Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: mechanical systems

23 Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling

Authors: M. Soltan Rezaee, M. R. Ghazavi, A. Najafi, W.-H. Liao

Abstract:

Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.

Keywords: Coupling, mechanical systems, oscillations, rotating shafts.

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22 Comparative Analysis of Geographical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Rahul Malhotra

Abstract:

The field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) engages a lot of associates in the research community as an interdisciplinary field of interest. This type of network is inexpensive, multifunctionally attributable to advances in micro-electromechanical systems and conjointly the explosion and expansion of wireless communications. A mobile ad hoc network is a wireless network without fastened infrastructure or federal management. Due to the infrastructure-less mode of operation, mobile ad-hoc networks are gaining quality. During this work, we have performed an efficient performance study of the two major routing protocols: Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocols. We have used an accurate simulation model supported NS2 for this purpose. Our simulation results showed that AODV mitigates the drawbacks of the DSDV and provides better performance as compared to DSDV.

Keywords: Routing protocols, mobility, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector, Dynamic Source Routing, Destination Sequence Distance Vector, Quality of Service.

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21 Modeling of Microelectromechanical Systems Diaphragm Based Acoustic Sensor

Authors: Vasudha Hegde, Narendra Chaulagain, H. M. Ravikumar, Sonu Mishra, Siva Yellampalli

Abstract:

Acoustic sensors are extensively used in recent days not only for sensing and condition monitoring applications but also for small scale energy harvesting applications to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) due to their inherent advantages. The natural frequency of the structure plays a major role in energy harvesting applications since the sensor key element has to operate at resonant frequency. In this paper, circular diaphragm based MEMS acoustic sensor is modelled by Lumped Element Model (LEM) and the natural frequency is compared with the simulated model using Finite Element Method (FEM) tool COMSOL Multiphysics. The sensor has the circular diaphragm of 3000 µm radius and thickness of 30 µm to withstand the high SPL (Sound Pressure Level) and also to withstand the various fabrication steps. A Piezoelectric ZnO layer of thickness of 1 µm sandwiched between two aluminium electrodes of thickness 0.5 µm and is coated on the diaphragm. Further, a channel with radius 3000 µm radius and length 270 µm is connected at the bottom of the diaphragm. The natural frequency of the structure by LEM method is approximately 16.6 kHz which is closely matching with that of simulated structure with suitable approximations.

Keywords: Acoustic sensor, diaphragm based, lumped element modeling, natural frequency, piezoelectric.

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20 Power and Wear Reduction Using Composite Links of Crank-Rocker Mechanism with Optimum Transmission Angle

Authors: Khaled M. Khader, Mamdouh I. Elimy

Abstract:

Reducing energy consumption became the major concern for all countries of the world during the recent decades. In general, power saving is currently the nominal goal of most industrial countries. It is well known that fossil fuels are the main pillar of development of world countries. Unfortunately, the increased rate of fossil fuel consumption will lead to serious problems caused by an expected depletion of fuels. Moreover, dangerous gases and vapors emission lead to severe environmental problems during fuel burning. Consequently, most engineering sectors especially the mechanical sectors are looking for improving any machine accompanied by reducing its energy consumption. Crank-Rocker planar mechanism is the most applied in mechanical systems. Besides, it is one of the most significant parts of the machines for obtaining the oscillatory motion. The transmission angle of this mechanism can be considered as an optimum value when its extreme values are equally varied around 90°. In addition, the transmission angle plays an important role in decreasing the required driving power and improving the dynamic properties of the mechanism. Hence, appropriate selection of mechanism links lengthens, which assures optimum transmission angle leads to decreasing the driving power. Moreover, mechanism's links manufactured from composite materials afford link's lightweight, which decreases the required driving torque. Furthermore, wear and corrosion problems can be treated through using composite links instead of using metal ones. This paper is dealing with improving the performance of crank-rocker mechanism using composite links due to their flexural elastic modulus values and stiffness in addition to high damping of composite materials.

Keywords: Composite material, crank-rocker mechanism, transmission angle, design techniques, power saving.

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19 Study of Fast Etching of Silicon for the Fabrication of Bulk Micromachined MEMS Structures

Authors: V. Swarnalatha, A. V. Narasimha Rao, P. Pal

Abstract:

The present research reports the investigation of fast etching of silicon for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) structures using silicon wet bulk micromachining. Low concentration tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are used as main etchant and additive, respectively. The concentration of NH2OH is varied to optimize the composition to achieve best etching characteristics such as high etch rate, significantly high undercutting at convex corner for the fast release of the microstructures from the substrate, and improved etched surface morphology. These etching characteristics are studied on Si{100} and Si{110} wafers as they are most widely used in the fabrication of MEMS structures as wells diode, transistors and integrated circuits.

Keywords: KOH, MEMS, micromachining, silicon, TMAH, wet anisotropic etching.

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18 Application of Fourier Series Based Learning Control on Mechatronic Systems

Authors: Sandra Baßler, Peter Dünow, Mathias Marquardt

Abstract:

A Fourier series based learning control (FSBLC) algorithm for tracking trajectories of mechanical systems with unknown nonlinearities is presented. Two processes are introduced to which the FSBLC with PD controller is applied. One is a simplified service robot capable of climbing stairs due to special wheels and the other is a propeller driven pendulum with nearly the same requirements on control. Additionally to the investigation of learning the feed forward for the desired trajectories some considerations on the implementation of such an algorithm on low cost microcontroller hardware are made. Simulations of the service robot as well as practical experiments on the pendulum show the capability of the used FSBLC algorithm to perform the task of improving control behavior for repetitive task of such mechanical systems.

Keywords: Climbing stairs, FSBLC, ILC, Service robot.

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17 Molecular Dynamics Study on Mechanical Responses of Circular Graphene Nanoflake under Nanoindentation

Authors: Jeong-Won Kang

Abstract:

Graphene, a single-atom sheet, has been considered as the most promising material for making future nanoelectromechanical systems as well as purely electrical switching with graphene transistors. Graphene-based devices have advantages in scaled-up device fabrication due to the recent progress in large area graphene growth and lithographic patterning of graphene nanostructures. Here we investigated its mechanical responses of circular graphene nanoflake under the nanoindentation using classical molecular dynamics simulations. A correlation between the load and the indentation depth was constructed. The nanoindented force in this work was applied to the center point of the circular graphene nanoflake and then, the resonance frequency could be tuned by a nanoindented depth. We found the hardening or the softening of the graphene nanoflake during its nanoindented-deflections, and such properties were recognized by the shift of the resonance frequency. The calculated mechanical parameters in the force-vs-deflection plot were in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical works. This proposed schematics can detect the pressure via the deflection change or/and the resonance frequency shift, and also have great potential for versatile applications in nanoelectromechanical systems.

Keywords: Graphene, pressure sensor, circular graphene nanoflake, molecular dynamics.

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16 Formation of Round Channel for Microfluidic Applications

Authors: A. Zahra, G. de Cesare, D. Caputo, A. Nascetti

Abstract:

PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) polymer is a suitable material for biological and MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) designers, because of its biocompatibility, transparency and high resistance under plasma treatment. PDMS round channel is always been of great interest due to its ability to confine the liquid with membrane type micro valves. In this paper we are presenting a very simple way to form round shapemicrofluidic channel, which is based on reflow of positive photoresist AZ® 40 XT. With this method, it is possible to obtain channel of different height simply by varying the spin coating parameters of photoresist.

Keywords: Lab-on-Chip, PDMS, Reflow, Round microfluidic channel.

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15 Design and Fabrication of an Electrostatically Actuated Parallel-Plate Mirror by 3D-Printer

Authors: J. Mizuno, S. Takahashi

Abstract:

In this paper, design and fabrication of an actuated parallel-plate mirror based on a 3D-printer is described. The mirror and electrode layers are fabricated separately and assembled thereafter. The alignment is performed by dowel pin-hole pairs fabricated on the respective layers. The electrodes are formed on the surface of the electrode layer by Au ion sputtering using a suitable mask, which is also fabricated by a 3D-printer.For grounding the mirror layer, except the contact area with the electrode paths, all the surface is Au ion sputtered. 3D-printers are widely used for creating 3D models or mock-ups. The authors have recently proposed that these models can perform electromechanical functions such as actuators by suitably masking them followed by metallization process. Since the smallest possible fabrication size is in the order of sub-millimeters, these electromechanical devices are named by the authors as SMEMS (Sub-Milli Electro-Mechanical Systems) devices. The proposed mirror described in this paper which consists of parallel-plate electrostatic actuators is also one type of SMEMS devices. In addition, SMEMS is totally environment-clean compared to MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabrication processes because any hazardous chemicals or gases are utilized.

Keywords: MEMS, parallel-plate mirror, SMEMS, 3D-printer.

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14 Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of Composite Structure Cracks

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Material damages dynamic analysis is difficult to deal with different material geometry and mechanism. In addition, it is difficult to measure the dynamic behavior of cracks, debond and delamination inside the material. Different simulation methods are developed in recent years for different physical features of mechanical systems like vibration and acoustic. Nonlinear fractures are analyzed and identified for different locations in this paper. The main idea of this work is to perform dynamic analysis on different types of materials (from normal homogeneous material to complex composite laminates). Technical factors like cracks, voids, interfaces and the damages’ locations are evaluated. In this project the modal analysis is performed on different types of materials. The results could be helpful in finding modal frequencies, natural frequencies, Time domain and fast Fourier transform (FFT) in industrial applications.

Keywords: Finite element method, dynamic analysis, vibration and acoustic, composite, crack, delamination.

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13 Dynamic Analysis of Reduced Order Large Rotating Vibro-Impact Systems

Authors: Miroslav Byrtus

Abstract:

Large rotating systems, especially gear drives and gearboxes, occur as parts of many mechanical devices transmitting the torque with relatively small loss of power. With the increased demand for high speed machinery, mathematical modeling and dynamic analysis of gear drives gained importance. Mathematical description of such mechanical systems is a complex task evolving for several decades. In gear drive dynamic models, which include flexible shafts, bearings and gearing and use the finite elements, nonlinear effects due to gear mesh and bearings are usually ignored, for such models have large number of degrees of freedom (DOF) and it is computationally expensive to analyze nonlinear systems with large number of DOF. Therefore, these models are not suitable for simulation of nonlinear behavior with amplitude jumps in frequency response. The contribution uses a methodology of nonlinear large rotating system modeling which is based on degrees of freedom (DOF) number reduction using modal synthesis method (MSM). The MSM enables significant DOF number reduction while keeping the nonlinear behavior of the system in a specific frequency range. Further, the MSM with DOF number reduction is suitable for including detail models of nonlinear couplings (mainly gear and bearing couplings) into the complete gear drive models. Since each subsystem is modeled separately using different FEM systems, it is advantageous to parameterize models of subsystems and to use the parameterization for optimization of chosen design parameters. Final complex model of gear drive is assembled in MATLAB and MATLAB tools are used for dynamical analysis of the nonlinear system. The contribution is further focused on developing of a methodology for investigation of behavior of the system by Nonlinear Normal Modes with combination of the MSM using numerical continuation method. The proposed methodology will be tested using a two-stage gearbox including its housing.

Keywords: Vibro-impact system, rotating system, gear drive, modal synthesis method, numerical continuation method, periodic solution.

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12 Advances on LuGre Friction Model

Authors: Mohammad Fuad Mohammad Naser, Faycal Ikhouane

Abstract:

LuGre friction model is an ordinary differential equation that is widely used in describing the friction phenomenon for mechanical systems. The importance of this model comes from the fact that it captures most of the friction behavior that has been observed including hysteresis. In this paper, we study some aspects related to the hysteresis behavior induced by the LuGre friction model.

Keywords: Hysteresis, LuGre model, operator, (strong) consistency.

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11 Chaotic Response and Bifurcation Analysis of Gear-Bearing System with and without Porous Effect under Nonlinear Suspension

Authors: Cai-Wan Chang-Jian

Abstract:

This study presents a systematic analysis of the dynamic behaviors of a gear-bearing system with porous squeeze film damper (PSFD) under nonlinear suspension, nonlinear oil-film force and nonlinear gear meshing force effect. It can be found that the system exhibits very rich forms of sub-harmonic and even the chaotic vibrations. The bifurcation diagrams also reveal that greater values of permeability may not only improve non-periodic motions effectively, but also suppress dynamic amplitudes of the system. Therefore, porous effect plays an important role to improve dynamic stability of gear-bearing systems or other mechanical systems. The results presented in this study provide some useful insights into the design and development of a gear-bearing system for rotating machinery that operates in highly rotational speed and highly nonlinear regimes.

Keywords: Gear, PSFD, bifurcation, chaos.

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10 Piezomechanical Systems for Algae Cell Ultrasonication

Authors: Piotr Vasiljev, Regimantas Bareikis, Sergejus Borodinas, Arunas Struckas, Jurate Kasperoviciene

Abstract:

Nowadays for algae cell ultrasonication the longitudinal ultrasonic piezosystems are used. In this paper a possibility of creating unique ultrasonic piezoelectric system, which would allow reducing energy losses and concentrating this energy to a small closed volume are proposed. The current vibrating systems whose ultrasonic energy is concentrated inside of hollow cylinder in which water-algae mixture is flowing. Two, three or multiply ultrasonic composite systems to concentrate total energy into a hollow cylinder to creating strong algae cell ultrasonication are used. The experiments and numerical FEM analysis results using diskshaped transducer and the first biological test results on algae cell disruption by ultrasonication are presented as well.

Keywords: Algae, piezomechanical system, ultrasonication.

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9 Simulation and Experimentation of Multibody Mechanical Systems with Clearance Revolute Joints

Authors: A.F. Haroun, S.M. Megahed

Abstract:

Clearance in the joints of multibody mechanical systems such as linkage mechanisms and robots is a main source of vibration, and noise of the whole system, and wear of the joints themselves. This clearance is an inevitable matter and cannot be eliminated, since it allows the relative motion between joint components and make them assemblage. This paper presents an experimental verification of the obtained simulation results of a slider – crank mechanism of one clearance revolute joint. The simulation results are obtained with the aid of CAD and dynamic simulation softwares, which is an effective method of simulation multibody systems with clearance joints and have many advantages. The comparison between both simulation and experimental results shows that the simulation results are so close to the experimental ones which proves the accuracy and efficiency of this method of modeling and simulation of mechanical systems with clearance joints.

Keywords: CAD and dynamic simulator softwares, Clearance joints, , Experimental results, Slider – crank mechanism.

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8 The Evaluation and the Comparison of the Effect of Without Engine Power and Power Mechanical Systems on Rice Weed

Authors: F. E. Cherati, T. Naij , A. Amraei, Y. Hosseinpor

Abstract:

In order to study the influence of different methods of controlling weeds such as mechanical weeding and mechanical weeder efficiency analysis in mechanical cultivation conditions, in farming year of 2011 an experiment was done in a farm in coupling and development of technology center in Haraz,Iran. The treatments consisted of (I) control treatment: where no weeding was done, (II) use of mechanical weeding without engine and (III) power mechanical weeding. Results showed that experimental treatments had significantly different effects (p=0.05) on yield traits and number of filled grains per panicle, while treatments had the significant effects on grain weight and dry weight of weeds in the first, second and third weeding methods at 1% of confidence level. Treatment (II) had its most significant effect on number of filled grains per panicle and yield performance standpoint, which was 3705.97 kg ha-1 in its highest peak. Treatment (III) was ranked as second influential with 3559.8 kg ha-1. In addition, under (I) treatments, 2364.73 kg ha-1 of yield produced. The minimum dry weights of weeds in all weeding methods were related to the treatment (II), (III) and (I), respectively. The correlation coefficient analysis showed that total yield had a significant positive correlation with the panicle grain yield per plant (r= 0.55*) and the number of grains per panicle-1 (r= 0.57*) and the number of filled grains (r= 0.63*). Total rice yield also had negative correlation of r= -0. 64* with weed dry weight at second weed sampling time (17 DAT). The weed dry weight at third and fourth sampling times (24 and 40 DAT) had negative correlations of -0.65** and r=-0.61* with rice yield, respectively.

Keywords: Dry weight, without engine mechanical weeder, power mechanical weeder, yield rice.

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7 Expert System for Chose Material used Gears

Authors: E.V. Butilă, F. Gîrbacia

Abstract:

In order to give high expertise the computer aided design of mechanical systems involves specific activities focused on processing two type of information: knowledge and data. Expert rule based knowledge is generally processing qualitative information and involves searching for proper solutions and their combination into synthetic variant. Data processing is based on computational models and it is supposed to be inter-related with reasoning in the knowledge processing. In this paper an Intelligent Integrated System is proposed, for the objective of choosing the adequate material. The software is developed in Prolog – Flex software and takes into account various constraints that appear in the accurate operation of gears.

Keywords: Expert System, computer aided design, gear boxdesign, chose material, Prolog, Flex

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6 Lagrangian Geometrical Model of the Rheonomic Mechanical Systems

Authors: Camelia Frigioiu, Katica (Stevanovic) Hedrih, Iulian Gabriel Birsan

Abstract:

In this paper we study the rheonomic mechanical systems from the point of view of Lagrange geometry, by means of its canonical semispray. We present an example of the constraint motion of a material point, in the rheonomic case.

Keywords: Lagrange's equations, mechanical system, non-linear connection, rheonomic Lagrange space.

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5 Particle Simulation of Rarefied Gas Flows witha Superimposed Wall Surface Temperature Gradient in Microgeometries

Authors: V. Azadeh Ranjbar

Abstract:

Rarefied gas flows are often occurred in micro electro mechanical systems and classical CFD could not precisely anticipate the flow and thermal behavior due to the high Knudsen number. Therefore, the heat transfer and the fluid dynamics characteristics of rarefied gas flows in both a two-dimensional simple microchannel and geometry similar to single Knudsen compressor have been investigated with a goal of increasing performance of a actual Knudsen compressor by using a particle simulation method. Thermal transpiration and thermal creep, which are rarefied gas dynamic phenomena, that cause movement of the flow from less to higher temperature is generated by using two different longitude temperature gradients (Linear, Step) along the walls of the flow microchannel. In this study the influence of amount of temperature gradient and governing pressure in various Knudsen numbers and length-to-height ratios have been examined.

Keywords: DSMC, Thermal transpiration, Thermal creep, MEMS, Knudsen Compressor.

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4 Restarted Generalized Second-Order Krylov Subspace Methods for Solving Quadratic Eigenvalue Problems

Authors: Liping Zhou, Liang Bao, Yiqin Lin, Yimin Wei, Qinghua Wu

Abstract:

This article is devoted to the numerical solution of large-scale quadratic eigenvalue problems. Such problems arise in a wide variety of applications, such as the dynamic analysis of structural mechanical systems, acoustic systems, fluid mechanics, and signal processing. We first introduce a generalized second-order Krylov subspace based on a pair of square matrices and two initial vectors and present a generalized second-order Arnoldi process for constructing an orthonormal basis of the generalized second-order Krylov subspace. Then, by using the projection technique and the refined projection technique, we propose a restarted generalized second-order Arnoldi method and a restarted refined generalized second-order Arnoldi method for computing some eigenpairs of largescale quadratic eigenvalue problems. Some theoretical results are also presented. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Quadratic eigenvalue problem, Generalized secondorder Krylov subspace, Generalized second-order Arnoldi process, Projection technique, Refined technique, Restarting.

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3 Remarks on Energy Based Control of a Nonlinear, Underactuated, MIMO and Unstable Benchmark

Authors: Guangyu Liu

Abstract:

In the last decade, energy based control theory has undergone a significant breakthrough in dealing with underactated mechanical systems with two successful and similar tools, controlled Lagrangians and controlled Hamiltanians (IDA-PBC). However, because of the complexity of these tools, successful case studies are lacking, in particular, MIMO cases. The seminal theoretical paper of controlled Lagrangians proposed by Bloch and his colleagues presented a benchmark example–a 4 d.o.f underactuated pendulum on a cart but a detailed and completed design is neglected. To compensate this ignorance, the note revisit their design idea by addressing explicit control functions for a similar device motivated by a vector thrust body hovering in the air. To the best of our knowledge, this system is the first MIMO, underactuated example that is stabilized by using energy based tools at the courtesy of the original design idea. Some observations are given based on computer simulation.

Keywords: Controlled Lagrangian, Energy Shaping, Spherical Inverted Pendulum, Controlled Hamiltonian.

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2 Mechanical Modeling Issues in Optimization of Dynamic Behavior of RF MEMS Switches

Authors: Suhas K, Sripadaraja K

Abstract:

This paper details few mechanical modeling and design issues of RF MEMS switches. We concentrate on an electrostatically actuated broad side series switch; surface micromachined with a crab leg membrane. The same results are extended to any complex structure. With available experimental data and fabrication results, we present the variation in dynamic performance and compliance of the switch with reference to few design issues, which we find are critical in deciding the dynamic behavior of the switch, without compromise on the RF characteristics. The optimization of pull in voltage, transient time and resonant frequency with regard to these critical design parameters are also presented.

Keywords: Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), RadioFrequency MEMS, Modeling, Actuators

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1 Virtual Mechanical Engineering Education – A Case Study

Authors: S. H. R. Lo

Abstract:

Virtual engineering technology has undergone rapid progress in recent years and is being adopted increasingly by manufacturing companies of many engineering disciplines. There is an increasing demand from industry for qualified virtual engineers. The qualified virtual engineers should have the ability of applying engineering principles and mechanical design methods within the commercial software package environment. It is a challenge to the engineering education in universities which traditionally tends to lack the integration of knowledge and skills required for solving real world problems. In this paper, a case study shows some recent development of a MSc Mechanical Engineering course at Department of Engineering and Technology in MMU, and in particular, two units Simulation of Mechanical Systems(SMS) and Computer Aided Fatigue Analysis(CAFA) that emphasize virtual engineering education and promote integration of knowledge acquisition, skill training and industrial application.

Keywords: Computational modelling and simulation, mechanical engineering education.

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