Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 390

Search results for: longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves

390 Laser-Ultrasonic Method for Measuring the Local Elastic Moduli of Porous Isotropic Composite Materials

Authors: Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Vladimir A. Makarov, Yulia G. Sokolovskaya

Abstract:

The laser-ultrasonic method is realized for quantifying the influence of porosity on the local Young’s modulus of isotropic composite materials. The method is based on a laser thermooptical method of ultrasound generation combined with measurement of the phase velocity of longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in samples. The main advantage of this method compared with traditional ultrasonic research methods is the efficient generation of short and powerful probing acoustic pulses required for reliable testing of ultrasound absorbing and scattering heterogeneous materials. Using as an example samples of a metal matrix composite with reinforcing microparticles of silicon carbide in various concentrations, it is shown that to provide an effective increase in Young’s modulus with increasing concentration of microparticles, the porosity of the final sample should not exceed 2%.

Keywords: Laser ultrasonic, longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves, porosity, composite, local elastic moduli.

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389 Reflection of Plane Waves at Free Surface of an Initially Stressed Dissipative Medium

Authors: M. M. Selim

Abstract:

The paper discuses the effect of initial stresses on the reflection coefficients of plane waves in a dissipative medium. Basic governing equations are formulated in context of Biot's incremental deformation theory. These governing equations are solved analytically to obtain the dimensional phase velocities of plane waves propagating in plane of symmetry. Closed-form expressions for the reflection coefficients of P and SV waves- incident at the free surface of an initially stressed dissipative medium are obtained. Numerical computations, using these expressions, are carried out for a particular model. Computations made with the results predicted in presence and absence of the initial stresses and the results have been shown graphically. The study shows that the presence of compressive initial stresses increases the velocity of longitudinal wave (P-wave) but diminishes that of transverse wave (SV-wave). Also the numerical results presented indicate that initial stresses and dissipation might affect the reflection coefficients significantly.

Keywords: Dissipation medium, initial stress, longitudinal waves, reflection coefficients, reflection of plane waves, transverse waves.

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388 Nonlinear Slow Shear Alfven Waves in Electron- Positron-Ion Plasma Including Full Ion Dynamics

Authors: B. Ghosh, H. Sahoo, K. K. Mondal

Abstract:

Propagation of arbitrary amplitude nonlinear Alfven waves has been investigated in low but finite β electron-positron-ion plasma including full ion dynamics. Using Sagdeev pseudopotential method an energy integral equation has been derived. The Sagdeev potential has been calculated for different plasma parameters and it has been shown that inclusion of ion parallel motion along the magnetic field changes the nature of slow shear Alfven wave solitons from dip type to hump type. The effects of positron concentration, plasma-β and obliqueness of the wave propagation on the solitary wave structure have also been examined.

Keywords: Alfven waves, Sagdeev potential, Solitary waves.

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387 Longitudinal Shear Modulus of Single Aramid, Carbon and Glass Fibres by Torsion Pendulum Tests

Authors: I Prasanna Kumar, Satya Prakash Kushwaha, Preetamkumar Mohite, Sudhir Kamle

Abstract:

The longitudinal shear moduli of a single aramid, carbon and glass fibres are measured in the present study. A popularly known concept of freely oscillating torsion pendulum has been used to characterize the torsional modulus. A simple freely oscillating torsional pendulum setup is designed with two different types of plastic discs: horizontal and vertical, as the known mass of the pendulum. The time period of the torsional oscillation is measured to determine the torsional rigidity of the fibre. Then the shear modulus of the fibre is calculated from its torsional rigidity. The mean shear modulus of aramid, carbon and glass fibres  measured are 6.22±0.09, 18.5±0.91, 38.1±3.55 GPa by horizontal disc pendulum and 6.19±0.13, 18.1±1.34 and 39.5±1.83 GPa by vertical disc pendulum, respectively. The results obtained by both pendulums differed by less than 5% and agreed well with the results reported in literature for these three types of fibres. A detailed uncertainty calculations are carried out for the measurements. It is seen that scatter as well as uncertainty (or error) in the measured shear modulus of these fibres is less than 10%. For aramid fibres the effect of gauge length on the shear modulus value is also studied. It is verified that the scatter in measured shear modulus value increases with gauge length and scatter in fibre diameter.

Keywords: Aramid; Carbon; Glass fibres, Longitudinal shear modulus, Torsion pendulum.

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386 Influences of Thermal Relaxation Times on Generalized Thermoelastic Longitudinal Waves in Circular Cylinder

Authors: Fatimah A. Alshaikh

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with propagation of thermoelastic longitudinal vibrations of an infinite circular cylinder, in the context of the linear theory of generalized thermoelasticity with two relaxation time parameters (Green and Lindsay theory). Three displacement potential functions are introduced to uncouple the equations of motion. The frequency equation, by using the traction free boundary conditions, is given in the form of a determinant involving Bessel functions. The roots of the frequency equation give the value of the characteristic circular frequency as function of the wave number. These roots, which correspond to various modes, are numerically computed and presented graphically for different values of the thermal relaxation times. It is found that the influences of the thermal relaxation times on the amplitudes of the elastic and thermal waves are remarkable. Also, it is shown in this study that the propagation of thermoelastic longitudinal vibrations based on the generalized thermoelasticity can differ significantly compared with the results under the classical formulation. A comparison of the results for the case with no thermal effects shows well agreement with some of the corresponding earlier results.

Keywords: Wave propagation, longitudinal vibrations, circular cylinder, generalized thermoelasticity, Thermal relaxation times.

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385 Comparative Safety Performance Evaluation of Profiled Deck Composite Slab from the Use of Slope-Intercept and Partial Shear Methods

Authors: Izian Abd. Karim, Kachalla Mohammed, Nora Farah A. A. Aziz, Law Teik Hua

Abstract:

The economic use and ease of construction of profiled deck composite slab is marred with the complex and un-economic strength verification required for the serviceability and general safety considerations. Beside these, albeit factors such as shear span length, deck geometries and mechanical frictions greatly influence the longitudinal shear strength, that determines the ultimate strength of profiled deck composite slab, and number of methods available for its determination; partial shear and slope-intercept are the two methods according to Euro-code 4 provision. However, the complexity associated with shear behavior of profiled deck composite slab, the use of these methods in determining the load carrying capacities of such slab yields different and conflicting values. This couple with the time and cost constraint associated with the strength verification is a source of concern that draws more attentions nowadays, the issue is critical. Treating some of these known shear strength influencing factors as random variables, the load carrying capacity violation of profiled deck composite slab from the use of the two-methods defined according to Euro-code 4 are determined using reliability approach, and comparatively studied. The study reveals safety values from the use of m-k method shows good standing compared with that from the partial shear method.

Keywords: Composite slab, first order reliability method, longitudinal shear, partial shear connection, slope-intercept.

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384 Nonlinear Modelling of Sloshing Waves and Solitary Waves in Shallow Basins

Authors: Mohammad R. Jalali, Mohammad M. Jalali

Abstract:

The earliest theories of sloshing waves and solitary waves based on potential theory idealisations and irrotational flow have been extended to be applicable to more realistic domains. To this end, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are widely used. Three-dimensional CFD methods such as Navier-Stokes solvers with volume of fluid treatment of the free surface and Navier-Stokes solvers with mappings of the free surface inherently impose high computational expense; therefore, considerable effort has gone into developing depth-averaged approaches. Examples of such approaches include Green–Naghdi (GN) equations. In Cartesian system, GN velocity profile depends on horizontal directions, x-direction and y-direction. The effect of vertical direction (z-direction) is also taken into consideration by applying weighting function in approximation. GN theory considers the effect of vertical acceleration and the consequent non-hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, in GN theory, the flow is rotational. The present study illustrates the application of GN equations to propagation of sloshing waves and solitary waves. For this purpose, GN equations solver is verified for the benchmark tests of Gaussian hump sloshing and solitary wave propagation in shallow basins. Analysis of the free surface sloshing of even harmonic components of an initial Gaussian hump demonstrates that the GN model gives predictions in satisfactory agreement with the linear analytical solutions. Discrepancies between the GN predictions and the linear analytical solutions arise from the effect of wave nonlinearities arising from the wave amplitude itself and wave-wave interactions. Numerically predicted solitary wave propagation indicates that the GN model produces simulations in good agreement with the analytical solution of the linearised wave theory. Comparison between the GN model numerical prediction and the result from perturbation analysis confirms that nonlinear interaction between solitary wave and a solid wall is satisfactorilly modelled. Moreover, solitary wave propagation at an angle to the x-axis and the interaction of solitary waves with each other are conducted to validate the developed model.

Keywords: Even harmonic components of sloshing waves, Green–Naghdi equations, nonlinearity, solitary waves.

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383 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang

Abstract:

Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: Characteristic equation, interface waves, dispersion curves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structures.

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382 A Survey on Quasi-Likelihood Estimation Approaches for Longitudinal Set-ups

Authors: Naushad Mamode Khan

Abstract:

The Com-Poisson (CMP) model is one of the most popular discrete generalized linear models (GLMS) that handles both equi-, over- and under-dispersed data. In longitudinal context, an integer-valued autoregressive (INAR(1)) process that incorporates covariate specification has been developed to model longitudinal CMP counts. However, the joint likelihood CMP function is difficult to specify and thus restricts the likelihood-based estimating methodology. The joint generalized quasi-likelihood approach (GQL-I) was instead considered but is rather computationally intensive and may not even estimate the regression effects due to a complex and frequently ill-conditioned covariance structure. This paper proposes a new GQL approach for estimating the regression parameters (GQL-III) that is based on a single score vector representation. The performance of GQL-III is compared with GQL-I and separate marginal GQLs (GQL-II) through some simulation experiments and is proved to yield equally efficient estimates as GQL-I and is far more computationally stable.

Keywords: Longitudinal, Com-Poisson, Ill-conditioned, INAR(1), GLMS, GQL.

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381 Non Destructive Characterisation of Cement Mortar during Carbonation

Authors: Son Tung Pham, William Prince

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to examine the changes in non destructive properties caused by carbonation of CEM II mortar. Samples of CEM II mortar were prepared and subjected to accelerated carbonation at 20°C, 65% relative humidity and 20% CO2 concentration. We examined the evolutions of the gas permeability, the thermal conductivity, the thermal diffusivity, the volume of the solid phase by helium pycnometry, the longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities. The principal contribution of this work is that, apart of the gas permeability, changes in other non destructive properties have never been studied during the carbonation of cement materials. These properties are important in predicting/measuring the durability of reinforced concrete in CO2 environment. The carbonation depth and the porosity accessible to water were also reported in order to explain comprehensively the changes in non destructive parameters.

Keywords: Carbonation, cement mortar, longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities, non destructive tests.

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380 Effect of Silt Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Unsaturated Sandy Soils

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, E. Khavaninzadeh, M. Ghorbani Tochaee

Abstract:

Direct shear test is widely used in soil mechanics experiment to determine the shear strength parameters of granular soils. For analysis of soil stability problems such as bearing capacity, slope stability and lateral pressure on soil retaining structures, the shear strength parameters must be known well. In the present study, shear strength parameters are determined in silty-sand mixtures. Direct shear tests are performed on 161 Firoozkooh sand with different silt content at a relative density of 70% in three vertical stress of 100, 150, and 200 kPa. Wet tamping method is used for soil sample preparation, and the results include diagrams of shear stress versus shear deformation and sample height changes against shear deformation. Accordingly, in different silt percent, the shear strength parameters of the soil such as internal friction angle and dilation angle are calculated and compared. According to the results, when the sample contains up to 10% silt, peak shear strength and internal friction angle have an upward trend. However, if the sample contains 10% to 50% of silt a downward trend is seen in peak shear strength and internal friction angle.

Keywords: Shear strength parameters, direct shear test, silty sand, shear stress, shear deformation.

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379 Deformation of Water Waves by Geometric Transitions with Power Law Function Distribution

Authors: E. G. Bautista, J. M. Reyes, O. Bautista, J. C. Arcos

Abstract:

In this work, we analyze the deformation of surface waves in shallow flows conditions, propagating in a channel of slowly varying cross-section. Based on a singular perturbation technique, the main purpose is to predict the motion of waves by using a dimensionless formulation of the governing equations, considering that the longitudinal variation of the transversal section obey a power-law distribution. We show that the spatial distribution of the waves in the varying cross-section is a function of a kinematic parameter,κ , and two geometrical parameters εh and w ε . The above spatial behavior of the surface elevation is modeled by an ordinary differential equation. The use of single formulas to model the varying cross sections or transitions considered in this work can be a useful approximation to natural or artificial geometrical configurations.

Keywords: Surface waves, Asymptotic solution, Power law function, Non-dispersive waves.

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378 Spurious Crests in Second-Order Waves

Authors: M. A. Tayfun

Abstract:

Occurrences of spurious crests on the troughs of large, relatively steep second-order Stokes waves are anomalous and not an inherent characteristic of real waves. Here, the effects of such occurrences on the statistics described by the standard second-order stochastic model are examined theoretically and by way of simulations. Theoretical results and simulations indicate that when spurious occurrences are sufficiently large, the standard model leads to physically unrealistic surface features and inaccuracies in the statistics of various surface features, in particular, the troughs and thus zero-crossing heights of large waves. Whereas inaccuracies can be fairly noticeable for long-crested waves in both deep and shallower depths, they tend to become relatively insignificant in directional waves.

Keywords: Large waves, non-linear effects, simulation, spectra, spurious crests, Stokes waves, wave breaking, wave statistics.

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377 Analytical Study on a Longitudinal Joints of the Slab-Type Modular Bridges

Authors: Sang-Yoon Lee, Jung-Mi Lee, Hyeong-Yeol Kim, Jae-Joon Song

Abstract:

In this study, a longitudinal joint connection was proposed for the short-span slab-type modular bridges with rapid construction. The slab-type modular bridge consists of a number of precast slab modules and has the joint connection between the modules in the longitudinal direction of the bridge. A finite element based parameter analysis was conducted to design the shape and the dimensions of the longitudinal joint connection. Numbers of shear keys within the joint, height and depth of the shear key, tooth angle, and the spacing were considered as the design parameters. Using the local cracking load at the corner of the shear key and the cross-sectional area of the joint, an efficiency factor was proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of the longitudinal joint connection. The dimensions of shear key were determined by comparing the cracking loads and the efficiency factors obtained from the finite element analysis.

Keywords: precast, slab bridge, modular bridge, shear key

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376 Arbitrary Amplitude Ion-Acoustic Solitary Waves in Electron-Ion-Positron Plasma with Nonthermal Electrons

Authors: Basudev Ghosh, Sreyasi Banerjee

Abstract:

Using pseudo potential method arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves have been theoretically studied in a collisionless plasma consisting of warm drifting positive ions, Boltzmann positrons and nonthermal electrons. Ion-acoustic solitary wave solutions have been obtained and the dependence of the solitary wave profile on different plasma parameters has been studied numerically. Lower and higher order compressive and rarefactive solitary waves are observed in presence of positrons, nonthermal electrons, ion drift velocity and finite ion temperature. Inclusion of higher order nonlinearity is shown to have significant correction to the solitary wave profile for the same values of plasma parameters.

Keywords: Ion-acoustic waves, Nonthermal electrons, Sagdeev potential, Solitary waves.

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375 Calcium Silicate Bricks – Ultrasonic Pulse Method: Effects of Natural Frequency of Transducers on Measurement Results

Authors: Jiri Brozovsky

Abstract:

Modulus of elasticity is one of the important parameters of construction materials, which considerably influence their deformation properties and which can also be determined by means of non-destructive test methods like ultrasonic pulse method. However, measurement results of ultrasonic pulse methods are influenced by various factors, one of which is the natural frequency of the transducers. The paper states knowledge about influence of natural frequency of the transducers (54; 82 and 150kHz) on ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Young's Dynamic modulus of elasticity). Differences between ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were found with the same smallest dimension of test specimen in the direction of sounding and density their value decreases as the natural frequency of transducers grew.

Keywords: Calcium silicate brick, ultrasonic pulse method, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity.

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374 Detection of Defects in CFRP by Ultrasonic IR Thermographic Method

Authors: W. Swiderski

Abstract:

In the paper introduced the diagnostic technique making possible the research of internal structures in composite materials reinforced fibres using in different applications. The main reason of damages in structures of these materials is the changing distribution of load in constructions in the lifetime. Appearing defect is largely complicated because of the appearance of disturbing of continuity of reinforced fibres, binder cracks and loss of fibres adhesiveness from binders. Defect in composite materials is usually more complicated than in metals. At present, infrared thermography is the most effective method in non-destructive testing composite. One of IR thermography methods used in non-destructive evaluation is vibrothermography. The vibrothermography is not a new non-destructive method, but the new solution in this test is use ultrasonic waves to thermal stimulation of materials. In this paper, both modelling and experimental results which illustrate the advantages and limitations of ultrasonic IR thermography in inspecting composite materials will be presented. The ThermoSon computer program for computing 3D dynamic temperature distribuions in anisotropic layered solids with subsurface defects subject to ulrasonic stimulation was used to optimise heating parameters in the detection of subsurface defects in composite materials. The program allows for the analysis of transient heat conduction and ultrasonic wave propagation phenomena in solids. The experiments at MIAT were fulfilled by means of FLIR SC 7600 IR camera. Ultrasonic stimulation was performed with the frequency from 15 kHz to 30 kHz with maximum power up to 2 kW.

Keywords: Composite material, ultrasonic, infrared thermography, non-destructive testing.

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373 Simulation of Sloshing-Shear Mixed Shallow Water Waves (II) Numerical Solutions

Authors: Weihao Chung, Iau-Teh Wang, Yu-Hsi Hu

Abstract:

This is the second part of the paper. It, aside from the core subroutine test reported previously, focuses on the simulation of turbulence governed by the full STF Navier-Stokes equations on a large scale. Law of the wall is found plausible in this study as a model of the boundary layer dynamics. Model validations proceed to include velocity profiles of a stationary turbulent Couette flow, pure sloshing flow simulations, and the identification of water-surface inclination due to fluid accelerations. Errors resulting from the irrotational and hydrostatic assumptions are explored when studying a wind-driven water circulation with no shakings. Illustrative examples show that this numerical strategy works for the simulation of sloshing-shear mixed flow in a 3-D rigid rectangular base tank.

Keywords: potential flow theory, sloshing flow, space-timefiltering, order of accuracy.

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372 Fracture Mechanics Modeling of a Shear-Cracked RC Beams Shear-Strengthened with FRP Sheets

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Alaleh Kamgar

Abstract:

So far, the conventional experimental and theoretical analysis in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural- cracked beams, which are strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheets. However, there is still little knowledge about the shear capacity of a side face FRP- strengthened shear-cracked beam. A numerical analysis is herein presented to model the fracture mechanics of a four-point RC beam, with two inclined initial notch on the supports, which is strengthened with side face FRP sheets. In the present study, the shear crack is forced to conduct by using an initial notch in supports. The ABAQUS software is used to model crack propagation by conventional cohesive elements. It is observed that the FRP sheets play important roles in preventing the propagation of shear cracks.

Keywords: Crack, FRP, shear, strengthening.

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371 Longitudinal Vortices Mixing in Three-Stream Micromixers with Two Inlets

Authors: Yi-Tun Huang, Chih-Yang Wu, Shu-Wei Huang

Abstract:

In this work, we examine fluid mixing in a full three-stream mixing channel with longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs) built on the channel bottom by numerical simulation and experiment. The effects of the asymmetrical arrangement and the attack angle of the LVGs on fluid mixing are investigated. The results show that the micromixer with LVGs at a small asymmetry index (defined by the ratio of the distance from the center plane of the gap between the winglets to the center plane of the main channel to the width of the main channel) is superior to the micromixer with symmetric LVGs and that with LVGs at a large asymmetry index. The micromixer using five mixing modules of the LVGs with an attack angle between 16.5 degrees and 22.5 degrees can achieve excellent mixing over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Here, we call a section of channel with two pairs of staggered asymmetrical LVGs a mixing module. Besides, the micromixer with LVGs at a small attack angle is more efficient than that with a larger attack angle when pressure losses are taken into account.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Mixing, Longitudinal vortex generators, Two stream interfaces.

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370 PID Parameter Optimization of an UAV Longitudinal Flight Control System

Authors: Kamran Turkoglu, Ugur Ozdemir, Melike Nikbay, Elbrous M. Jafarov

Abstract:

In this paper, an automatic control system design based on Integral Squared Error (ISE) parameter optimization technique has been implemented on longitudinal flight dynamics of an UAV. It has been aimed to minimize the error function between the reference signal and the output of the plant. In the following parts, objective function has been defined with respect to error dynamics. An unconstrained optimization problem has been solved analytically by using necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality, optimum PID parameters have been obtained and implemented in control system dynamics.

Keywords: Optimum Design, KKT Conditions, UAV, Longitudinal Flight Dynamics, ISE Parameter Optimization.

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369 Rarefactive and Compressive Solitary Waves in Warm Plasma with Positrons and Nonthermal Electrons

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

Ion-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma with nonthermal electrons, thermal positrons and warm ions are investigated using Sagdeev-s pseudopotential technique. We study the effects of non-thermal electrons and ion temperature on solitons and show both negative and positive potential waves are possible.

Keywords: Ion acoustic waves, Solitons, Nonlinear phenomena, Sagdeev potential

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368 EEG Waves Classifier using Wavelet Transform and Fourier Transform

Authors: Maan M. Shaker

Abstract:

The electroencephalograph (EEG) signal is one of the most widely signal used in the bioinformatics field due to its rich information about human tasks. In this work EEG waves classification is achieved using the Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) by adopting the normalized EEG data. The DWT is used as a classifier of the EEG wave's frequencies, while FFT is implemented to visualize the EEG waves in multi-resolution of DWT. Several real EEG data sets (real EEG data for both normal and abnormal persons) have been tested and the results improve the validity of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, DWT, EEG waves, FFT.

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367 Experimental Investigation on Over-Cut in Ultrasonic Machining of WC-Co Composite

Authors: Ravinder Kataria, Jatinder Kumar, B. S. Pabla

Abstract:

Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard, and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. Present article has been targeted at investigating the impact of different experimental conditions (power rating, cobalt content, tool material, thickness of work piece, tool geometry, and abrasive grit size) on over cut in ultrasonic drilling of WC-Co composite material. Taguchi’s L-36 orthogonal array has been employed for conducting the experiments. Significant factors have been identified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The experimental results revealed that abrasive grit size and tool material are most significant factors for over cut.

Keywords: ANOVA, Abrasive grit size, Taguchi, WC-Co, ultrasonic machining.

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366 Lamb Waves in Plates Subjected to Uniaxial Stresses

Authors: Munawwar Mohabuth, Andrei Kotousov, Ching-Tai Ng

Abstract:

On the basis of the theory of nonlinear elasticity, the effect of homogeneous stress on the propagation of Lamb waves in an initially isotropic hyperelastic plate is analysed. The equations governing the propagation of small amplitude waves in the prestressed plate are derived using the theory of small deformations superimposed on large deformations. By enforcing traction free boundary conditions at the upper and lower surfaces of the plate, acoustoelastic dispersion equations for Lamb wave propagation are obtained, which are solved numerically. Results are given for an aluminum plate subjected to a range of applied stresses.

Keywords: Acoustoelasticity, dispersion, finite deformation, lamb waves.

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365 Modeling of a UAV Longitudinal Dynamics through System Identification Technique

Authors: Asadullah I. Qazi, Mansoor Ahsan, Zahir Ashraf, Uzair Ahmad

Abstract:

System identification of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), to acquire its mathematical model, is a significant step in the process of aircraft flight automation. The need for reliable mathematical model is an established requirement for autopilot design, flight simulator development, aircraft performance appraisal, analysis of aircraft modifications, preflight testing of prototype aircraft and investigation of fatigue life and stress distribution etc.  This research is aimed at system identification of a fixed wing UAV by means of specifically designed flight experiment. The purposely designed flight maneuvers were performed on the UAV and aircraft states were recorded during these flights. Acquired data were preprocessed for noise filtering and bias removal followed by parameter estimation of longitudinal dynamics transfer functions using MATLAB system identification toolbox. Black box identification based transfer function models, in response to elevator and throttle inputs, were estimated using least square error   technique. The identification results show a high confidence level and goodness of fit between the estimated model and actual aircraft response.

Keywords: Black box modeling, fixed wing aircraft, least square error, longitudinal dynamics, system identification.

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364 A Longitudinal Study of the Readability of the Chairman’s Narratives in Corporate Reports: Malaysian Evidence

Authors: Azhar Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

This paper examines the readability of the chairman’s narratives, as determined by the Flesch score, of a Malaysian public listed company’s corporate reports from 1962 to 2009. It partially supports earlier studies which demonstrated that corporate reports were difficult to read, and had shown very negligible decrease in difficulty over time. Net profit to sales and readability was significantly positively correlated but number of financial statements was significantly negatively correlated with readability.

Keywords: Chairman’s narratives, corporate communications, readability, longitudinal.

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363 Amplification of Compression Waves in Clean and Bubbly Liquid

Authors: Robert I. Nigmatulin, Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Nailya K. Vakhitova, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Svetlana I. Konovalova, Nikolai A. Makhota

Abstract:

The theoretical investigation is carried out to describe the effect of increase of pressure waves amplitude in clean and bubbly liquid. The goal of the work is to capture the regime of multiple magnification of acoustic and shock waves in the liquid, which enables to get appropriate conditions to enlarge collapses of micro-bubbles. The influence of boundary conditions and frequency of the governing acoustic field is studied for the case of the cylindrical acoustic resonator. It has been observed the formation of standing waves with large amplitude at resonant frequencies. The interaction of the compression wave with gas and vapor bubbles is investigated for the convergent channel. It is shown theoretically that the chemical reactions, which occur inside gas bubbles, provide additional impulse to the wave, that affect strongly on the collapses of the vapor bubbles

Keywords: acoustics, cavitation, detonation, shock waves

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362 The Comprehensive Study Based on Ultrasonic and X-ray Visual Technology for GIS Equipment Detection

Authors: Wei Zhang, Hong Yu, Xian-ping Zhao, Da-da Wang, Fei Xue

Abstract:

For lack of the visualization of the ultrasonic detection method of partial discharge (PD), the ultrasonic detection technology combined with the X-ray visual detection method (UXV) is proposed. The method can conduct qualitative analysis accurately and conduct reliable positioning diagnosis to the internal insulation defects of GIS, and while it could make up the blindness of the X-ray visual detection method and improve the detection rate. In this paper, an experimental model of GIS is used as the trial platform, a variety of insulation defects are set inside the GIS cavity. With the proposed method, the ultrasonic method is used to conduct the preliminary detection, and then the X-ray visual detection is used to locate and diagnose precisely. Therefore, the proposed UXV technology is feasible and practical.

Keywords: GIS, ultrasonic, visual detection, X-ray

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361 Ultrasonic Intensification of the Chemical Degradation of Methyl Violet: An Experimental Study

Authors: N. P. Dhanalakshmi, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

The sonochemical decolorization and degradation of azo dye Methyl violet using Fenton-s reagent in the presence of a high-frequency acoustic field has been investigated. Dyeing and textile effluents are the major sources of azo dyes, and are most troublesome among industrial wastewaters, causing imbalance in the eco-system. The effect of various operating conditions (initial concentration of dye, liquid-phase temperature, ultrasonic power and frequency and process time) on sonochemical degradation was investigated. Conversion was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, temperature, power level and frequency. Both horntype and tank-type sonicators were used, at various power levels (250W, 400W and 500W) for frequencies ranging from 20 kHz - 1000 kHz. A 'Process Intensification' parameter PI, was defined to quantify the enhancement of the degradation reaction by ultrasound when compared to control (i.e., without ultrasound). The present work clearly demonstrates that a high-frequency ultrasonic bath can be used to achieve higher process throughput and energy efficiency at a larger scale of operation.

Keywords: Fenton oxidation, process intensification, sonochemical degradation of MV, ultrasonic frequency.

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