Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: location estimation

9 Evaluation of Classification Algorithms for Road Environment Detection

Authors: T. Anbu, K. Aravind Kumar

Abstract:

The road environment information is needed accurately for applications such as road maintenance and virtual 3D city modeling. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) produces dense point clouds from huge areas efficiently from which the road and its environment can be modeled in detail. Objects such as buildings, cars and trees are an important part of road environments. Different methods have been developed for detection of above such objects, but still there is a lack of accuracy due to the problems of illumination, environmental changes, and multiple objects with same features. In this work the comparison between different classifiers such as Multiclass SVM, kNN and Multiclass LDA for the road environment detection is analyzed. Finally the classification accuracy for kNN with LBP feature improved the classification accuracy as 93.3% than the other classifiers.

Keywords: Feature Extraction, classifiers, mobile-based laser scanning, object location estimation

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8 Localization of Near Field Radio Controlled Unintended Emitting Sources

Authors: Nurbanu Guzey, S. Jagannathan

Abstract:

Locating Radio Controlled (RC) devices using their unintended emissions has a great interest considering security concerns. Weak nature of these emissions requires near field localization approach since it is hard to detect these signals in far field region of array. Instead of only angle estimation, near field localization also requires range estimation of the source which makes this method more complicated than far field models. Challenges of locating such devices in a near field region and real time environment are analyzed in this paper. An ESPRIT like near field localization scheme is utilized for both angle and range estimation. 1-D search with symmetric subarrays is provided. Two 7 element uniform linear antenna arrays (ULA) are employed for locating RC source. Experiment results of location estimation for one unintended emitting walkie-talkie for different positions are given.

Keywords: Localization, angle of arrival (AoA), array signal processing, ESPRIT, range estimation, uniform linear array (ULA)

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7 ANFIS Approach for Locating Faults in Underground Cables

Authors: Magdy B. Eteiba, Wael Ismael Wahba, Shimaa Barakat

Abstract:

This paper presents a fault identification, classification and fault location estimation method based on Discrete Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for medium voltage cable in the distribution system.

Different faults and locations are simulated by ATP/EMTP, and then certain selected features of the wavelet transformed signals are used as an input for a training process on the ANFIS. Then an accurate fault classifier and locator algorithm was designed, trained and tested using current samples only. The results obtained from ANFIS output were compared with the real output. From the results, it was found that the percentage error between ANFIS output and real output is less than three percent. Hence, it can be concluded that the proposed technique is able to offer high accuracy in both of the fault classification and fault location.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, ANFIS, underground cable, fault location

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6 GSM-Based Approach for Indoor Localization

Authors: M.Stella, M. Russo, D. Begušić

Abstract:

Ability of accurate and reliable location estimation in indoor environment is the key issue in developing great number of context aware applications and Location Based Services (LBS). Today, the most viable solution for localization is the Received Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprinting based approach using wireless local area network (WLAN). This paper presents two RSS fingerprinting based approaches – first we employ widely used WLAN based positioning as a reference system and then investigate the possibility of using GSM signals for positioning. To compare them, we developed a positioning system in real world environment, where realistic RSS measurements were collected. Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network was used as the approximation function that maps RSS fingerprints and locations. Experimental results indicate advantage of WLAN based approach in the sense of lower localization error compared to GSM based approach, but GSM signal coverage by far outreaches WLAN coverage and for some LBS services requiring less precise accuracy our results indicate that GSM positioning can also be a viable solution.

Keywords: Neural Network, Indoor positioning, WLAN, GSM, RSS, location fingerprints

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5 Adaptive WiFi Fingerprinting for Location Approximation

Authors: Mohd Fikri Azli bin Abdullah, Khairul Anwar bin Kamarul Hatta, Esther Jeganathan

Abstract:

WiFi has become an essential technology that is widely used nowadays. It is famous due to its convenience to be used with mobile devices. This is especially true for Internet users worldwide that use WiFi connections. There are many location based services that are available nowadays which uses Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) signal fingerprinting. A common example that is gaining popularity in this era would be Foursquare. In this work, the WiFi signal would be used to estimate the user or client’s location. Similar to GPS, fingerprinting method needs a floor plan to increase the accuracy of location estimation. Still, the factor of inconsistent WiFi signal makes the estimation defer at different time intervals. Given so, an adaptive method is needed to obtain the most accurate signal at all times. WiFi signals are heavily distorted by external factors such as physical objects, radio frequency interference, electrical interference, and environmental factors to name a few. Due to these factors, this work uses a method of reducing the signal noise and estimation using the Nearest Neighbour based on past activities of the signal to increase the signal accuracy up to more than 80%. The repository yet increases the accuracy by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) pattern matching. The repository acts as the server cum support of the client side application decision. Numerous previous works has adapted the methods of collecting signal strengths in the repository over the years, but mostly were just static. In this work, proposed solutions on how the adaptive method is done to match the signal received to the data in the repository are highlighted. With the said approach, location estimation can be done more accurately. Adaptive update allows the latest location fingerprint to be stored in the repository. Furthermore, any redundant location fingerprints are removed and only the updated version of the fingerprint is stored in the repository. How the location estimation of the user can be predicted would be highlighted more in the proposed solution section. After some studies on previous works, it is found that the Artificial Neural Network is the most feasible method to deploy in updating the repository and making it adaptive. The Artificial Neural Network functions are to do the pattern matching of the WiFi signal to the existing data available in the repository.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, location estimation, Adaptive Repository, Nearest Neighbour Euclidean Distance, WiFi RSSI Fingerprinting

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4 Design of an Intelligent Location Identification Scheme Based On LANDMARC and BPNs

Authors: S. Chaisit, H.Y. Kung, N.T. Phuong

Abstract:

Radio frequency identification (RFID) applications have grown rapidly in many industries, especially in indoor location identification. The advantage of using received signal strength indicator (RSSI) values as an indoor location measurement method is a cost-effective approach without installing extra hardware. Because the accuracy of many positioning schemes using RSSI values is limited by interference factors and the environment, thus it is challenging to use RFID location techniques based on integrating positioning algorithm design. This study proposes the location estimation approach and analyzes a scheme relying on RSSI values to minimize location errors. In addition, this paper examines different factors that affect location accuracy by integrating the backpropagation neural network (BPN) with the LANDMARC algorithm in a training phase and an online phase. First, the training phase computes coordinates obtained from the LANDMARC algorithm, which uses RSSI values and the real coordinates of reference tags as training data for constructing an appropriate BPN architecture and training length. Second, in the online phase, the LANDMARC algorithm calculates the coordinates of tracking tags, which are then used as BPN inputs to obtain location estimates. The results show that the proposed scheme can estimate locations more accurately compared to LANDMARC without extra devices.

Keywords: indoor location, BPNs, location estimation, intelligent location identification

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3 Dead-Reckoning Error Calibration using Celling Looking Vision Camera

Authors: Jae-Young Choi, Sung-Gaun Kim

Abstract:

This paper suggests a calibration method to reduce errors occurring due to mobile robot sliding during location estimation using the Dead-reckoning. Due to sliding of the mobile robot caused between its wheels and the road surface while on free run, location estimation can be erroneous. Sliding especially occurs during cornering of mobile robot. Therefore, in order to reduce these frequent sliding errors in cornering, we calibrated the mobile robot-s heading values using a vision camera and templates of the ceiling.

Keywords: Localization, Dead-reckoning, Odomerty, Vision Camera

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2 Analysis of Target Location Estimation in High Performance Radar System

Authors: Jin-Hyeok Kim, Won-Chul Choi, Seung-Ri Jin, Dong-Jo Park

Abstract:

In this paper, an analysis of a target location estimation system using the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) for high performance radar systems is presented. In synthetic environments, we are here concerned with three key elements of radar system modeling, which makes radar systems operates accurately in strategic situation in virtual ground. Radar Cross Section (RCS) modeling is used to determine the actual amount of electromagnetic waves that are reflected from a tactical object. Pattern Propagation Factor (PPF) is an attenuation coefficient of the radar equation that contains the reflection from the surface of the earth, the diffraction, the refraction and scattering by the atmospheric environment. Clutter is the unwanted echoes of electronic systems. For the data fusion of output results from radar detection in synthetic environment, BLUE is used and compared with the mean values of each simulation results. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the radar system.

Keywords: Data fusion, Best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE), radar system modeling, target location estimation

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1 Multiple Subcarrier Indoor Geolocation System in MIMO-OFDM WLAN APs Structure

Authors: Abdul Hafiizh, Shigeki Obote, Kenichi Kagoshima

Abstract:

This report aims to utilize existing and future Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Wireless Local Area Network (MIMO-OFDM WLAN) systems characteristics–such as multiple subcarriers, multiple antennas, and channel estimation characteristics–for indoor location estimation systems based on the Direction of Arrival (DOA) and Radio Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) methods. Hybrid of DOA-RSSI methods also evaluated. In the experimental data result, we show that location estimation accuracy performances can be increased by minimizing the multipath fading effect. This is done using multiple subcarrier frequencies over wideband frequencies to estimate one location. The proposed methods are analyzed in both a wide indoor environment and a typical room-sized office. In the experiments, WLAN terminal locations are estimated by measuring multiple subcarriers from arrays of three dipole antennas of access points (AP). This research demonstrates highly accurate, robust and hardware-free add-on software for indoor location estimations based on a MIMO-OFDM WLAN system.

Keywords: WLAN, MIMO-OFDM, Direction of Arrival (DOA), Indoor location estimation method, Multipath Fading, Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI), Hybrid DOA-RSSI

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