Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: lipase

16 The Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist on the Lipase Activity

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani

Abstract:

Lipases constitute one of the most important groups of industrial enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to glycerol and fatty acids. Muscarinic antagonist relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract and effect on the cardiovascular system. In this research the effect of a muscarinic antagonist on the lipase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. Lineweaver–Burk plot showed that the drug inhibited the enzyme by competitive inhibition. The IC50 value (0.16 mM) and Ki (0.03 mM) of the drug revealed the drug bound to enzyme with high affinity. Determination of enzyme activity in various pH and temperature showed that the maximum activity of lipase was at pH 8 and 60oC both in presence and absence of the drug.

Keywords: Bacteria, inhibition, kinetics, lipase.

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15 Improvement of Lipase Catalytic Properties by Immobilization in Hybrid Matrices

Authors: C. Zarcula, R. Croitoru, L. Corîci, C. Csunderlik, F. Peter

Abstract:

Lipases are enzymes particularly amenable for immobilization by entrapment methods, as they can work equally well in aqueous or non-conventional media and long-time stability of enzyme activity and enantioselectivity is needed to elaborate more efficient bioprocesses. The improvement of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Amano AK) lipase characteristics was investigated by optimizing the immobilization procedure in hybrid organic-inorganic matrices using ionic liquids as additives. Ionic liquids containing a more hydrophobic alkyl group in the cationic moiety are beneficial for the activity of immobilized lipase. Silanes with alkyl- or aryl nonhydrolizable groups used as precursors in combination with tetramethoxysilane could generate composites with higher enantioselectivity compared to the native enzyme in acylation reactions of secondary alcohols. The optimal effect on both activity and enantioselectivity was achieved for the composite made from octyltrimethoxysilane and tetramethoxysilane at 1:1 molar ratio (60% increase of total activity following immobilization and enantiomeric ratio of 30). Ionic liquids also demonstrated valuable properties as reaction media for the studied reactions, comparable with the usual organic solvent, hexane.

Keywords: Ionic liquids, lipase, enantioselectivity, sol-gelimmobilization

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14 Immobilization of Lipase Enzyme by Low Cost Material: A Statistical Approach

Authors: Md. Z. Alam, Devi R. Asih, Md. N. Salleh

Abstract:

Immobilization of lipase enzyme produced from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by the activated carbon (AC) among the low cost support materials was optimized. The results indicated that immobilization of 94% was achieved by AC as the most suitable support material. A sequential optimization strategy based on a statistical experimental design, including one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method was used to determine the equilibrium time. Three components influencing lipase immobilization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the face-centered central composite design (FCCCD). On the statistical analysis of the results, the optimum enzyme concentration loading, agitation rate and carbon active dosage were found to be 30 U/ml, 300 rpm and 8 g/L respectively, with a maximum immobilization activity of 3732.9 U/g-AC after 2 hrs of immobilization. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high regression coefficient (R2) of 0.999, which indicated a satisfactory fit of the model with the experimental data. The parameters were statistically significant at p<0.05.

Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, immobilization, POME based lipase.

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13 Double Immobilized Lipase for the Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols

Authors: A. Ursoiu, C. Paul, C. Marcu, M. Ungurean, F. Péter

Abstract:

Sol-gel immobilization of enzymes, which can improve considerably their properties, is now one of the most used techniques. By deposition of the entrapped lipase on a solid support, a new and improved biocatalyst was obtained, which can be used with excellent results in acylation reactions. In this paper, lipase B from Candida antarctica was double immobilized on different adsorbents. These biocatalysts were employed in the kinetic resolution of several aliphatic secondary alcohols in organic medium. High total recovery yields of enzymatic activity, up to 560%, were obtained. For all the studied alcohols the enantiomeric ratios E were over 200. The influence of the reaction medium was studied for the kinetic resolution of 2-pentanol.

Keywords: Double immobilization, enantioselectivity, kineticresolution, lipase, racemates, sol-gel entrapment.

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12 Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Aromatic Esters of Sugar Alcohols

Authors: R. Croitoru, L. A. M. van den Broek, A. E. Frissen, C. M. Davidescu, F. Peter, C. G. Boeriu

Abstract:

Commercially available lipases (Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozyme 435, Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase, and Lipozyme TL IM), as well as sol-gel immobilized lipases, have been screened for their ability to acylate regioselectively xylitol, sorbitol, and mannitol with a phenolic ester in a binary mixture of t-butanol and dimethylsulfoxide. HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed the exclusive formation of monoesters for all studied sugar alcohols. The lipases immobilized by the sol-gel entrapment method proved to be efficient catalysts, leading to high conversions (up to 60%) in the investigated acylation reactions. From a sequence of silane precursors with different nonhydrolyzable groups in their structure, the presence of octyl and i-butyl group was most beneficial for the catalytic activity of sol-gel entrapped lipases in the studied process.

Keywords: Lipase, phenolic ester, specificity, sugar alcohol, transesterification.

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11 Screening of Process Variables for the Production of Extracellular Lipase from Palm Oil by Trichoderma Viride using Plackett-Burman Design

Authors: R. Rajendiran, S. Gayathri devi, B.T. SureshKumar, V. Arul Priya

Abstract:

Plackett-Burman statistical screening of media constituents and operational conditions for extracellular lipase production from isolate Trichoderma viride has been carried out in submerged fermentation. This statistical design is used in the early stages of experimentation to screen out unimportant factors from a large number of possible factors. This design involves screening of up to 'n-1' variables in just 'n' number of experiments. Regression coefficients and t-values were calculated by subjecting the experimental data to statistical analysis using Minitab version 15. The effects of nine process variables were studied in twelve experimental trials. Maximum lipase activity of 7.83 μmol /ml /min was obtained in the 6th trail. Pareto chart illustrates the order of significance of the variables affecting the lipase production. The present study concludes that the most significant variables affecting lipase production were found to be palm oil, yeast extract, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and CaCl2.

Keywords: lipase, submerged fermentation, statistical optimization, Trichoderma viride

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10 Effect of Anion and Amino Functional Group on Resin for Lipase Immobilization with Adsorption-Cross Linking Method

Authors: Heri Hermansyah, Annisa Kurnia, A. Vania Anisya, Adi Surjosatyo, Yopi Sunarya, Rita Arbianti, Tania Surya Utami

Abstract:

Lipase is one of biocatalyst which is applied commercially for the process in industries, such as bioenergy, food, and pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, biocatalysts are preferred in industries because they work in mild condition, high specificity, and reduce energy consumption (high pressure and temperature). But, the usage of lipase for industry scale is limited by economic reason due to the high price of lipase and difficulty of the separation system. Immobilization of lipase is one of the solutions to maintain the activity of lipase and reduce separation system in the process. Therefore, we conduct a study about lipase immobilization with the adsorption-cross linking method using glutaraldehyde because this method produces high enzyme loading and stability. Lipase is immobilized on different kind of resin with the various functional group. Highest enzyme loading (76.69%) was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous which have anion functional group (OH). However, highest activity (24,69 U/g support) through olive oil emulsion method was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-chitosan which have amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group. In addition, it also success to produce biodiesel until reach yield 50,6% through interesterification reaction and after 4 cycles stable 63.9% relative with initial yield. While for Aspergillus, niger lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-kitosan have unit activity 22,84 U/g resin and yield biodiesel higher than commercial lipase (69,1%) and after 4 cycles stable reach 70.6% relative from initial yield. This shows that optimum functional group on support for immobilization with adsorption-cross linking is the support that contains amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group because they can react with glutaraldehyde and binding with enzyme prevent desorption of lipase from support through binding lipase with a functional group on support.

Keywords: Adsorption-Cross linking, lipase, resin, immobilization.

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9 Using Submerge Fermentation Method to Production of Extracellular Lipase by Aspergillus niger

Authors: Masoumeh Ghasemi, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Arman Farahbakhsh, Ali Asghar Safari

Abstract:

In this study, lipase production has been investigated using submerge fermentation by Aspergillus niger in Kilka fish oil as main substrate. The Taguchi method with an L9 orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of parameters and their levels on lipase productivity. The optimum conditions for Kilka fish oil concentration, incubation temperature and pH were obtained 3 gr./ml 35°C and 7, respectively. The amount of lipase activity in optimum condition was obtained 4.59IU/ml. By comparing this amount with the amount of productivity in the olive oil medium based on the cost of each medium, it was that using Kilka fish oil is 84% economical. Therefore Kilka fish oil can be used as an economical and suitable substrate in the lipase production and industrial usages.

Keywords: Lipase, Aspergillus niger, Kilka Fish oil, Submerge Fermentation method.

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8 Optimization of Lipase Production Using Bacillus subtilis by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: A. Shyamala Devi, K. Chitra Devi, R. Rajendiran

Abstract:

A total of 6 isolates of Bacillus subtilis were isolated from oil mill waste collected in Namakkal district, Tamilnadu, India. The isolated bacteria were screened using lipase screening medium containing Tween 80. BS-3 isolate exhibited a greater clear zone than the others, indicating higher lipase activity. Therefore, this isolate was selected for media optimization studies. Ten process variables were screened using Plackett–Burman design and were further optimized by central composite design of response surface methodology for lipase production in submerged fermentation. Maximum lipase production of 16.627 U/min/ml were predicted in medium containing yeast extract (9.3636g), CaCl2 (0.8986g) and incubation periods (1.813 days). A mean value of 16.98 ± 0.2286 U/min/ml of lipase was acquired from real experiments.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, extracellular lipase, Plackett–Burman design, response surface methodology.

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7 The Expression of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene with Fat Accumulations and Serum Biochemical Levels in Betong (KU Line) and Broiler Chickens

Authors: W. Loongyai, N. Saengsawang, W. Danvilai, C. Kridtayopas, P. Sopannarath, C. Bunchasak

Abstract:

Betong chicken is a slow growing and a lean strain of chicken, while the rapid growth of broiler is accompanied by increased fat. We investigated the growth performance, fat accumulations, lipid serum biochemical levels and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression of female Betong (KU line) at the age of 4 and 6 weeks. A total of 80 female Betong chickens (KU line) and 80 female broiler chickens were reared under open system (each group had 4 replicates of 20 chicks per pen). The results showed that feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) of broiler chicken were significantly higher than Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Betong (KU line) at week 6 were significantly lower than broiler chicken (P < 0.01) at 6 weeks. At 4 and 6 weeks, two birds per replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. Carcass weight did not significantly differ between treatments; the percentage of abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat yield was higher in the broiler (P < 0.01) at 4 and 6 week. Total cholesterol and LDL level of broiler were higher than Betong (KU line) at 4 and 6 weeks (P < 0.05). Abdominal fat samples were collected for total RNA extraction. The cDNA was amplified using primers specific for LPL gene expression and analysed using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of LPL gene was not different when compared between Betong (KU line) and broiler chickens at the age of 4 and 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that broiler chickens had high growth rate and fat accumulation when compared with Betong (KU line) chickens, whereas LPL gene expression did not differ between breeds.

Keywords: Lipoprotein lipase gene, Betong (KU line), broiler, abdominal fat, gene expression.

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6 Synthesis of Monoacylglycerol from Glycerolysis of Crude Glycerol with Coconut Oil Catalyzed by Carica papaya Lipase

Authors: P. Pinyaphong, P. Sriburi, S. Phutrakul

Abstract:

This paper studied the synthesis of monoacylglycerol (monolaurin) by glycerolysis of coconut oil and crude glycerol, catalyzed by Carica papaya lipase. Coconut oil obtained from cold pressed extraction method and crude glycerol obtained from the biodiesel plant in Department of Chemistry, Uttaradit Rajabhat University, Thailand which used oils were used as raw materials for biodiesel production through transesterification process catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. The influences of the following variables were studied: (i) type of organic solvent, (ii) molar ratio of substrate, (iii) reaction temperature, (iv) reaction time, (v) lipase dosage, and (vi) initial water activity of enzyme. High yields in monoacylglycerol (58.35%) were obtained with molar ratio of glycerol to oil at 8:1 in ethanol, temperature was controlled at 45oC for 36 hours, the amount of enzyme used was 20 wt% of oil and initial water activity of enzyme at 0.53.

Keywords: Monoacylglycerol, crude glycerol, coconut oil, Carica papaya lipase.

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5 Modification of Palm Oil Structure to Cocoa Butter Equivalent by Carica papaya Lipase- Catalyzed Interesterification

Authors: P. Pinyaphong, S. Phutrakul

Abstract:

Palm oil could be converted to cocoa butter equivalent by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. The objective of this research was to investigate the structure modification of palm oil to cocoa butter equivalent using Carica papaya lipase –catalyzed interesterification. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction temperature and the amount of enzyme. Among three acyl donors tested (methyl stearate, ethyl stearate and stearic acid), methyl stearate appeared to be the best acyl donor for incorporation to palm oil structure. The best reaction conditions for cocoa butter equivalent production were : substrate ratio (palm oil : methyl stearate, mol/mol) at 1 : 4, water activity of enzyme at 0.11, reaction time at 4 h, reaction temperature at 45 ° C and 18% by weight of the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of cocoa butter equivalent were 9.75 ± 0.41% free fatty acid, 44.89 ± 0.84 iodine number, 193.19 ± 0.78 sponification value and melting point at 37-39 °C.

Keywords: Carica papaya lipase, cocoa butter equivalent, interesterification, palm oil.

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4 Biodiesel Fuel Production by Methanolysis of Fish Oil Derived from the Discarded Parts of Fish Catalyzed by Carica papaya Lipase

Authors: P. Pinyaphong, P. Sriburi, S. Phutrakul

Abstract:

In this paper, naturally immobilized lipase, Carica papaya lipase, catalyzed biodiesel production from fish oil was studied. The refined fish oil, extracted from the discarded parts of fish, was used as a starting material for biodiesel production. The effects of molar ratio of oil: methanol, lipase dosage, initial water activity of lipase, temperature and solvent were investigated. It was found that Carica papaya lipase was suitable for methanolysis of fish oil to produce methyl ester. The maximum yield of methyl ester could reach up to 83% with the optimal reaction conditions: oil: methanol molar ratio of 1: 4, 20% (based on oil) of lipase, initial water activity of lipase at 0.23 and 20% (based on oil) of tert-butanol at 40oC after 18 h of reaction time. There was negligible loss in lipase activity even after repeated use for 30 cycles.

Keywords: biodiesel fuel production, methanolysis, fish oil, Carica papaya lipase.

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3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lutein Esters from Marigold Flowers and their Hydrolysis by Improved Saponification and Enzyme Biocatalysis

Authors: A. Peter Amala Sujith, T.V. Hymavathi, P. Yasoda Devi

Abstract:

Lutein is a dietary oxycarotenoid which is found to reduce the risks of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Supercritical fluid extraction of lutein esters from marigold petals was carried out and was found to be much effective than conventional solvent extraction. The saponification of pre-concentrated lutein esters to produce free lutein was studied which showed a composition of about 88% total carotenoids (UV-VIS spectrophotometry) and 90.7% lutein (HPLC). The lipase catalyzed hydrolysis of lutein esters in conventional medium was investigated. The optimal temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and water activity were found to be 50°C, 7, 15% and 0.33 respectively and the activity loss of lipase was about 25% after 8 times re-use in at 50°C for 12 days. However, the lipase catalyzed hydrolysis of lutein esters in conventional media resulted in poor conversions (16.4%).

Keywords: lutein, preconcentration, saponification, lipase

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2 Properties of Biodiesel Produced by Enzymatic Transesterification of Lipids Extracted from Microalgae in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium

Authors: Hanifa Taher, Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Ali H. Al-Marzouqi, Yousef Haik, Mohammed Farid

Abstract:

Biodiesel, as an alternative renewable fuel, has been receiving increasing attention due to the limited supply of fossil fuels and the increasing need for energy. Microalgae are promising source for lipids, which can be converted to biodiesel. The biodiesel production from microalgae lipids using lipase catalyzed reaction in supercritical CO2 medium has several advantages over conventional production processes. However, identifying the optimum microalgae lipid extraction and transesterification conditions is still a challenge. In this study, the quality of biodiesel produced from lipids extracted from Scenedesmus sp. and their enzymatic transesterification using supercritical carbon dioxide have been investigated. At the optimum conditions, the highest biodiesel production yield was found to be 82%. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesel, without any separation step, at optimum reaction condition, were determined and compared to ASTM standards. The properties were found to comply with the limits, and showed a low glycerol content, without any separation step.

Keywords: Biodiesel, fuel standards, lipase, microalgae, Supercritical CO2.

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1 Green Synthesis of Butyl Acetate, A Pineapple Flavour via Lipase-Catalyzed Reaction

Authors: S. Mat Radzi, W.A.F. Mustafa, S.S Othman, H.M. Noor

Abstract:

Nowadays, butyl acetate, a pineapple flavor has been applied widely in food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, Butyl acetate, a flavor ester was successfully synthesized via green synthesis of enzymatic reaction route. Commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RMIM) was used as biocatalyst in the esterification reaction between acetic acid and butanol. Various reaction parameters such as reaction time (RT), temperature (T) and amount of enzyme (E) were chosen to optimize the reaction synthesis in solvent-free system. The optimum condition to produce butyl acetate was at reaction time (RT), 18 hours; temperature (T), 37°C and amount of enzyme, 25 % (w/w of total substrate). Analysis of yield showed that at optimum condition, >78 % of butyl acetate was produced. The product was confirmed as butyl acetate from FTIR analysis whereby the presence of an ester group was observed at wavenumber of 1742 cm-1.

Keywords: Butyl acetate, immobilized enyzme, esterification, flavor ester, green synthesis

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