Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: nanoparticle.

11 Investigation of the Effect of Nano-Alumina Particles on Adsorption Property of Acrylic Fiber

Authors: Mehdi Ketabchi, Shallah Alijanlo

Abstract:

The flue gas from fossil fuels combustion contains harmful pollutants dangerous for human health and environment. One of the air pollution control methods to restrict the emission of these pollutants is based on using the nanoparticle in adsorption process. In the present research, gamma nano-alumina particle is added to polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer through simple loading method, and the adsorption capacity of the wet spun fiber is investigated. The results of exposure the fiber to the acid gases including SO2, CO, NO2, NO, and CO2 show the noticeable increase of gas adsorption capacity on fiber contains nanoparticle. The research has been conducted in Acrylic II Plant of Polyacryl Iran Corporation.

Keywords: Acrylic fiber, adsorbent, wet spun, polyacryl company, gamma nano-alumina.

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10 Economic Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Nanofluid

Authors: Hassan Hajabdollahi

Abstract:

Economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) is presented in this paper. To increase the rate of heat transfer, copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticle is added into the tube side fluid and their optimum results are compared with the case of without additive nanoparticle. Total annual cost (TAC) is selected as fitness function and nine decision variables related to the heat exchanger parameters as well as concentration of nanoparticle are considered. Optimization results reveal the noticeable improvement in the TAC and in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid (8.9%). Comparison of the results between two studied cases also reveal that the lower tube diameter, tube number, and baffle spacing are needed in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid.

Keywords: Shell and tube heat exchanger, nanoparticles additive, total annual cost, particle volumetric concentration.

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9 Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Nano-Nutrient for the Growth and Enhancement of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Plant

Authors: G. Karunakaran, M. Jagathambal, N. Van Minh, E. Kolesnikov, A. Gusev, O. V. Zakharova, E. V. Scripnikova, E. D. Vishnyakova, D. Kuznetsov

Abstract:

Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) are widely used in different applications due to its ecofriendly nature and biocompatibility. Hence, in this investigation, biosynthesized Fe2O3NPs influence on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant was examined. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were found to be cubic phase which is confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to the iron oxide nanoparticle. The elemental analysis also confirmed that the obtained nanoparticle is iron oxide nanoparticle. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy confirm that the average particle size was around 56 nm. The effect of Fe2O3NPs on seed germination followed by biochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained after four days and 11 days of seed vigor studies showed that the seedling length (cm), average number of seedling with leaves, increase in root length (cm) was found to be enhanced on treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles when compared to control. A positive correlation was noticed with the dose of the nanoparticle and plant growth, which may be due to changes in metabolic activity. Hence, to evaluate the change in metabolic activity, peroxidase and catalase activities were estimated. It was clear from the observation that higher concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs 1000 mg/L) has enhanced peroxidase and catalase activities and in turn plant growth. Thus, this study clearly showed that biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles will be an effective nano-nutrient for agriculture applications.

Keywords: Catalase, fertilizer, iron oxide nanoparticles, Linum usitatissimum L., nano-nutrient, peroxidase.

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8 Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi, Alireza Baghbanan

Abstract:

Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.

Keywords: Bacteria, biosynthesis, silver-phosphate, Sporosarcina pasteurii, nanoparticle.

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7 Conformation Prediction of Human Plasmin and Docking on Gold Nanoparticle

Authors: Wen-Shyong Tzou, Chih-Ching Huang, Chin-Hwa Hu, Ying-Tsang Lo, Tun-Wen Pai, Chia-Yin Chiang, Chung-Hao Li, Hong-Jyuan Jian

Abstract:

Plasmin plays an important role in the human circulatory system owing to its catalytic ability of fibrinolysis. The immediate injection of plasmin in patients of strokes has intrigued many scientists to design vectors that can transport plasmin to the desired location in human body. Here we predict the structure of human plasmin and investigate the interaction of plasmin with the gold-nanoparticle. Because the crystal structure of plasminogen has been solved, we deleted N-terminal domain (Pan-apple domain) of plasminogen and generate a mimic of the active form of this enzyme (plasmin). We conducted a simulated annealing process on plasmin and discovered a very large conformation occurs. Kringle domains 1, 4 and 5 had been observed to leave its original location relative to the main body of the enzyme and the original doughnut shape of this enzyme has been transformed to a V-shaped by opening its two arms. This observation of conformational change is consistent with the experimental results of neutron scattering and centrifugation. We subsequently docked the plasmin on the simulated gold surface to predict their interaction. The V-shaped plasmin could utilize its Kringle domain and catalytic domain to contact the gold surface. Our findings not only reveal the flexibility of plasmin structure but also provide a guide for the design of a plasmin-gold nanoparticle.

Keywords: Docking, gold nanoparticle, molecular simulation, plasmin.

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6 Improvement of Chemical Demulsifier Performance Using Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: G. E. Gandomkar, E. Bekhradinassab, S. Sabbaghi, M. M. Zerafat

Abstract:

The reduction of water content in crude oil emulsions reduces pipeline corrosion potential and increases the productivity. Chemical emulsification of crude oil emulsions is one of the methods available to reduce the water content. Presence of demulsifier causes the film layer between the crude oil emulsion and water droplets to become unstable leading to the acceleration of water coalescence. This research has been performed to study the improvement performance of a chemical demulsifier by silica nanoparticles. The silica nano-particles have been synthesized by sol-gel technique and precipitation using poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as surfactants and then nano-particles are added to the demulsifier. The silica nanoparticles were characterized by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and SEM. Upon the addition of nanoparticles, bottle tests have been carried out to separate and measure the water content. The results show that silica nano-particles increase the demulsifier efficiency by about 40%.

Keywords: Demulsifier, dehydration, silicon dioxide, nanoparticle.

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5 Nanostructured Pt/MnO2 Catalysts and Their Performance for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Air Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Maksudur Rahman Khan, Kar Min Chan, Huei Ruey Ong, Chin Kui Cheng, Wasikur Rahman

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a promising technology for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment. Catalysts are significant portions of the cost of microbial fuel cell cathodes. Many materials have been tested as aqueous cathodes, but air-cathodes are needed to avoid energy demands for water aeration. The sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) rate at air cathode necessitates efficient electrocatalyst such as carbon supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C) which is very costly. Manganese oxide (MnO2) was a representative metal oxide which has been studied as a promising alternative electrocatalyst for ORR and has been tested in air-cathode MFCs. However the single MnO2 has poor electric conductivity and low stability. In the present work, the MnO2 catalyst has been modified by doping Pt nanoparticle. The goal of the work was to improve the performance of the MFC with minimum Pt loading. MnO2 and Pt nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal and sol gel methods, respectively. Wet impregnation method was used to synthesize Pt/MnO2 catalyst. The catalysts were further used as cathode catalysts in air-cathode cubic MFCs, in which anaerobic sludge was inoculated as biocatalysts and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was used as the substrate in the anode chamber. The asprepared Pt/MnO2 was characterized comprehensively through field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) where its surface morphology, crystallinity, oxidation state and electrochemical activity were examined, respectively. XPS revealed Mn (IV) oxidation state and Pt (0) nanoparticle metal, indicating the presence of MnO2 and Pt. Morphology of Pt/MnO2 observed from FESEM shows that the doping of Pt did not cause change in needle-like shape of MnO2 which provides large contacting surface area. The electrochemical active area of the Pt/MnO2 catalysts has been increased from 276 to 617 m2/g with the increase in Pt loading from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%. The CV results in O2 saturated neutral Na2SO4 solution showed that MnO2 and Pt/MnO2 catalysts could catalyze ORR with different catalytic activities. MFC with Pt/MnO2 (0.4 wt% Pt) as air cathode catalyst generates a maximum power density of 165 mW/m3, which is higher than that of MFC with MnO2 catalyst (95 mW/m3). The open circuit voltage (OCV) of the MFC operated with MnO2 cathode gradually decreased during 14 days of operation, whereas the MFC with Pt/MnO2 cathode remained almost constant throughout the operation suggesting the higher stability of the Pt/MnO2 catalyst. Therefore, Pt/MnO2 with 0.4 wt% Pt successfully demonstrated as an efficient and low cost electrocatalyst for ORR in air cathode MFC with higher electrochemical activity, stability and hence enhanced performance.

Keywords: Microbial fuel cell, oxygen reduction reaction, Pt/MnO2, palm oil mill effluent, polarization curve.

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4 Estimation of Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids Using MD-Stochastic Simulation Based Approach

Authors: Sujoy Das, M. M. Ghosh

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of a fluid can be significantly enhanced by dispersing nano-sized particles in it, and the resultant fluid is termed as "nanofluid". A theoretical model for estimating the thermal conductivity of a nanofluid has been proposed here. It is based on the mechanism that evenly dispersed nanoparticles within a nanofluid undergo Brownian motion in course of which the nanoparticles repeatedly collide with the heat source. During each collision a rapid heat transfer occurs owing to the solidsolid contact. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the collision of nanoparticles with the heat source has shown that there is a pulselike pick up of heat by the nanoparticles within 20-100 ps, the extent of which depends not only on thermal conductivity of the nanoparticles, but also on the elastic and other physical properties of the nanoparticle. After the collision the nanoparticles undergo Brownian motion in the base fluid and release the excess heat to the surrounding base fluid within 2-10 ms. The Brownian motion and associated temperature variation of the nanoparticles have been modeled by stochastic analysis. Repeated occurrence of these events by the suspended nanoparticles significantly contributes to the characteristic thermal conductivity of the nanofluids, which has been estimated by the present model for a ethylene glycol based nanofluid containing Cu-nanoparticles of size ranging from 8 to 20 nm, with Gaussian size distribution. The prediction of the present model has shown a reasonable agreement with the experimental data available in literature.

Keywords: Brownian dynamics, Molecular dynamics, Nanofluid, Thermal conductivity.

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3 Multifunctional Cell Processing with Plasmonic Nanobubbles

Authors: Ekaterina Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Dmitri O. Lapotko

Abstract:

Cell processing techniques for gene and cell therapies use several separate procedures for gene transfer and cell separation or elimination, because no current technology can offer simultaneous multi-functional processing of specific cell sub-sets in heterogeneous cell systems. Using our novel on-demand nonstationary intracellular events instead of permanent materials, plasmonic nanobubbles, generated with a short laser pulse only in target cells, we achieved simultaneous multifunctional cell-specific processing with the rate up to 50 million cells per minute.

Keywords: Delivery, cell separation, graft, laser, plasmonic nanobubble, cell therapy, gold nanoparticle.

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2 Preparation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles by Reduction of Copper Ions in Aqueous Solution and Their Metal-Metal Bonding Properties

Authors: Y. Kobayashi, T. Shirochi, Y. Yasuda, T. Morita

Abstract:

This paper describes a method for preparing metallic Cu nanoparticles in aqueous solution, and a metal-metal bonding technique using the Cu particles.Preparation of the Cu particle colloid solution was performed in water at room temperature in air using a copper source (0.01 M Cu(NO3)2), a reducing reagent (0.2 - 1.0 M hydrazine), and stabilizers (0.5×10-3 M citric acid and 5.0×10-3 M cetyltrimethylammonium bromide). The metallic Cu nanoparticles with sizes of ca. 60nm were prepared at all the hydrazine concentrations examined. A stage and a plate of metallic Cu were successfully bonded under annealing at 400oC and pressurizing at 1.2 MPa for 5min in H2 gas with help of the metallic Cu particles. A shear strength required for separating the bonded Cu substrates reached the maximum value at a hydrazine concentration of 0.8M, and it decreased beyond the concentration. Consequently, the largest shear strength of 22.9 MPa was achieved at the 0.8 M hydrazine concentration.

Keywords: Aqueous solution, Bonding, Colloid, Copper, Nanoparticle.

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1 Characterization of Silica Nanoparticles in Interaction with Escherichia coli Bacteria

Authors: Ibtissem Gammoudi, Ndeye Rokhaya Faye, Fabien Moroté, Daniel Moynet, Christine Grauby-Heywang, Touria Cohen-Bouhacina

Abstract:

The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the morphology of Escherchia coli bacteria in interaction with SiO2 nanoparticles. This study was made by atomic force microscopy and quartz crystal microbalance using SiO2 nanoparticles with 10nm, 50nm and 100nm diameter and bacteria immobilized on polyelectrolyte multilayer films obtained by spin coating or by “layer by layer” (LbL) method.

Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, Escherichia coli, Quartz Crystal Microbalance, polyelectrolyte, silica nanoparticle.

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