF-κB was not significantly different between treatment group as well as compared to control group (p>0.05). Serum NF-κB was significantly higher than the level on macrophages and myocytes (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that strenuous physical exercise stimulates the activation of NF-κB that plays a role in vascular inflammation and muscular damage, and may be recovered after resting period.

Keywords: Inflammation, Physical exercise, NF-κB, endothelial function

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 659
17 Vitamin C Status and Nitric Oxide in Buffalo Ovarian Follicular Fluid in Relation to Seasonal Heat Stress and Phase of Estrous Cycle

Authors: H. F. Hozyen, A. M. Abo-El Maaty

Abstract:

Heat stress is a recognized problem causing huge economic losses to the buffalo breeders as well as dairy industry. The aim of the present work was to study the pattern of vitamin C and nitric oxide in follicular fluid of buffalo during different seasons of the year considering phase of estrous cycle. This study was conducted on 208 cyclic buffaloes slaughtered at Al-Qaliobia governorate, Egypt, over one year. The obtained results revealed that vitamin C in follicular fluid was significantly lower in summer than winter and spring. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) was significantly higher in summer and autumn than winter and spring. Both vitamin C and NO did not differ significantly between follicular and luteal phases. In conclusion, the present study revealed that alterations in concentrations of follicular fluid vitamin C and NO that occur in summer could be related to low summer fertility in buffalo.

Keywords: vitamin C, buffalo, follicular fluid, NO and heat stress

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 793
16 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam

Abstract:

The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

Keywords: NOx, microkinetic modelling, selective catalytic reduction, Pt on alumina catalysts

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 923
15 Investigating Prostaglandin E2 and Intracellular Oxidative Stress Levels in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages upon Treatment with Strobilanthes crispus

Authors: Anna Pick Kiong Ling, Jia May Chin, Rhun Yian Koh, Ying Pei Wong

Abstract:

Background: Uncontrolled inflammation may cause serious inflammatory diseases if left untreated. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) is commonly used to inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes, thus, reduce inflammation. However, long term administration of NSAIDs leads to various complications. Medicinal plants are getting more attention as it is believed to be more compatible with human body. One of them is a flavonoid-containing medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus which has been traditionally claimed to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Nevertheless, its anti-inflammatory activities are yet to be scientifically documented. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of S. crispus by investigating its effects on intracellular oxidative stress and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Maximum Non-toxic Dose (MNTD) of methanol extract of both leaves and stems of S. crispus was first determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of S. crispus extracts at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD) on intracellular ROS as well as PGE2 levels in 1.0 µg/mL LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were then be measured using DCFH-DA and a competitive enzyme immunoassay kit, respectively. Results: The MNTD of leaf extract was determined as 700µg/mL while for stem was as low as 1.4µg/mL. When LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were subjected to the MNTD of S. crispus leaf extract, both intracellular ROS and PGE2 levels were significantly reduced. In contrast, stem extract at both MNTD and ½MNTD did not significantly reduce the PGE2 level, but significantly increased the intracellular ROS level. Conclusion: The methanol leaf extract of S. crispus may possess anti-inflammatory properties as it is able to significantly reduce the intracellular ROS and PGE2 levels of LPS-stimulated cells. Nevertheless, further studies such as investigating the interleukin, nitric oxide and cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels has to be conducted to further confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of S. crispus.

Keywords: Natural Products, Anti-Inflammatory, reactive oxygen species, prostaglandin E2

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1066
14 Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Nephrotoxicity Induced by Cadmium in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Hamed A. Alwadaani, Iyad Jresat

Abstract:

The present study investigated the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), against cadmium-induced kidney injury in rats. Cadmium chloride (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), was given for nine weeks. TQ treatment (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) started on the same day of cadmium administration and continued for nine weeks. TQ significantly decreased serum creatinine, renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and significantly increased renal reduced glutathione in rats received cadmium. Histopathological examination showed that TQ markedly minimized renal tissue damage induced by cadmium. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TQ markedly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, and caspase-3 in renal tissue. It was concluded that TQ significantly protected against cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats, through its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions.

Keywords: rats, Kidney, cadmium, thymoquinone

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1356
13 Antioxidative, Anticholinesterase and Anti-Neuroinflammatory Properties of Malaysian Brown and Green Seaweeds

Authors: Siti Aisya Gany, Swee Ching Tan, Sook Yee Gan

Abstract:

Diminished antioxidant defense or increased production of reactive oxygen species in the biological system can result in oxidative stress which may lead to various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Microglial activation also contributes to the progression of AD by producing several proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Oxidative stress and inflammation have been reported to be possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD. In addition, the cholinergic hypothesis postulates that memory impairment in patient with AD is also associated with the deficit of cholinergic function in the brain. Although a number of drugs have been approved for the treatment of AD, most of these synthetic drugs have diverse side effects and yield relatively modest benefits. Marine algae have great potential in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications as they are valuable sources of bioactive properties such as anticoagulation, antimicrobial, antioxidative, anticancer and anti-inflammatory. Hence, this study aimed to provide an overview of the properties of Malaysian seaweeds (Padina australis, Sargassum polycystum and Caulerpa racemosa) in inhibiting oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and cholinesterase enzymes. These seaweeds significantly exhibited potent DPPH and moderate superoxide anion radical scavenging ability (P<0.05). Hexane and methanol extracts of S. polycystum exhibited the most potent radical scavenging ability with IC50 values of 0.157±0.004mg/ml and 0.849±0.02mg/ml for DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Hexane extract of C. racemosa gave the strongest superoxide radical inhibitory effect (IC50 of 0.386±0.01mg/ml). Most seaweed extracts significantly inhibited the production of cytokine (IL-6, IL-1 β, TNFα) and NO in a concentration-dependent manner without causing significant cytotoxicity to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia cells (P<0.05). All extracts suppressed cytokine and NO level by more than 50% at the concentration of 0.4mg/ml. In addition, C. racemosa and S. polycystum also showed anti-acetylcholinesterase activities with the IC50 values ranging from 0.086-0.115 mg/ml. Moreover, C. racemosa and P. australis were also found to be active against butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values ranging from 0.118- 0.287 mg/ml.

Keywords: neuroinflammation, anticholinesterase, seaweeds, antioxidative

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2206
12 Protective Effect of Hesperidin against Cyclophosphamide Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Waleed H. Albuali, Iyad Jresat

Abstract:

The protective effect of hesperidin was investigated in rats exposed to liver injury induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) at a dose of 150 mg kg-1. Hesperidin treatment (100 mg kg-1/day, orally) was applied for seven days, starting five days before CYP administration. Hesperidin significantly decreased the CYP-induced elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity, significantly prevented the depletion of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity resulted from CYP administration. Also, hesperidin ameliorated the CYP-induced liver tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, hesperidin decreased the CYP-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, Fas ligand, and caspase-9 in liver tissue. It was concluded that hesperidin may represent a potential candidate to protect against CYP-induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: rats, Liver, hesperidin, cyclophosphamide

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1889
11 Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Arsenic-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Waleed H. Albuali, Iyad Jresat

Abstract:

The protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ) was investigated in rats exposed to testicular injury induced by sodium arsenite (10mg/kg/day, orally, for two days). TQ treatment (10mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) was applied for five days, starting three day before arsenic administration. TQ significantly attenuated the arsenic-induced decreases of serum testosterone, and testicular reduced glutathione level, and significantly decreased the elevations of testicular malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels resulted from arsenic administration. Also, TQ ameliorated the arsenic-induced testicular tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, TQ decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. It was concluded that TQ may represent a potential candidate to protect against arsenic-induced testicular injury. 

Keywords: Arsenic, rats, Testes, thymoquinone

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2476
10 Prooxidant Effect of the Crude Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Ficus odorata Blanco Merr. in vitro: It’s Medical Significance

Authors: Librado A. Santiago, Anna Beatriz R. Mayor

Abstract:

Alongside with antioxidant, pro-oxidant activity is also observed in phytochemical compounds. In the study, Ficus odorata, an endemic medicinal plant in the Philippines, was screened for the potential medical application of its pro-oxidant activity.

Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenes, glycosides and phenolic acids. The crude extract was found to contain low gallic acid and quercetin equivalence. The TLC chromatogram of the crude extract showed that none of the 11 spots obtained has antioxidant activity nor correspond to gallic acid and quercetin standards. Experiments showed that the crude extract has stimulatory activity towards DPPH radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and nitric oxide. Moreover, the extract exhibited a low ferric reducing power.

The prooxidant activity was evident in the crude ethanolic leaf extract of F. odorata, which may provide a better understanding of the plant’s pharmacological importance in the prevention of diseases.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Free Radicals, antioxidant, Ficus odorata Blanco, Prooxidant

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3576
9 Investigation the Difference of Several Hormones Correlated to Reproduction between Infertile and Fertile Dairy Cows

Authors: Ali M. Mutlag, Yang Zhiqiang, Meng Jiaren, Zhang Jingyan, Li Jianxi

Abstract:

The object of this study was to investigate several hormones correlated to the reproduction and inhibin A, inhibin B and NO levels in the infertile dairy cows as attempt to illustrate the physiological causes of dairy cows infertility.

40 Holstein cow (21 infertile and 19 fertile) were used at estrous phase of the cycle, Hormones FSH, LH, E2, Testosterone, were measured using ELISA method. inhibin A and B also estimated by ELISA method, Nitric oxide was measured by Greiss reagent method.

The results showed different concentrations of the hormone in which FSH illustrated significantly higher concentration in the infertile cows than fertile cows (P<0.05). LH and E2 showed significant decrease in the infertile cows than the fertile cows (P<0.05), no significant difference appeared in testosterone concentrations in the fertile cows and infertile cows (P>0.05). The both inhibins A and B showed significant P<0.05 decrease concentrations in the infertile cows also NO showed clearly significant decrease P<0.05 in the infertile cows.

In conclusion, the present study approved the poorly ovarian activities and reproduction disturbance of infertile cows in spite of trigger estrous signs, the study confirmed a positive correlation between inhibins and NO to regulate the ovarian physiology. These inhibins represent effective markers of dairy cow infertility.

Keywords: infertility, cows, nitric oxide (NO), Inhibin (A

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1534
8 Is Curcumine Effect Comparable to 5- Aminosalicylic Acid or Budesonide on a Rat Model of Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid?

Authors: Inas E. Darwish, Alia M. Arab, Tarek A. Azeim, Teshreen M. Zeitoun, Wafaa A. Hewedy, Moemen A. Heiba, Iman S. Emara

Abstract:

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing-remitting condition that afflicts millions of people throughout the world and impairs their daily functions and quality of life. Treatment of IBD depends largely on 5-aminosalicylic acid (5- ASA) and corticosteroids. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid, budesonide and currcumin on 90 male albino rats against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNB) induced colitis. TNB was injected intrarectally to 50 rats. The other 40 rats served as control groups. Both 5-ASA (in a dose of 120 mg/kg) and budesonide (in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg) were administered daily for one week whereas currcumin was injected intraperitonially (in a dose of 30 mg/kg daily) for 14 days after injection of either TNB in the colitis rats (group B) or saline in control groups (group A). The study included estimation of macroscopic score index, histological examination of H&E stained sections of the colonic tissue, biochemical estimation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and caspase-3 levels, in addition to studying the effect of tested drugs on colonic motility. It was found that budesonide and curcumin improved mucosal healing, reduced both NO production and caspase- 3 level. They had the best impact on the disturbed colonic motility in TNBS-model of colitis.

Keywords: Curcumin, Nitric Oxide, colitis

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1340
7 Cannabidiol Treatment Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Waleed H. Albuali, Iyad Jresat

Abstract:

The possible therapeutic effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated against acute hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose of acetaminophen (500mg/kg) in mice. Cannabidiol (two intraperitoneal injections, 5mg/kg, each) was given 1 hour and 12 hours following acetaminophen administration. Acetaminophen administration caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels, and a significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters resulted from acetaminophen administration. Also, histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol markedly attenuated ameliorated acetaminophen-induced liver tissue damage. These results emphasize that cannabidiol represents a potential therapeutic option to protect against acetaminophen hepartotoxicity which is a common clinical problem.

Keywords: mice, Liver, acetaminophen, cannabidiol

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2534
6 Some Biochemical Changes Followed Experimental Gastric Ulceration

Authors: A. H. El-Far, R. R. Gindi, H. A. Abd El-Maksoud, Mohamed Ragaa Ragab Hassanien

Abstract:

Gastric ulceration is a discontinuity in gastric mucosa, usually occurs due to imbalance between the gastric mucosal protective factors, that is called gastric mucosal barrier, and the aggressive factors, to which the mucosa is exposed. This study was carried out on sixty male Sprague-Dowely rats (12- 16 weeks old) allocated into two groups. The first control group and the second Gastric lesion group which induced by oral administration of a single daily dose of aspirin at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive-days (6% aspirin solution will be prepared and each rat will be given 5 ml of that solution/kg body weight). Blood is collected 1, 2 and 3 weeks after induction of gastric ulceration. Significant increase in serum copper, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 all over the period of experiment. Significant decrease in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) activities, serum (calcium, phosphorus, glucose and insulin) levels. Non-significant changes in serum sodium and potassium levels are obtained.

Keywords: superoxide dismutase, aspirin, gastric ulcer, prostaglandin E2

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1242
5 Some Physiological Effects of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum-graecum Extracts in Diabetic Rats as Compared with Cidophage®

Authors: Wehash, F. E., Ismail I. Abo-Ghanema, Rasha Mohamed Saleh

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diabetic properties of ethanolic extract of two plants commonly used in folk medicine, Mormodica charantia (bitter melon) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek). The study was performed on STZinduced diabetic rats (DM type-I). Plant extracts of these two plants were given to STZ diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight ,50 mg/kg body weight respectively. Cidophage® (metformin HCl) were administered to another group to support the results at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight, the ethanolic extracts and Cidophage administered orally once a day for four weeks using a stomach tube and; serum samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. The extracts caused significant decreases in glucose levels compared with diabetic control rats. Insulin secretions were increased after 4 weeks of treatment with Cidophage® compared with the control non-diabetic rats. Levels of AST and ALT liver enzymes were normalized by all treatments. Decreases in liver cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL in diabetic rats were observed with all treatments. HDL levels were increased by the treatments in the following order: bitter melon, Cidophage®, and fenugreek. Creatinine levels were reduced by all treatments. Serum nitric oxide and malonaldehyde levels were reduced by all extracts. GSH levels were increased by all extracts. Extravasation as measured by the Evans Blue test increased significantly in STZ-induced diabetic animals. This effect was reversed by ethanolic extracts of bitter melon or fenugreek.

Keywords: diabetic rats, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Cidophage®, Mormodica charantia

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1717
4 Possible Protective Effect of Kombucha Tea Ferment on Cadmium Chloride Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in Irradiated Rats

Authors: Nashwa Kamel Ibrahim

Abstract:

Kombucha Tea Ferment (KT), was given to male albino rats, (1ml/Kg of body weight), via gavages, during 2 weeks before intraperitoneal administration of 3.5 mg/Kg body weight CdCl2 and/or whole body γ-irradiation with 4Gy, and during 4 weeks after each treatment. Hepatic and nephritic pathological changes included significant increases of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and creatinine and urea contents with significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Increase in oxidative stress markers in liver and kidney tissues expressed by significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents associated to significant depletion in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were recorded. KT administration results in recovery of all the pathological changes. It could be concluded that KT might protect liver and kidney from oxidative damage induced by exposure to cadmium and/ or γ-irradiation.

Keywords: Radiation, rats, cadmium, kombucha

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1649
3 Serum Nitric Oxide and Sialic Acid: Possible Biochemical Markers for Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Syed M. Shahid, Rozeena Shaikh, Syeda N. Nawab, Shah A. Qader, Abid Azhar, Tabassum Mahboob

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate the role of serum nitric oxide and sialic acid in the development of diabetic nephropathy as disease marker. Total 210 diabetic patients (age and sex matched) were selected followed by informed consent and divided into four groups (70 each) as I: control; II: diabetic; III: diabetic hypertensive; IV: diabetic nephropathy. The blood samples of all subjects were collected and analyzed for serum nitric oxide, sialic acid, fasting blood glucose, serum urea, creatinine, HbA1c and GFR. The BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, HbA1c and serum sialic acid levels were high (p<0.01) in group II as compared to control subjects. The higher levels (p<0.01) of BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, HbA1c, serum urea, creatinine and sialic acid were observed in group III and IV as compared to controls. Significantly low levels of GFR and serum nitric oxide (p<0.01) were observed in group III and IV as compared to controls. Results indicated that serum nitric oxide and sialic acid are the major biochemical indicators for micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes such as hypertension and nephropathy. These should be taken into account during screening procedures regarding identifications of the diabetic patients to get them rid of progressive renal impairment to ESRD.

Keywords: Hypertension, Diabetic Nephropathy, Nitric Oxide, sialic acid

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1324
2 Analysis of Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of Turbocharged LHR Extended Expansion DI Diesel Engine

Authors: Mohd.F.Shabir, P. Tamilporai, B. Rajendra Prasath

Abstract:

The fundamental aim of extended expansion concept is to achieve higher work done which in turn leads to higher thermal efficiency. This concept is compatible with the application of turbocharger and LHR engine. The Low Heat Rejection engine was developed by coating the piston crown, cylinder head inside with valves and cylinder liner with partially stabilized zirconia coating of 0.5 mm thickness. Extended expansion in diesel engines is termed as Miller cycle in which the expansion ratio is increased by reducing the compression ratio by modifying the inlet cam for late inlet valve closing. The specific fuel consumption reduces to an appreciable level and the thermal efficiency of the extended expansion turbocharged LHR engine is improved. In this work, a thermodynamic model was formulated and developed to simulate the LHR based extended expansion turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. It includes a gas flow model, a heat transfer model, and a two zone combustion model. Gas exchange model is modified by incorporating the Miller cycle, by delaying inlet valve closing timing which had resulted in considerable improvement in thermal efficiency of turbocharged LHR engines. The heat transfer model, calculates the convective and radiative heat transfer between the gas and wall by taking into account of the combustion chamber surface temperature swings. Using the two-zone combustion model, the combustion parameters and the chemical equilibrium compositions were determined. The chemical equilibrium compositions were used to calculate the Nitric oxide formation rate by assuming a modified Zeldovich mechanism. The accuracy of this model is scrutinized against actual test results from the engine. The factors which affect thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions were deduced and their influences were discussed. In the final analysis it is seen that there is an excellent agreement in all of these evaluations.

Keywords: Low Heat Rejection, Miller cycle

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1778
1 Effect of L-Arginine on Neuromuscular Transmission of the Chick Biventer Cervicis Muscle

Authors: S. Asadzadeh Vostakolaei

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of L-arginine was examined at the neuromuscular junction of the chick biventer cervicis muscle. LArginine at 500 μg/ ml, decreased twitch response to electerical stimulation, and produced rightward shift of the dose- response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol. L-Arginine at 1000μg/ ml produced a strong shift to the right of the dose – response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol with a reduction in the efficacy. The inhibitory effect of L-arginine on the twitch response was blocked by caffeine (200μg/ ml). NO levels were also measured in the chick biventer cervicis muscle homogenates, using spectrophotometric method for the direct detection of NO, nitrite and nitrate. Total nitrite (nitrite + nitrate) was measured by a spectrophotometer at 540 nm after the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by copperized cadmium granules. NO levels were found to be significantly increased in concentrations 500 and 1000μg/ ml of L-arginine in comparison with the control group (p<0.001). These findings indicate a possible role of increased NO levels in the suppressive action of L-arginine on the twitch response. In addition, the results indicate that the post- junctional antagonistic action of L-arginine is probably the result of impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca+2 releases.

Keywords: Nitric Oxide, skeletal muscle, L-arginine, chick

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1390