Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 285

Search results for: magnetizing inrush current

285 Wavelet based ANN Approach for Transformer Protection

Authors: Okan Özgönenel

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a wavelet based algorithm, for distinguishing between magnetizing inrush currents and power system fault currents, which is quite adequate, reliable, fast and computationally efficient tool. The proposed technique consists of a preprocessing unit based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in combination with an artificial neural network (ANN) for detecting and classifying fault currents. The DWT acts as an extractor of distinctive features in the input signals at the relay location. This information is then fed into an ANN for classifying fault and magnetizing inrush conditions. A 220/55/55 V, 50Hz laboratory transformer connected to a 380 V power system were simulated using ATP-EMTP. The DWT was implemented by using Matlab and Coiflet mother wavelet was used to analyze primary currents and generate training data. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique can accurately discriminate between magnetizing inrush and fault currents in transformer protection.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, discrete wavelet transform, fault detection, magnetizing inrush current.

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284 Solver for a Magnetic Equivalent Circuit and Modeling the Inrush Current of a 3-Phase Transformer

Authors: Markus G. Ortner, Christian Magele, Klaus Krischan

Abstract:

Knowledge about the magnetic quantities in a magnetic circuit is always of great interest. On the one hand, this information is needed for the simulation of a transformer. On the other hand, parameter studies are more reliable, if the magnetic quantities are derived from a well established model. One possibility to model the 3-phase transformer is by using a magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC). Though this is a well known system, it is often not an easy task to set up such a model for a large number of lumped elements which additionally includes the nonlinear characteristic of the magnetic material. Here we show the setup of a solver for a MEC and the results of the calculation in comparison to measurements taken. The equations of the MEC are based on a rearranged system of the nodal analysis. Thus it is possible to achieve a minimum number of equations, and a clear and simple structure. Hence, it is uncomplicated in its handling and it supports the iteration process. Additional helpful tasks are implemented within the solver to enhance the performance. The electric circuit is described by an electric equivalent circuit (EEC). Our results for the 3-phase transformer demonstrate the computational efficiency of the solver, and show the benefit of the application of a MEC.

Keywords: Inrush current, magnetic equivalent circuit, nonlinear behavior, transformer.

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283 Voltage Sag Effect on Three Phase Five Leg Transformers

Authors: M. R. Dolatian, A. Jalilian

Abstract:

The behavior of three phase five leg transformer under voltage sag is studied in this paper. This paper proposes a simple, practical model of a three phase-five leg, saturated transformer with accurate performance. Transformer saturation is produced when the voltage sag is recovered and it causes inrush current in transformer. Effects of voltage sag depth, duration and initial point on wave have been analyzed in this paper. Initial point on wave can produce maximum inrush current in five leg transformers while comparing with three leg transformers. The magnetic circuit symmetry of five leg transformer produces the more symmetrical shape of inrush current curves versus initial point on wave and sag duration than three leg transformer. The simulations show that current peak has a periodical dependence on sag duration and linear dependence on sag depth. Inrush current that is produced in three phase five leg transformer is higher than three phase three leg transformer.

Keywords: Inrush current, three phase five leg transformer, saturation, voltage sag.

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282 Differential Protection for Power Transformer Using Wavelet Transform and PNN

Authors: S. Sendilkumar, B. L. Mathur, Joseph Henry

Abstract:

A new approach for protection of power transformer is presented using a time-frequency transform known as Wavelet transform. Different operating conditions such as inrush, Normal, load, External fault and internal fault current are sampled and processed to obtain wavelet coefficients. Different Operating conditions provide variation in wavelet coefficients. Features like energy and Standard deviation are calculated using Parsevals theorem. These features are used as inputs to PNN (Probabilistic neural network) for fault classification. The proposed algorithm provides more accurate results even in the presence of noise inputs and accurately identifies inrush and fault currents. Overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is found to be 96.45%. Simulation of the fault (with and without noise) was done using MATLAB AND SIMULINK software taking 2 cycles of data window (40 m sec) containing 800 samples. The algorithm was evaluated by using 10 % Gaussian white noise.

Keywords: Power Transformer, differential Protection, internalfault, inrush current, Wavelet Energy, Db9.

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281 A 0.9 V, High-Speed, Low-Power Tunable Gain Current Mirror

Authors: Hassan Faraji Baghtash

Abstract:

A high-speed current mirror with low-power method of adjusting current gain is presented. The current mirror provides continuous gain adjustment; yet, its gain can simply be programmed digitally, as well. The structure features the ever interesting merits of linear-in-dB gain control scheme and low power/voltage operation. The performance of proposed structure is verified through the simulation in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS Technology. The proposed tunable gain current mirror structure draws only 18 µW from 0.9 V power supply and can operate at high frequencies up to 550 MHz in the worst case condition of maximum gain setting.

Keywords: Current mirror, current mode, low power, low voltage, tunable circuit, variable current amplifier.

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280 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: Direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines.

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279 Hydrodynamic Simulation of Co-Current and Counter Current of Column Distillation Using Euler Lagrange Approach

Authors: H. Troudi, M. Ghiss, Z. Tourki, M. Ellejmi

Abstract:

Packed columns of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists of separating the liquid mixture of propane and butane to pure gas components by the distillation phenomenon. The flow of the gas and liquid inside the columns is operated by two ways: The co-current and the counter current operation. Heat, mass and species transfer between phases represent the most important factors that influence the choice between those two operations. In this paper, both processes are discussed using computational CFD simulation through ANSYS-Fluent software. Only 3D half section of the packed column was considered with one packed bed. The packed bed was characterized in our case as a porous media. The simulations were carried out at transient state conditions. A multi-component gas and liquid mixture were used out in the two processes. We utilized the Euler-Lagrange approach in which the gas was treated as a continuum phase and the liquid as a group of dispersed particles. The heat and the mass transfer process was modeled using multi-component droplet evaporation approach. The results show that the counter-current process performs better than the co-current, although such limitations of our approach are noted. This comparison gives accurate results for computations times higher than 2 s, at different gas velocity and at packed bed porosity of 0.9.

Keywords: Co-current, counter current, Euler Lagrange model, heat transfer, mass transfer.

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278 Compensation–Based Current Decomposition

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the current space-vector decomposition in three-phase, three-wire systems on the basis of some case studies. We propose four components of the current spacevector in terms of DC and AC components of the instantaneous active and reactive powers. The term of supplementary useless current vector is also pointed out. The analysis shows that the current decomposition which respects the definition of the instantaneous apparent power vector is useful for compensation reasons only if the supply voltages are sinusoidal. A modified definition of the components of the current is proposed for the operation under nonsinusoidal voltage conditions.

Keywords: Active current, Active filtering, p–q theory, Reactive current.

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277 A Low Voltage High Performance Self Cascode Current Mirror

Authors: Jasdeep Kaur, Nupur Prakash, S. S. Rajput

Abstract:

A current mirror (CM) based on self cascode MOSFETs low voltage analog and mixed mode structures has been proposed. The proposed CM has high output impedance and can operate at 0.5 V. P-Spice simulations confirm the high performance of this CM with a bandwidth of 6.0 GHz at input current of 100 μA.

Keywords: Current Mirrors, Composite Cascode Structure, Current Source/Sink

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276 A Method to Saturation Modeling of Synchronous Machines in d-q Axes

Authors: Mohamed A. Khlifi, Badr M. Alshammari

Abstract:

This paper discusses the general methods to saturation in the steady-state, two axis (d & q) frame models of synchronous machines. In particular, the important role of the magnetic coupling between the d-q axes (cross-magnetizing phenomenon), is demonstrated. For that purpose, distinct methods of saturation modeling of dumper synchronous machine with cross-saturation are identified, and detailed models synthesis in d-q axes. A number of models are given in the final developed form. The procedure and the novel models are verified by a critical application to prove the validity of the method and the equivalence between all developed models is reported. Advantages of some of the models over the existing ones and their applicability are discussed.

Keywords: Cross-magnetizing, models synthesis, synchronous machine, saturated modeling, state-space vectors.

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275 First Order Filter Based Current-Mode Sinusoidal Oscillators Using Current Differencing Transconductance Amplifiers (CDTAs)

Authors: S. Summart, C. Saetiaw, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This article presents new current-mode oscillator circuits using CDTAs which is designed from block diagram. The proposed circuits consist of two CDTAs and two grounded capacitors. The condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation can be adjusted by electronic method. The circuits have high output impedance and use only grounded capacitors without any external resistor which is very appropriate to future development into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Current-mode, Quadrature Oscillator, Block Diagram, CDTA.

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274 Implementation of Second Order Current- Mode Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Current Controllability

Authors: Koson Pitaksuttayaprot, Winai Jaikla

Abstract:

The realization of current-mode quadrature oscillators using current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifiers (CCCCTAs) and grounded capacitors is presented. The proposed oscillators can provide 2 sinusoidal output currents with 90º phase difference. It is enabled non-interactive dual-current control for both the condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation. High output impedances of the configurations enable the circuit to be cascaded without additional current buffers. The use of only grounded capacitors is ideal for integration. The circuit performances are depicted through PSpice simulations, they show good agreement to theoretical anticipation.

Keywords: Current-mode, Oscillator, Integrated circuit, CCCCTA.

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273 A Novel Logarithmic Current-Controlled Current Amplifier (LCCA)

Authors: Karama M. AL-Tamimi, Munir A. Al-Absi

Abstract:

A new OTA-based logarithmic-control variable gain current amplifier (LCCA) is presented. It consists of two Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) and two PMOS transistors biased in weak inversion region. The circuit operates from 0.6V DC power supply and consumes 0.6 μW. The linear-dB controllable output range is 43 dB with maximum error less than 0.5dB. The functionality of the proposed design was confirmed using HSPICE in 0.35μm CMOS process technology.

Keywords: LCCA, OTA, Logarithmic, VGA, Weak inversion, Current-mode

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272 Transformer Life Enhancement Using Dynamic Switching of Second Harmonic Feature in IEDs

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, P. K. Gargava

Abstract:

Energization of a transformer results in sudden flow of current which is an effect of core magnetization. This current will be dominated by the presence of second harmonic, which in turn is used to segregate fault and inrush current, thus guaranteeing proper operation of the relay. This additional security in the relay sometimes obstructs or delays differential protection in a specific scenario, when the 2nd harmonic content was present during a genuine fault. This kind of scenario can result in isolation of the transformer by Buchholz and pressure release valve (PRV) protection, which is acted when fault creates more damage in transformer. Such delays involve a huge impact on the insulation failure, and chances of repairing or rectifying fault of problem at site become very dismal. Sometimes this delay can cause fire in the transformer, and this situation becomes havoc for a sub-station. Such occurrences have been observed in field also when differential relay operation was delayed by 10-15 ms by second harmonic blocking in some specific conditions. These incidences have led to the need for an alternative solution to eradicate such unwarranted delay in operation in future. Modern numerical relay, called as intelligent electronic device (IED), is embedded with advanced protection features which permit higher flexibility and better provisions for tuning of protection logic and settings. Such flexibility in transformer protection IEDs, enables incorporation of alternative methods such as dynamic switching of second harmonic feature for blocking the differential protection with additional security. The analysis and precautionary measures carried out in this case, have been simulated and discussed in this paper to ensure that similar solutions can be adopted to inhibit analogous issues in future.

Keywords: Differential protection, intelligent electronic device (IED), 2nd harmonic, inrush inhibit.

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271 About the Structural Stability of the Model of the Nonelectroneutral Current Sheath

Authors: V.V. Lyahov, V.M. Neshchadim

Abstract:

The structural stability of the model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is investigated. The stationary model of a current sheath represents the system of four connected nonlinear differential first-order equations and thus they should manifest structural instability property, i.e. sensitivity to the infinitesimal changes of parameters and starting conditions. Domains of existence of the solutions of current sheath type are found. Those solutions of the current sheath type are realized only in some regions of sevendimensional space of parameters of the problem. The phase volume of those regions is small in comparison with the whole phase volume of the definition range of those parameters. It is shown that the offered model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is applicable for theoretical interpretation of the bifurcational current sheaths observed in the magnetosphere.

Keywords: Distribution function, electromagnetic field, magnetoactive plasma, nonelectroneutral current sheath, structural instability, bifurcational current sheath.

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270 A ±0.5V BiCMOS Class-A Current Conveyor

Authors: Subodh Thankachan, Manisha Pattanaik, S. S. Rajput

Abstract:

In this paper, a new BiCMOS CCII and CCCII, capable of operate at ±0.5V and having wide dynamic range with achieved bandwidth of 480MHz and 430MHz respectively have been proposed. The structures have been found to be insensitive to the threshold voltage variations. The proposed circuits are suitable for implementation using 0.25μm BiCMOS technology. Pspice simulations confirm the performance of the proposed structures.

Keywords: BiCMOS, Current conveyor, Compound current conveyor, Low supply voltage, Threshold voltage variation.

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269 Two Active Elements Based All-Pass Section Suited for Current-Mode Cascading

Authors: J. Mohan, S. Maheshwari

Abstract:

A new circuit topology realizing a first-order currentmode all-pass filter is proposed using two dual-output second generation current conveyor and two passive components. The circuit possesses low-input and high-output impedance, which makes it ideal for current-mode systems. The proposed circuit is verified through PSPICE simulation results.

Keywords: active filter, all-pass filter, current-mode, current conveyor.

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268 A 5-V to 30-V Current-Mode Boost Converter with Integrated Current Sensor and Power-on Protection

Authors: Jun Yu, Yat-Hei Lam, Boris Grinberg, Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan

Abstract:

This paper presents a 5-V to 30-V current-mode boost converter for powering the drive circuit of a micro-electro-mechanical sensor. The design of a transconductance amplifier and an integrated current sensing circuit are presented. In addition, essential building blocks for power-on protection such as a soft-start and clamp block and supply and clock ready block are discussed in details. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the soft-start and clamp block can effectively limit the inrush current during startup and protect the boost converter from startup failure.

Keywords: Boost Converter, Current Sensing, Power-on protection, Step-up Converter, Soft-start.

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267 Optimization and Determination of Process Parameters in Thin Film SOI Photo-BJMOSFET

Authors: Hai-Qing Xie, Yun Zeng, Yong-Hong Yan, Guo-Liang Zhang, Tai-Hong Wang

Abstract:

We propose photo-BJMOSFET (Bipolar Junction Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) fabricated on SOI film. ITO film is adopted in the device as gate electrode to reduce light absorption. I-V characteristics of photo-BJMOSFET obtained in dark (dark current) and under 570nm illumination (photo current) are studied furthermore to achieve high photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio. Two variables in the calculation were the channel length and the thickness of the film which were set equal to six different values, i.e., L=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12μm and three different values, i.e., dsi =100, 200 and 300nm, respectively. The results indicate that the greatest photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio is achieved with L=10μm and dsi=200 nm at VGK=0.6V.

Keywords: Photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio, Photo-current, Dark-current, Process parameter

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266 High-performance Second-Generation Controlled Current Conveyor CCCII and High Frequency Applications

Authors: Néjib Hassen, Thouraya Ettaghzouti, Kamel Besbes

Abstract:

In this paper, a modified CCCII is presented. We have used a current mirror with low supply voltage. This circuit is operated at low supply voltage of ±1V. Tspice simulations for TSMC 0.18μm CMOS Technology has shown that the current and voltage bandwidth are respectively 3.34GHz and 4.37GHz, and parasitic resistance at port X has a value of 169.320 for a control current of 120μA. In order to realize this circuit, we have implemented in this first step a universal current mode filter where the frequency can reach the 134.58MHz. In the second step, we have implemented two simulated inductors: one floating and the other grounded. These two inductors are operated in high frequency and variable depending on bias current I0. Finally, we have used the two last inductors respectively to implement two sinusoidal oscillators domains of frequencies respectively: [470MHz, 692MHz], and [358MHz, 572MHz] for bias currents I0 [80μA, 350μA].

Keywords: Current controlled current conveyor CCCII, floating inductor, grounded inductor, oscillator, universal filter.

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265 Current-Mode Resistorless SIMO Universal Filter and Four-Phase Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: Jie Jin

Abstract:

In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode single input and multi-outputs (SIMO) universal filter and quadrature oscillator with a similar circuit are proposed. The circuits only consist of three Current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA) and two grounded capacitors, which are resistorless, and they are suitable for monolithic integration. The universal filter uses minimum CDTAs and passive elements to realize SIMO type low-pass (LP), high-pass (HP), band-pass (BP) band-stop (BS) and all-pass (AP) filter functions simultaneously without any component matching conditions. The angular frequency (ω0) and the quality factor (Q) of the proposed filter can be electronically controlled and tuned orthogonal. By some modifications of the filter, a new current-mode four-phase quadrature oscillator (QO) can be obtained easily. The condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO) of the QO can be controlled electronically and independently through the bias current of the CDTAs, and it is suitable for variable frequency oscillator. Moreover, all the passive and active sensitivities of the circuits are low. SPICE simulation results are included to confirm the theory.

Keywords: Universal Filter, Quadrature Oscillator, Current mode, Current differencing transconductance amplifiers.

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264 The Comparison Study of Current Control Techniques for Active Power Filters

Authors: T. Narongrit, K-L. Areerak, K-N. Areerak

Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison study of current control techniques for shunt active power filter. The hysteresis current control, the delta modulation control and the carrier-based PWM control are considered in the paper. The synchronous detection method is used to calculate the reference currents for shunt active power filter. The simulation results show that the carrier-based PWM control technique provides the minimum %THD value of the source currents compared with other comparable techniques after compensation. However, the %THD values of all three techniques can follow the IEEE std.519-1992.

Keywords: hysteresis current control, delta modulation current control, pulse width modulation control, shunt active power filter, synchronous detection.

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263 3 State Current Mode of a Grid Connected PV Converter

Authors: Attila Balogh, Eszter Varga, István Varjasi

Abstract:

Nowadays in applications of renewable energy sources it is important to develop powerful and energy-saving photovoltaic converters and to keep the prescriptions of the standards. In grid connected PV converters the obvious solution to increase the efficiency is to reduce the switching losses. Our new developed control method reduces the switching losses and keeps the limitations of the harmonic distortion standards. The base idea of the method is the utilization of 3-state control causing discontinuous current mode at low input power. In the following sections the control theory, the realizations and the simulation results are presented.

Keywords: Discontinuous current, high efficiency, PVconverter, control method.

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262 Determinants of the U.S. Current Account

Authors: Shuh Liang

Abstract:

This article provides empirical evidence on the effect of domestic and international factors on the U.S. current account deficit. Linear dynamic regression and vector autoregression models are employed to estimate the relationships during the period from 1986 to 2011. The findings of this study suggest that the current and lagged private saving rate and foreign current account for East Asian economies have played a vital role in affecting the U.S. current account. Additionally, using Granger causality tests and variance decompositions, the change of the productivity growth and foreign domestic demand are determined to influence significantly the change of the U.S. current account. To summarize, the empirical relationship between the U.S. current account deficit and its determinants is sensitive to alternative regression models and specifications.

Keywords: Current account deficit, productivity growth, foreign demand, vector autoregression.

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261 Analysis of Direct Current Motor in LabVIEW

Authors: E. Ramprasath, P. Manojkumar, P. Veena

Abstract:

DC motors have been widely used in the past centuries which are proudly known as the workhorse of industrial systems until the invention of the AC induction motors which makes a huge revolution in industries. Since then, the use of DC machines has been decreased due to enormous factors such as reliability, robustness and complexity but it lost its fame due to the losses. In this paper a new methodology is proposed to construct a DC motor through the simulation in LabVIEW to get an idea about its real time performances, if a change in parameter might have bigger improvement in losses and reliability.

Keywords: Direct Current motor, LabVIEW software, modelling and analysis, overall characteristics of Direct Current motor.

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260 Fuzzy Logic Controller Based Shunt Active Filter with Different MFs for Current Harmonics Elimination

Authors: Shreyash Sinai Kunde, Siddhang Tendulkar, Shiv Prakash Gupta, Gaurav Kumar, Suresh Mikkili

Abstract:

One of the major power quality concerns in modern times is the problem of current harmonics. The current harmonics is caused due to the increase in non-linear loads which is largely dominated by power electronics devices. The Shunt active filtering is one of the best solutions for mitigating current harmonics. This paper describes a fuzzy logic controller based (FLC) based three Phase Shunt active Filter to achieve low current harmonic distortion (THD) and Reactive power compensation. The performance of fuzzy logic controller is analysed under both balanced sinusoidal and unbalanced sinusoidal source condition. The above controller serves the purpose of maintaining DC Capacitor Voltage constant. The proposed shunt active filter uses hysteresis current controller for current control of IGBT based PWM inverter. The simulation results of model in Simulink MATLAB reveals satisfying results.

Keywords: Shunt active filter, Current harmonics, Fuzzy logic controller, Hysteresis current controller.

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259 Analysis of Current Mirror in 32nm MOSFET and CNTFET Technologies

Authors: Mohini Polimetla, Rajat Mahapatra

Abstract:

There is need to explore emerging technologies based on carbon nanotube electronics as the MOS technology is approaching its limits. As MOS devices scale to the nano ranges, increased short channel effects and process variations considerably effect device and circuit designs. As a promising new transistor, the Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor(CNTFET) avoids most of the fundamental limitations of the Traditional MOSFET devices. In this paper we present the analysis and comparision of a Carbon Nanotube FET(CNTFET) based 10(A current mirror with MOSFET for 32nm technology node. The comparision shows the superiority of the former in terms of 97% increase in output resistance,24% decrease in power dissipation and 40% decrease in minimum voltage required for constant saturation current. Furthermore the effect on performance of current mirror due to change in chirality vector of CNT has also been investigated. The circuit simulations are carried out using HSPICE model.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor, Chirality Vector, Current Mirror

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258 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric-Based AC Current Measuring Sensor

Authors: Easa Ali Abbasi, Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Reza Jahangiri, Behnam Dadashzadeh

Abstract:

Electrical current measurement is a suitable method for the performance determination of electrical devices. There are two contact and noncontact methods in this measuring process. Contact method has some disadvantages like having direct connection with wire which may endamage the system. Thus, in this paper, a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam which has a permanent magnet on its free end is used to measure electrical current in a noncontact way. In mathematical modeling, based on Galerkin method, the governing equation of the cantilever beam is solved, and the equation presenting the relation between applied force and beam’s output voltage is presented. Magnetic force resulting from current carrying wire is considered as the external excitation force of the system. The results are compared with other references in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model. Finally, the effects of geometric parameters on the output voltage and natural frequency are presented.

Keywords: Cantilever beam, electrical current measurement, forced excitation, piezoelectric.

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257 Current Controlled Current Conveyor (CCCII)and Application using 65nm CMOS Technology

Authors: Zia Abbas, Giuseppe Scotti, Mauro Olivieri

Abstract:

Current mode circuits like current conveyors are getting significant attention in current analog ICs design due to their higher band-width, greater linearity, larger dynamic range, simpler circuitry, lower power consumption and less chip area. The second generation current controlled conveyor (CCCII) has the advantage of electronic adjustability over the CCII i.e. in CCCII; adjustment of the X-terminal intrinsic resistance via a bias current is possible. The presented approach is based on the CMOS implementation of second generation positive (CCCII+), negative (CCCII-) and dual Output Current Controlled Conveyor (DOCCCII) and its application as Universal filter. All the circuits have been designed and simulated using 65nm CMOS technology model parameters on Cadence Virtuoso / Spectre using 1V supply voltage. Various simulations have been carried out to verify the linearity between output and input ports, range of operation frequency, etc. The outcomes show good agreement between expected and experimental results.

Keywords: CCCII+, CCCII-, DOCCCII, Electronic tunability, Universal filter

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256 A High-Frequency Low-Power Low-Pass-Filter-Based All-Current-Mirror Sinusoidal Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: A. Leelasantitham, B. Srisuchinwong

Abstract:

A high-frequency low-power sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is presented through the use of two 2nd-order low-pass current-mirror (CM)-based filters, a 1st-order CM low-pass filter and a CM bilinear transfer function. The technique is relatively simple based on (i) inherent time constants of current mirrors, i.e. the internal capacitances and the transconductance of a diode-connected NMOS, (ii) a simple negative resistance RN formed by a resistor load RL of a current mirror. Neither external capacitances nor inductances are required. As a particular example, a 1.9-GHz, 0.45-mW, 2-V CMOS low-pass-filter-based all-current-mirror sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is demonstrated. The oscillation frequency (f0) is 1.9 GHz and is current-tunable over a range of 370 MHz or 21.6 %. The power consumption is at approximately 0.45 mW. The amplitude matching and the quadrature phase matching are better than 0.05 dB and 0.15°, respectively. Total harmonic distortions (THD) are less than 0.3 %. At 2 MHz offset from the 1.9 GHz, the carrier to noise ratio (CNR) is 90.01 dBc/Hz whilst the figure of merit called a normalized carrier-to-noise ratio (CNRnorm) is 153.03 dBc/Hz. The ratio of the oscillation frequency (f0) to the unity-gain frequency (fT) of a transistor is 0.25. Comparisons to other approaches are also included.

Keywords: Sinusoidal quadrature oscillator, low-pass-filterbased, current-mirror bilinear transfer function, all-current-mirror, negative resistance, low power, high frequency, low distortion.

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