Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: membrane module

5 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi

Abstract:

Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: Vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity.

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4 Separation Characteristics of the Hollow Fiber Membrane Module Using Water Mixed with Small Sized Bubbles Composed of Synthesized Exhalations

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, Hyunse Kim

Abstract:

Fish can breathe freely under water using dissolved oxygen and survive for a long time without going out of the water. A human can also survive under water using dissolved oxygens, if properly used. He needs more dissolved oxygens than the fish, so efficient separation device is required. Since the amount of oxygen contained in water is weak, a person needs a lot of surface area to breathe in water, which leads to a large-sized device. It can be applied to various fields if it is developed as a device which is advantageous to carry in small size. In this paper, we have carried out a study on the effective use of exhalations and proposed the separation characteristics of the gas containing dissolved oxygen in the state of mixed gas considering the components of exhalation. The system was configured to have a fine bubble when the gas mixture injected into the front end of the separator. While the fluid containing the fine bubbles was supplied to the separator, the dissolved gas contained in water was separated using a vacuum pump. The gas separation amount of the separating apparatus with respect to the supplied mixed gas was measured. The amounts of separation of dissolved gas were increased as the amounts of mixed gas supplied were increased.

Keywords: Small sized bubbles, synthesized exhalations, separation, hollow fiber module.

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3 Separation Characteristics of Dissolved Gases from Water Using a Polypropylene Hollow Fiber Membrane Module with High Surface Area

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

A polypropylene hollow fiber membrane module is used for separating dissolved gases which contain dissolved oxygen from water. These dissolved gases can be used for underwater breathing. To be used for a human, the minimum amount of oxygen is essential. To increase separation of dissolved gases, much water and high surface area of hollow fibers are requested. For efficient separation system, performance of single membrane module with high surface area needs to be investigated.

In this study, we set up experimental devices for analyzing separation characteristics of dissolved gases including oxygen from water using a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane module. Separation of dissolved gases from water is investigated with variations of water flow rates. Composition of dissolved gases is also measured using GC. These results expect to be used in developing the portable separation system.

Keywords: High surface area, breathing, vacuum, composition.

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2 Clarification of Synthetic Juice through Spiral Wound Ultrafiltration Module at Turbulent Flow Region and Cleaning Study

Authors: Vijay Singh, Chandan Das

Abstract:

Synthetic juice clarification was done through spiral wound ultrafiltration (UF) membrane module. Synthetic juice was clarified at two different operating conditions, such as, with and without permeates recycle at turbulent flow regime. The performance of spiral wound ultrafiltration membrane was analyzed during clarification of synthetic juice. Synthetic juice was the mixture of deionized water, sucrose and pectin molecule. The operating conditions are: feed flowrate of 10 lpm, pressure drop of 413.7 kPa and Reynolds no of 5000. Permeate sample was analyzed in terms of volume reduction factor (VRF), viscosity (Pa.s), ⁰Brix, TDS (mg/l), electrical conductivity (μS) and turbidity (NTU). It was observe that the permeate flux declined with operating time for both conditions of with and without permeate recycle due to increase of concentration polarization and increase of gel layer on membrane surface. For without permeate recycle, the membrane fouling rate was faster compared to with permeate recycle. For without permeate recycle, the VRF rose up to 5 and for with recycle permeate the VRF is 1.9. The VRF is higher due to adsorption of solute (pectin) molecule on membrane surface and resulting permeateflux declined with VRF. With permeate recycle, quality was within acceptable limit. Fouled membrane was cleaned by applying different processes (e.g., deionized water, SDS and EDTA solution). Membrane cleaning was analyzed in terms of permeability recovery.

Keywords: Synthetic juice, Spiral wound, ultrafiltration, Reynolds No, Volume reduction factor.

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1 Separation of Polyphenolics and Sugar by Ultrafiltration: Effects of Operating Conditions on Fouling and Diafiltration

Authors: Diqiao S. Wei, M. Hossain, Zaid S. Saleh

Abstract:

Polyphenolics and sugar are the components of many fruit juices. In this work, the performance of ultra-filtration (UF) for separating phenolic compounds from apple juice was studied by performing batch experiments in a membrane module with an area of 0.1 m2 and fitted with a regenerated cellulose membrane of 1 kDa MWCO. The effects of various operating conditions: transmembrane pressure (3, 4, 5 bar), temperature (30, 35, 40 ºC), pH (2, 3, 4, 5), feed concentration (3, 5, 7, 10, 15 ºBrix for apple juice) and feed flow rate (1, 1.5, 1.8 L/min) on the performance were determined. The optimum operating conditions were: transmembrane pressure 4 bar, temperature 30 ºC, feed flow rate 1 – 1.8 L/min, pH 3 and 10 Brix (apple juice). After performing ultrafiltration under these conditions, the concentration of polyphenolics in retentate was increased by a factor of up to 2.7 with up to 70% recovered in the permeate and with approx. 20% of the sugar in that stream.. Application of diafiltration (addition of water to the concentrate) can regain the flux by a factor of 1.5, which has been decreased due to fouling. The material balance performed on the process has shown the amount of deposits on the membrane and the extent of fouling in the system. In conclusion, ultrafiltration has been demonstrated as a potential technology to separate the polyphenolics and sugars from their mixtures and can be applied to remove sugars from fruit juice.

Keywords: Fouling, membrane, polyphenols, ultrafiltration.

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