Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 170

Search results for: magnetic field

170 MHD Natural Convection Flow of Tangent Hyperbolic Nanofluid Past a Vertical Permeable Cone

Authors: A. Mahdy

Abstract:

In this paper, a non-similraity analysis has been presented to exhibit the two-dimensional boundary layer flow of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convection of tangent hyperbolic nanofluid nearby a vertical permeable cone in the presence of variable wall temperature impact. The mutated boundary layer nonlinear governing equations are solved numerically by the an efficient implicit finite difference procedure. For both nanofluid effective viscosity and nanofluid thermal conductivity, a number of experimental relations have been recognized. For characterizing the nanofluid, the compatible nanoparticle volume fraction model has been used. Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are calculated for some values of Weissenberg number W, surface temperature exponent n, magnetic field parameter Mg, power law index m and Prandtl number Pr as functions of suction parameter. The rate of heat transfer from a vertical permeable cone in a regular fluid is less than that in nanofluids. A best convection has been presented by Copper nanoparticle among all the used nanoparticles.

Keywords: Tangent hyperbolic nanofluid, finite difference, non-similarity, isothermal cone.

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169 Magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell Nanofluids Flow over a Stretching Surface through a Porous Medium: Effects of Non-Linear Thermal Radiation, Convective Boundary Conditions and Heat Generation/Absorption

Authors: Sameh E. Ahmed, Ramadan A. Mohamed, Abd Elraheem M. Aly, Mahmoud S. Soliman

Abstract:

In this paper, an enhancement of the heat transfer using non-Newtonian nanofluids by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection along stretching sheets embedded in an isotropic porous medium is investigated. Case of the Maxwell nanofluids is studied using the two phase mathematical model of nanofluids and the Darcy model is applied for the porous medium. Important effects are taken into account, namely, non-linear thermal radiation, convective boundary conditions, electromagnetic force and presence of the heat source/sink. Suitable similarity transformations are used to convert the governing equations to a system of ordinary differential equations then it is solved numerically using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. The main results of the study revealed that the velocity profiles are decreasing functions of the Darcy number, the Deborah number and the magnetic field parameter. Also, the increase in the non-linear radiation parameters causes an enhancement in the local Nusselt number.

Keywords: MHD, nanofluids, stretching surface, non-linear thermal radiation, convective condition.

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168 Design and Performance Analysis of a Hydro-Power Rim-Driven Superconducting Synchronous Generator

Authors: A. Hassannia, S. Ramezani

Abstract:

The technology of superconductivity has developed in many power system devices such as transmission cable, transformer, current limiter, motor and generator. Superconducting wires can carry high density current without loss, which is the capability that is used to design the compact, lightweight and more efficient electrical machines. Superconducting motors have found applications in marine and air propulsion systems as well as superconducting generators are considered in low power hydraulic and wind generators. This paper presents a rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator for hydraulic power plant. The rim-driven concept improves the performance of hydro turbine. Furthermore, high magnetic field that is produced by superconducting windings allows replacing the rotor core. As a consequent, the volume and weight of the machine is decreased significantly. In this paper, a 1 MW coreless rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator is designed. Main performance characteristics of the proposed machine are then evaluated using finite elements method and compared to an ordinary similar size synchronous generator.

Keywords: Coreless machine, electrical machine design, hydraulic generator, rim-driven machine, superconducting generator.

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167 Design Optimization of a Compact Quadrupole Electromagnet for CLS 2.0

Authors: Md. Armin Islam, Les Dallin, Mark Boland, W. J. Zhang

Abstract:

This paper reports a study on the optimal magnetic design of a compact quadrupole electromagnet for the Canadian Light Source (CLS 2.0). The nature of the design is to determine a quadrupole with low relative higher order harmonics and better field quality. The design problem was formulated as an optimization model, in which the objective function is the higher order harmonics (multipole errors) and the variable to be optimized is the material distribution on the pole. The higher order harmonics arose in the quadrupole due to truncating the ideal hyperbola at a certain point to make the pole. In this project, the arisen harmonics have been optimized both transversely and longitudinally by adjusting material on the poles in a controlled way. For optimization, finite element analysis (FEA) has been conducted. A better higher order harmonics amplitudes and field quality have been achieved through the optimization. On the basis of the optimized magnetic design, electrical and cooling calculation has been performed for the magnet.

Keywords: Drift, electrical, and cooling calculation, integrated field, higher order harmonics (multipole errors), magnetic field gradient, quadrupole.

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166 Mathematical Modeling of Switching Processes in Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov, Dmitry Yu. Tarabrin

Abstract:

The operating principle of magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is based on controlling the beam movement under the influence of a magnetic field. Currently, there is a MEMS switch design with a flexible ferromagnetic electrode in the form of a fixed-terminal beam, with an electrode fastened on a straight or cranked anchor. The basic performance characteristics of magnetically controlled MEMS switches (service life, sensitivity, contact resistance, fast response) are largely determined by the flexible electrode design. To ensure the stable and controlled motion of the flexible electrode, it is necessary to provide the optimal design of a flexible electrode.

Keywords: MEMS switch, magnetic sensitivity, magnetic concentrator.

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165 Adomian’s Decomposition Method to Generalized Magneto-Thermoelasticity

Authors: Hamdy M. Youssef, Eman A. Al-Lehaibi

Abstract:

Due to many applications and problems in the fields of plasma physics, geophysics, and other many topics, the interaction between the strain field and the magnetic field has to be considered. Adomian introduced the decomposition method for solving linear and nonlinear functional equations. This method leads to accurate, computable, approximately convergent solutions of linear and nonlinear partial and ordinary differential equations even the equations with variable coefficients. This paper is dealing with a mathematical model of generalized thermoelasticity of a half-space conducting medium. A magnetic field with constant intensity acts normal to the bounding plane has been assumed. Adomian’s decomposition method has been used to solve the model when the bounding plane is taken to be traction free and thermally loaded by harmonic heating. The numerical results for the temperature increment, the stress, the strain, the displacement, the induced magnetic, and the electric fields have been represented in figures. The magnetic field, the relaxation time, and the angular thermal load have significant effects on all the studied fields.

Keywords: Adomian’s Decomposition Method, magneto-thermoelasticity, finite conductivity, iteration method, thermal load.

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164 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: Direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines.

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163 Noise Performance of Magnetic Field Tunable Avalanche Transit Time Source

Authors: Partha Banerjee, Aritra Acharyya, Arindam Biswas, A. K. Bhattacharjee, Amit Banerjee, Hiroshi Inokawa

Abstract:

The effect of magnetic field on the noise performance of the magnetic field tunable avalanche transit time (MAGTATT) device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band (75 – 110 GHz), has been studied in this paper. A comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) model has been developed. The simulation results show that due to the presence of applied external transverse magnetic field, both the noise spectral density and noise measure of the MAGTATT device increase significantly. The noise performance of the device has been found to be further deteriorated if the magnetic field strength is further increased. Hence, in order to achieve the magnetic field tuning of the radio frequency (RF) properties of impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) source, the noise performance of it has to be sacrificed in fair extent. Moreover, it clearly indicates that an IMPATT source must be covered with appropriate magnetic shielding material to avoid undesirable shift in operating frequency and output power and objectionable amount of deterioration in noise performance due to the presence of external magnetic field.

Keywords: 2-D model, IMPATT, MAGTATT, mm-wave, noise performance.

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162 Quantitative Changes in Biofilms of a Seawater Tubular Heat Exchanger Subjected to Electromagnetic Fields Treatment

Authors: Sergio Garcia, Alfredo Trueba, Luis M. Vega, Ernesto Madariaga

Abstract:

Biofilms adhesion is one of the more important cost of industries plants on wide world, which use to water for cooling heat exchangers or are in contact with water. This study evaluated the effect of Electromagnetic Fields on biofilms in tubular heat exchangers using seawater cooling. The results showed an up to 40% reduction of the biofilm thickness compared to the untreated control tubes. The presence of organic matter was reduced by 75%, the inorganic mater was reduced by 87%, and 53% of the dissolved solids were eliminated. The biofilm thermal conductivity in the treated tube was reduced by 53% as compared to the control tube. The hardness in the effluent during the experimental period was decreased by 18% in the treated tubes compared with control tubes. Our results show that the electromagnetic fields treatment has a great potential in the process of removing biofilms in heat exchanger.

Keywords: Biofilm, heat exchanger, electromagnetic fields, seawater.

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161 Influence of Infrared Radiation on the Growth Rate of Microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana

Authors: Natalia Politaeva, Iuliia Smiatskaia, Iuliia Bazarnova, Iryna Atamaniuk, Kerstin Kuchta

Abstract:

Nowadays, the progressive decrease of primary natural resources and ongoing upward trend in terms of energy demand, have resulted in development of new generation technological processes which are focused on step-wise production and residues utilization. Thus, microalgae-based 3rd generation bioeconomy is considered one of the most promising approaches that allow production of value-added products and sophisticated utilization of residues biomass. In comparison to conventional biomass, microalgae can be cultivated in wide range of conditions without compromising food and feed production, and thus, addressing issues associated with negative social and environmental impacts. However, one of the most challenging tasks is to undergo seasonal variations and to achieve optimal growing conditions for indoor closed systems that can cover further demand for material and energetic utilization of microalgae. For instance, outdoor cultivation in St. Petersburg (Russia) is only suitable within rather narrow time frame (from mid-May to mid-September). At earlier and later periods, insufficient sunlight and heat for the growth of microalgae were detected. On the other hand, without additional physical effects, the biomass increment in summer is 3-5 times per week, depending on the solar radiation and the ambient temperature. In order to increase biomass production, scientists from all over the world have proposed various technical solutions for cultivators and have been studying the influence of various physical factors affecting biomass growth namely: magnetic field, radiation impact, and electric field, etc. In this paper, the influence of infrared radiation (IR) and fluorescent light on the growth rate of microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana has been studied. The cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana was carried out in 500 ml cylindrical glass vessels, which were constantly aerated. To accelerate the cultivation process, the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes at 500 rpm following 120 minutes of rest time. At the same time, the metabolic needs in nutrients were provided by the addition of micro- and macro-nutrients in the microalgae growing medium. Lighting was provided by fluorescent lamps with the intensity of 2500 ± 300 lx. The influence of IR was determined using IR lamps with a voltage of 220 V, power of 250 W, in order to achieve the intensity of 13 600 ± 500 lx. The obtained results show that under the influence of fluorescent lamps along with the combined effect of active aeration and variable mixing, the biomass increment on the 2nd day was three times, and on the 7th day, it was eight-fold. The growth rate of microalgae under the influence of IR radiation was lower and has reached 22.6·106 cells·mL-1. However, application of IR lamps for the biomass growth allows maintaining the optimal temperature of microalgae suspension at approximately 25-28°C, which might especially be beneficial during the cold season in extreme climate zones.

Keywords: Biomass, fluorescent lamp, infrared radiation, microalgae.

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160 Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification

Authors: Xiao Chen, Xiaoying Kong, Min Xu

Abstract:

This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.

Keywords: Vehicle classification, signal processing, road traffic model, magnetic sensing.

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159 Numerical Modelling of Surface Waves Generated by Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field for Silicon Refinement Process

Authors: V. Geza, J. Vencels, G. Zageris, S. Pavlovs

Abstract:

One of the most perspective methods to produce SoG-Si is refinement via metallurgical route. The most critical part of this route is refinement from boron and phosphorus. Therefore, a new approach could address this problem. We propose an approach of creating surface waves on silicon melt’s surface in order to enlarge its area and accelerate removal of boron via chemical reactions and evaporation of phosphorus. A two dimensional numerical model is created which includes coupling of electromagnetic and fluid dynamic simulations with free surface dynamics. First results show behaviour similar to experimental results from literature.

Keywords: Numerical modelling, silicon refinement, surface waves, VOF method.

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158 Similarity Solutions of Nonlinear Stretched Biomagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer with Signum Function and Temperature Power Law Geometries

Authors: M. G. Murtaza, E. E. Tzirtzilakis, M. Ferdows

Abstract:

Biomagnetic fluid dynamics is an interdisciplinary field comprising engineering, medicine, and biology. Bio fluid dynamics is directed towards finding and developing the solutions to some of the human body related diseases and disorders. This article describes the flow and heat transfer of two dimensional, steady, laminar, viscous and incompressible biomagnetic fluid over a non-linear stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic dipole. Our model is consistent with blood fluid namely biomagnetic fluid dynamics (BFD). This model based on the principles of ferrohydrodynamic (FHD). The temperature at the stretching surface is assumed to follow a power law variation, and stretching velocity is assumed to have a nonlinear form with signum function or sign function. The governing boundary layer equations with boundary conditions are simplified to couple higher order equations using usual transformations. Numerical solutions for the governing momentum and energy equations are obtained by efficient numerical techniques based on the common finite difference method with central differencing, on a tridiagonal matrix manipulation and on an iterative procedure. Computations are performed for a wide range of the governing parameters such as magnetic field parameter, power law exponent temperature parameter, and other involved parameters and the effect of these parameters on the velocity and temperature field is presented. It is observed that for different values of the magnetic parameter, the velocity distribution decreases while temperature distribution increases. Besides, the finite difference solutions results for skin-friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer are discussed. This study will have an important bearing on a high targeting efficiency, a high magnetic field is required in the targeted body compartment.

Keywords: Biomagnetic fluid, FHD, nonlinear stretching sheet, slip parameter.

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157 Numerical Solution of Steady Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary Layer Flow Due to Gyrotactic Microorganism for Williamson Nanofluid over Stretched Surface in the Presence of Exponential Internal Heat Generation

Authors: M. A. Talha, M. Osman Gani, M. Ferdows

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the study of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady incompressible viscous Williamson nanofluid with exponential internal heat generation containing gyrotactic microorganism over a stretching sheet. The governing equations and auxiliary conditions are reduced to a set of non-linear coupled differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions using similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically through spectral relaxation method. The influences of various parameters such as Williamson parameter γ, power constant λ, Prandtl number Pr, magnetic field parameter M, Peclet number Pe, Lewis number Le, Bioconvection Lewis number Lb, Brownian motion parameter Nb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, and bioconvection constant σ are studied to obtain the momentum, heat, mass and microorganism distributions. Moment, heat, mass and gyrotactic microorganism profiles are explored through graphs and tables. We computed the heat transfer rate, mass flux rate and the density number of the motile microorganism near the surface. Our numerical results are in better agreement in comparison with existing calculations. The Residual error of our obtained solutions is determined in order to see the convergence rate against iteration. Faster convergence is achieved when internal heat generation is absent. The effect of magnetic parameter M decreases the momentum boundary layer thickness but increases the thermal boundary layer thickness. It is apparent that bioconvection Lewis number and bioconvection parameter has a pronounced effect on microorganism boundary. Increasing brownian motion parameter and Lewis number decreases the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, magnetic field parameter and thermophoresis parameter has an induced effect on concentration profiles.

Keywords: Convection flow, internal heat generation, similarity, spectral method, numerical analysis, Williamson nanofluid.

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156 Evaluation of the Heating Capability and in vitro Hemolysis of Nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) Ferrites Prepared by Sol-gel Method

Authors: Laura Elena De León Prado, Dora Alicia Cortés Hernández, Javier Sánchez

Abstract:

Among the different cancer treatments that are currently used, hyperthermia has a promising potential due to the multiple benefits that are obtained by this technique. In general terms, hyperthermia is a method that takes advantage of the sensitivity of cancer cells to heat, in order to damage or destroy them. Within the different ways of supplying heat to cancer cells and achieve their destruction or damage, the use of magnetic nanoparticles has attracted attention due to the capability of these particles to generate heat under the influence of an external magnetic field. In addition, these nanoparticles have a high surface area and sizes similar or even lower than biological entities, which allow their approaching and interaction with a specific region of interest. The most used magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment are those based on iron oxides, mainly magnetite and maghemite, due to their biocompatibility, good magnetic properties and chemical stability. However, in order to fulfill more efficiently the requirements that demand the treatment of magnetic hyperthermia, there have been investigations using ferrites that incorporate different metallic ions, such as Mg, Mn, Co, Ca, Ni, Cu, Li, Gd, etc., in their structure. This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) ferrites by sol-gel method and their evaluation in terms of heating capability and in vitro hemolysis to determine the potential use of these nanoparticles as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia. It was possible to obtain ferrites with nanometric sizes, a single crystalline phase with an inverse spinel structure and a behavior near to that of superparamagnetic materials. Additionally, at concentrations of 10 mg of magnetic material per mL of water, it was possible to reach a temperature of approximately 45°C, which is within the range of temperatures used for the treatment of hyperthermia. The results of the in vitro hemolysis assay showed that, at the concentrations tested, these nanoparticles are non-hemolytic, as their percentage of hemolysis is close to zero. Therefore, these materials can be used as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia.

Keywords: Ferrites, heating capability, hemolysis, nanoparticles, sol-gel.

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155 Magneto-Optical Properties in Transparent Region of Implanted Garnet Films

Authors: Lali Kalanadzde

Abstract:

We investigated magneto-optical Kerr effect in transparent region of implanted ferrite-garnet films for the (YBiCa)3(FeGe)5O12. The implantation process was carried out at room temperature by Ne+ ions with energy of 100 KeV and with various doses (0.5-2.5) 1014 ion/cm2. We discovered that slight deviation of the plane of external alternating magnetic field from plane of sample leads to appearance intensive magneto-optical maximum in transparent region of garnet films ħω=0.5-2.0 eV. In the proceeding, we have also found that the deviation of polarization plane from P- component of incident light leads to the appearance of the similar magneto-optical effects in this region. The research of magnetization processes in transparent region of garnet films showed that the formation of magneto-optical effects in region ħω=0.5-2.3 eV has a rather complex character.

Keywords: Ferrite-garnet films, ion implantation, magneto-optical, thin films.

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154 Highly Linear and Low Noise AMR Sensor Using Closed Loop and Signal-Chopped Architecture

Authors: N. Hadjigeorgiou, A. C. Tsalikidou, E. Hristoforou, P. P. Sotiriadis

Abstract:

During the last few decades, the continuously increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as different measurement techniques. Sensor sensitivity and linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement range, cross-talk between sensors in multi-sensor applications are only some of the aspects that have been examined in the past. In this paper, a fully analog closed loop system in order to optimize the performance of AMR sensors has been developed. The operation of the proposed system has been tested using a Helmholtz coil calibration setup in order to control both the amplitude and direction of magnetic field in the vicinity of the AMR sensor. Experimental testing indicated that improved linearity of sensor response, as well as low noise levels can be achieved, when the system is employed.

Keywords: AMR sensor, closed loop, memory effects, chopper, linearity improvement, sensitivity improvement, magnetic noise, electronic noise.

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153 Residual Dipolar Couplings in NMR Spectroscopy Using Lanthanide Tags

Authors: Elias Akoury

Abstract:

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an indispensable technique used in structure determination of small and macromolecules to study their physical properties, elucidation of characteristic interactions, dynamics and thermodynamic processes. Quantum mechanics defines the theoretical description of NMR spectroscopy and treatment of the dynamics of nuclear spin systems. The phenomenon of residual dipolar coupling (RDCs) has become a routine tool for accurate structure determination by providing global orientation information of magnetic dipole-dipole interaction vectors within a common reference frame. This offers accessibility of distance-independent angular information and insights to local relaxation. The measurement of RDCs requires an anisotropic orientation medium for the molecules to partially align along the magnetic field. This can be achieved by introduction of liquid crystals or attaching a paramagnetic center. Although anisotropic paramagnetic tags continue to mark achievements in the biomolecular NMR of large proteins, its application in small organic molecules remains unspread. Here, we propose a strategy for the synthesis of a lanthanide tag and the measurement of RDCs in organic molecules using paramagnetic lanthanide complexes.

Keywords: Lanthanide Tags, NMR spectroscopy, residual dipolar coupling, quantum mechanics of spin dynamics.

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152 Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments

Authors: Branislav Timotijevic, Yves Petremand, Markus Luetzelschwab, Dara Bayat, Laurent Aebi

Abstract:

Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.

Keywords: Accelerometer, harsh environment, optical MEMS, pressure sensor, remote sensing, temperature sensor.

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151 Influence of Confined Acoustic Phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Doped Semiconductor Superlattice

Authors: Pham Ngoc Thang, Le Thai Hung, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations in a doped semiconductor superlattice (DSSL), subjected in a magnetic field, DC electric field, and a laser radiation, has been theoretically studied based on quantum kinetic equation method. The analytical expression for the magnetoresistance in a DSSL has been obtained as a function of external fields, DSSL parameters, and especially the quantum number m characterizing the effect of confined acoustic phonons. When m goes to zero, the results for bulk phonons in a DSSL could be achieved. Numerical calculations are also achieved for the GaAs:Si/GaAs:Be DSSL and compared with other studies. Results show that the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations amplitude decrease as the increasing of phonon confinement effect.

Keywords: Shubnikov–de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations, quantum kinetic equation, confined acoustic phonons, laser radiation, doped semiconductor superlattices.

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150 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: The linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure.

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149 Nonlinear Propagation of Acoustic Soliton Waves in Dense Quantum Electron-Positron Magnetoplasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

Propagation of nonlinear acoustic wave in dense electron-positron (e-p) plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field and stationary ions (to neutralize the plasma background) is studied. By means of the quantum hydrodynamics model and applying the reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the compressive structure of electrostatic solitary wave and periodic travelling waves is found. The numerical results show how the ion density ratio, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the direction cosines of the wave vector affect the nonlinear electrostatic travelling waves. The obtained results may be useful to better understand the obliquely nonlinear electrostatic travelling wave of small amplitude localized structures in dense magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and may be applicable to study the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as the interior of massive white dwarfs etc.

Keywords: Bifurcation theory, magnetized electron-positron plasma, phase portrait, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation.

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148 Investigation of Utilizing L-Band Horn Antenna in Landmine Detection

Authors: Ahmad H. Abdelgwad, Ahmed A. Nashat

Abstract:

Landmine detection is an important and yet challenging problem remains to be solved. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a powerful and rapidly maturing technology for subsurface threat identification. The detection methodology of GPR depends mainly on the contrast of the dielectric properties of the searched target and its surrounding soil. This contrast produces a partial reflection of the electromagnetic pulses that are being transmitted into the soil and then being collected by the GPR.  One of the most critical hardware components for the performance of GPR is the antenna system. The current paper explores the design and simulation of a pyramidal horn antenna operating at L-band frequencies (1- 2 GHz) to detect a landmine. A prototype model of the GPR system setup is developed to simulate full wave analysis of the electromagnetic fields in different soil types. The contrast in the dielectric permittivity of the landmine and the sandy soil is the most important parameter to be considered for detecting the presence of landmine. L-band horn antenna is proved to be well-versed in the investigation of landmine detection.

Keywords: Full wave analysis, ground penetrating radar, horn antenna design, landmine detection.

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147 Inulinase Immobilization on Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles Prepared with Soy Protein Isolate Conjugated Bovine Serum Albumin for High Fructose Syrup Production

Authors: Homa Torabizadeh, Mohaddeseh Mikani

Abstract:

Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was covalently immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs/Fe3O4) covered with soy protein isolate (SPI/Fe3O4) functionalized by bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles. MNPs are promising enzyme carriers because they separate easily under external magnetic fields and have enhanced immobilized enzyme reusability. As MNPs aggregate simply, surface coating strategy was employed. SPI functionalized by BSA was a suitable candidate for nanomagnetite coating due to its superior biocompatibility and hydrophilicity. Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles were synthesized as a novel carrier with narrow particle size distribution. Step by step fabrication monitoring of Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles was performed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results illustrated that nanomagnetite with the spherical morphology was well monodispersed with the diameter of about 35 nm. The average size of the SPI-BSA nanoparticles was 80 to 90 nm, and their zeta potential was around −34 mV. Finally, the mean diameter of fabricated Fe3O4@SPI-BSA NPs was less than 120 nm. Inulinase enzyme from Aspergillus niger was covalently immobilized through gluteraldehyde on Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles successfully. Fourier transform infrared spectra and field emission scanning electron microscopy images provided sufficient proof for the enzyme immobilization on the nanoparticles with 80% enzyme loading.

Keywords: High fructose syrup, inulinase immobilization, functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, soy protein isolate.

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146 Effects and Mechanization of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation Process for Particulate and Microbe Removal from Ballast Water

Authors: Zhijun Ren, Zhang Lin, Zhao Ye, Zuo Xiangyu, Mei Dongxing

Abstract:

As a pretreatment process of ballast water treatment, the performance of high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) technology for the removal of particulates and microorganisms was studied. The results showed that HGMS process could effectively remove suspended particles larger than 5 µm and had ability to resist impact load. Microorganism could also be effectively removed by HGMS process, and the removal effect increased with increasing magnetic field strength. The maximum removal rates for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were 4016.1% and 9675.3% higher, respectively, than without the magnetic field. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the microbes decreased by 32.2% when the magnetic field strength was 15.4 mT for 72 min. The microstructure of the stainless steel wool was investigated, and the results showed that particle removal by HGMS has common function by the magnetic force of the high-strength, high-gradient magnetic field on weakly magnetic particles in the water, and on the stainless steel wool.

Keywords: HGMS, particulates, superoxide dismutase activity, steel wool magnetic medium.

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145 Throughflow Effects on Thermal Convection in Variable Viscosity Ferromagnetic Liquids

Authors: G. N. Sekhar, P. G. Siddheshwar, G. Jayalatha, R. Prakash

Abstract:

The problem of thermal convection in temperature and magnetic field sensitive Newtonian ferromagnetic liquid is studied in the presence of uniform vertical magnetic field and throughflow. Using a combination of Galerkin and shooting techniques the critical eigenvalues are obtained for stationary mode. The effect of Prandtl number (Pr > 1) on onset is insignificant and nonlinearity of non-buoyancy magnetic parameter M3 is found to have no influence on the onset of ferroconvection. The magnetic buoyancy number, M1 and variable viscosity parameter, V have destabilizing influences on the system. The effect of throughflow Peclet number, Pe is to delay the onset of ferroconvection and this effect is independent of the direction of flow.

Keywords: Ferroconvection, throughflow, temperature dependent viscosity, magnetic field dependent viscosity.

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144 Vibrational Behavior of Cylindrical Shells in Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: Sedrak Vardanyan

Abstract:

The investigation of the vibrational character of magnetic cylindrical shells placed in an axial magnetic field has important practical applications. In this work, we study the vibrational behaviour of such a cylindrical shell by making use of the so-called exact space treatment, which does not assume any hypothesis. We discuss the effects of several practically important boundary conditions on the vibrations of the described setup. We find that, for some cases of boundary conditions, e.g. clamped, simply supported or peripherally earthed, as well as for some values of the wave numbers, the vibrational frequencies of the shell are approximately zero. The theoretical and numerical exploration of this fact confirms that the vibrations are absent or attenuate very rapidly. For all the considered cases, the imaginary part of the frequencies is negative, which implies stability for the vibrational process.

Keywords: Free vibrations, magnetic cylindrical shells, exact space treatment, bending vibrational frequencies.

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143 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon

Abstract:

The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: End effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor.

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142 Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method

Authors: Nageeb A. H. Haroun, Sabyasachi Mondal, Precious Sibanda

Abstract:

The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity, nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters. A comparison of current findings with previously published results for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.

Keywords: Non-isothermal wedge, thermal radiation, nanofluid, magnetic field, Soret and Dufour effects.

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141 A Statistical Model for the Dynamics of Single Cathode Spot in Vacuum Cylindrical Cathode

Authors: Po-Wen Chen, Jin-Yu Wu, Md. Manirul Ali, Yang Peng, Chen-Te Chang, Der-Jun Jan

Abstract:

Dynamics of cathode spot has become a major part of vacuum arc discharge with its high academic interest and wide application potential. In this article, using a three-dimensional statistical model, we simulate the distribution of the ignition probability of a new cathode spot occurring in different magnetic pressure on old cathode spot surface and at different arcing time. This model for the ignition probability of a new cathode spot was proposed in two typical situations, one by the pure isotropic random walk in the absence of an external magnetic field, other by the retrograde motion in external magnetic field, in parallel with the cathode surface. We mainly focus on developed relationship between the ignition probability density distribution of a new cathode spot and the external magnetic field.

Keywords: Cathode spot, vacuum arc discharge, transverse magnetic field, random walk.

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