Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: limits

18 Environmental Limits of Using Newly Developed Progressive Polymer Protection and Repair Systems

Authors: J. Hodna, B. Dohnalkova, V. Petranek, R. Drochytka

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the identification of limiting environmental factors of individual industrial floors on which newly developed polymer protection and repair systems with the use of secondary raw materials will be used. These mainly include floors with extreme stresses and special requirements for materials used. In relation to the environment of a particular industrial floor, it is necessary to ensure, for example, chemical stability, resistance to higher temperatures, resistance to higher mechanical stress, etc. for developed materials, which is reflected in the demands for the developed material systems. The paper describes individual environments and, in relation to them, also requirements for individual components of the developed materials and for the developed materials as a whole.

Keywords: Limits, environment, polymer, industrial floors, recycling, secondary raw material, protective system.

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17 Limits Problem Solving in Engineering Careers: Competences and Errors

Authors: Veronica Diaz Quezada

Abstract:

In this article, the performance and errors are featured and analysed in the limit problems solving of a real-valued function, in correspondence to competency-based education in engineering careers, in the south of Chile. The methodological component is contextualised in a qualitative research, with a descriptive and explorative design, with elaboration, content validation and application of quantitative instruments, consisting of two parallel forms of open answer tests, based on limit application problems. The mathematical competences and errors made by students from five engineering careers from a public University are identified and characterized. Results show better performance only to solve routine-context problem-solving competence, thus they are oriented towards a rational solution or they use a suitable problem-solving method, achieving the correct solution. Regarding errors, most of them are related to techniques and the incorrect use of theorems and definitions of real-valued function limits of real variable.

Keywords: Engineering education, errors, limits, mathematics competences, problem solving.

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16 The Role of Motivations for Eco-driving and Social Norms on Behavioural Intentions Regarding Speed Limits and Time Headway

Authors: M. Cristea, F. Paran, P. Delhomme

Abstract:

Eco-driving allows the driver to optimize his/her behaviour in order to achieve several types of benefits: reducing pollution emissions, increasing road safety, and fuel saving. One of the main rules for adopting eco-driving is to anticipate the traffic events by avoiding strong acceleration or braking and maintaining a steady speed when possible. Therefore, drivers have to comply with speed limits and time headway. The present study explored the role of three types of motivation and social norms in predicting French drivers- intentions to comply with speed limits and time headway as eco-driving practices as well as examine the variations according to gender and age. 1234 drivers with ages between 18 and 75 years old filled in a questionnaire which was presented as part of an online survey aiming to better understand the drivers- road habits. It included items assessing: a) behavioural intentions to comply with speed limits and time headway according to three types of motivation: reducing pollution emissions, increasing road safety, and fuel saving, b) subjective and descriptive social norms regarding the intention to comply with speed limits and time headway, and c) sociodemographical variables. Drivers expressed their intention to frequently comply with speed limits and time headway in the following 6 months; however, they showed more intention to comply with speed limits as compared to time headway regardless of the type of motivation. The subjective injunctive norms were significantly more important in predicting drivers- intentions to comply with speed limits and time headway as compared to the descriptive norms. In addition, the most frequently reported type of motivation for complying with speed limits and time headway was increasing road safety followed by fuel saving and reducing pollution emissions, hence underlining a low motivation to practice eco-driving. Practical implications of the results are discussed.

Keywords: Eco-driving, social norms, speed limits, time headway.

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15 The Use of the Limit Cycles of Dynamic Systems for Formation of Program Trajectories of Points Feet of the Anthropomorphous Robot

Authors: A. S. Gorobtsov, A. S. Polyanina, A. E. Andreev

Abstract:

The movement of points feet of the anthropomorphous robot in space occurs along some stable trajectory of a known form. A large number of modifications to the methods of control of biped robots indicate the fundamental complexity of the problem of stability of the program trajectory and, consequently, the stability of the control for the deviation for this trajectory. Existing gait generators use piecewise interpolation of program trajectories. This leads to jumps in the acceleration at the boundaries of sites. Another interpolation can be realized using differential equations with fractional derivatives. In work, the approach to synthesis of generators of program trajectories is considered. The resulting system of nonlinear differential equations describes a smooth trajectory of movement having rectilinear sites. The method is based on the theory of an asymptotic stability of invariant sets. The stability of such systems in the area of localization of oscillatory processes is investigated. The boundary of the area is a bounded closed surface. In the corresponding subspaces of the oscillatory circuits, the resulting stable limit cycles are curves having rectilinear sites. The solution of the problem is carried out by means of synthesis of a set of the continuous smooth controls with feedback. The necessary geometry of closed trajectories of movement is obtained due to the introduction of high-order nonlinearities in the control of stabilization systems. The offered method was used for the generation of trajectories of movement of point’s feet of the anthropomorphous robot. The synthesis of the robot's program movement was carried out by means of the inverse method.

Keywords: Control, limits cycle, robot, stability.

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14 The Emerging Global Judicial Ethics: Issues and Problems

Authors: Caroline Foulquier-Expert

Abstract:

In many states around the world, actions to improve judicial ethics are developing significantly through the production of professional standards for judges. The quest to improve the ethics of judges is legitimate. However, as this development tends to be very important at the moment, some risks it presents must be highlighted. Indeed, if the objective of improving Judges’ Ethics is legitimate, it can also lead to banalization of justice, reinforcement of criticism against the judiciary and to broach incidentally the question of the limits of judgment, which is most perilous for the independence of the judiciary. This research, based on case studies, interviews with judges and an analysis of the literature on this topic (mainly from the United States of America and European Union Member States), tends to draw attention to the fact that the result of the development of these professional standards is that the ethical requirements of judges become ethical requirements of justice, which is an undesirable effect of which we must be aware, in order to prevent it.

Keywords: Judicial Ethics, Codes of conduct, Independence, Limits of Judgment.

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13 A Study on Flammability of Bio Oil Combustible Vapour Mixtures

Authors: Mohanad El-Harbawi, Nurul Amirah Hanim Bt. Umar, Norizan Ali, Yoshimitsu Uemura

Abstract:

Study of fire and explosion is very important mainly in oil and gas industries due to several accidents which have been reported in the past and present. In this work, we have investigated the flammability of bio oil vapour mixtures. This mixture may contribute to fire during the storage and transportation process. Bio oil sample derived from Palm Kernell shell was analysed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to examine the composition of the sample. Mole fractions of 12 selected components in the liquid phase were obtained from the GC-FID data and used to calculate mole fractions of components in the gas phase via modified Raoult-s law. Lower Flammability Limits (LFLs) and Upper Flammability Limits (UFLs) for individual components were obtained from published literature. However, stoichiometric concentration method was used to calculate the flammability limits of some components which their flammability limit values are not available in the literature. The LFL and UFL values for the mixture were calculated using the Le Chatelier equation. The LFLmix and UFLmix values were used to construct a flammability diagram and subsequently used to determine the flammability of the mixture. The findings of this study can be used to propose suitable inherently safer method to prevent the flammable mixture from occurring and to minimizing the loss of properties, business, and life due to fire accidents in bio oil productions.

Keywords: Gas chromatography, compositions, lower and upper flammability limits (LFL & UFL), flammability diagram.

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12 The Effects of Neuromuscular Training on Limits of Stability in Female Individuals

Authors: Yen-Ting Wang, Yu-Tien Tsai, Tzuhui A. Tseng, I-Tsun Chiang, Alex J.Y. Lee

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training (NT) on limits of stability (LOS) in female individuals. Twenty female basketball amateurs were assigned into NT experimental group or control group by volunteer. All the players were underwent regular basketball practice, 90 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks, but the NT experimental group underwent extra NT with plyometric and core training, 50 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks during this period. Limits of stability (LOS) were evaluated by the Biodex Balance System. One factor ANCOVA was used to examine the differences between groups after training. The significant level for statistic was set at p<.05. Results showed that the right direction LOS scores at level 3 indicated a significant interaction between the trained/untrained groups × pre/post repeated measures with post-training scores higher than pre-training scores in the NT experimental group. The study demonstrated that Six weeks NT can improve the postural stability in young female individuals.

Keywords: Balance control, neuromuscular control and posture stability.

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11 Moving Beyond the Limits of Disability Inclusion: Using the Concept of Belonging Through Friendship to Improve the Outcome of the Social Model of Disability

Authors: Luke S. Carlos A. Thompson

Abstract:

The medical model of disability, though beneficial for the medical professional, is often exclusionary, restrictive and dehumanizing when applied to the lived experience of disability. As a result, a critique of this model was constructed called the social model of disability. Much of the language used to articulate the purpose behind the social model of disability can be summed up within the word inclusion. However, this essay asserts that inclusiveness is an incomplete aspiration. The social model, as it currently stands, does not aid in creating a society where those with impairments actually belong. Rather, the social model aids in lessening the visibility, or negative consequence of, difference. Therefore, the social model does not invite society to welcome those with physical and intellectual impairments. It simply aids society in ignoring the existence of impairment by removing explicit forms of exclusion. Rather than simple inclusion, then, this essay uses John Swinton’s concept of friendship and Jean Vanier’s understanding of belonging to better articulate the intended outcome of the social model—a society where everyone can belong.

Keywords: Belong, community, disability, exclusion, friendship, inclusion.

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10 Limits of Phase Modulated Frequency Shifted Holographic Vibrometry at Low Amplitudes of Vibrations

Authors: Pavel Psota, Vít Lédl, Jan Václavík, Roman Doleček, Pavel Mokrý, Petr Vojtíšek

Abstract:

This paper presents advanced time average digital holography by means of frequency shift and phase modulation. This technique can measure amplitudes of vibrations at ultimate dynamic range while the amplitude distribution evaluation is done independently in every pixel. The main focus of the paper is to gain insight into behavior of the method at low amplitudes of vibrations. In order to reach that, a set of experiments was performed. Results of the experiments together with novel noise suppression show the limit of the method to be below 0.1 nm.

Keywords: Acousto-optical modulator, digital holography, low amplitudes, vibrometry.

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9 The Effects of Eight-Week Pilates Training on Limits of Stability and Abdominal Muscle Strength in Young Dancers

Authors: Yen-Ting Wang, Pao-Cheng Lin, Chen-Fu Huang, Lung-Ching Liang, Alex J.Y. Lee

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of 8-week Pilates training program on limits of stability (LOS) and abdominal muscle strength in young dancers. Twenty-four female volunteered and randomly assigned as experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). All subjects received the same dance lessons but the EG underwent an extra Pilates mat exercises for 40 minutes, three times a week, for 8 weeks. LOS was evaluated by the Biodex Balance System and the abdominal strength was measured by 30/60 seconds sit-ups test. One factor ANCOVA was used to examine the differences between groups after training. The results showed that the overall LOS scores at levels 2/8 and the 30/60 seconds sit-ups for the EG group pre- and post-training were changed from 22/38 % to 31/51 % and 20/33 times to 24/42 times, respectively. The study demonstrated that 8-week Pilates training can improve the LOS performance and abdominal strength in young dancers.

Keywords: Balance, Core Strength Exercise Training, and Posture Stability.

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8 Pushing the Limits of Address Based Authentication: How to Avoid MAC Address Spoofing in Wireless LANs

Authors: Kemal Bicakci, Yusuf Uzunay

Abstract:

It is well-known that in wireless local area networks, authenticating nodes by their MAC addresses is not secure since it is very easy for an attacker to learn one of the authorized addresses and change his MAC address accordingly. In this paper, in order to prevent MAC address spoofing attacks, we propose to use dynamically changing MAC addresses and make each address usable for only one session. The scheme we propose does not require any change in 802.11 protocols and incurs only a small performance overhead. One of the nice features of our new scheme is that no third party can link different communication sessions of the same user by monitoring MAC addresses therefore our scheme is preferable also with respect to user privacy.

Keywords: Authentication, MAC address spoofing, security, wireless networks.

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7 Identifying Knowledge Gaps in Incorporating Toxicity of Particulate Matter Constituents for Developing Regulatory Limits on Particulate Matter

Authors: Ananya Das, Arun Kumar, Gazala Habib, Vivekanandan Perumal

Abstract:

Regulatory bodies has proposed limits on Particulate Matter (PM) concentration in air; however, it does not explicitly indicate the incorporation of effects of toxicities of constituents of PM in developing regulatory limits. This study aimed to provide a structured approach to incorporate toxic effects of components in developing regulatory limits on PM. A four-step human health risk assessment framework consists of - (1) hazard identification (parameters: PM and its constituents and their associated toxic effects on health), (2) exposure assessment (parameters: concentrations of PM and constituents, information on size and shape of PM; fate and transport of PM and constituents in respiratory system), (3) dose-response assessment (parameters: reference dose or target toxicity dose of PM and its constituents), and (4) risk estimation (metric: hazard quotient and/or lifetime incremental risk of cancer as applicable). Then parameters required at every step were obtained from literature. Using this information, an attempt has been made to determine limits on PM using component-specific information. An example calculation was conducted for exposures of PM2.5 and its metal constituents from Indian ambient environment to determine limit on PM values. Identified data gaps were: (1) concentrations of PM and its constituents and their relationship with sampling regions, (2) relationship of toxicity of PM with its components.

Keywords: Air, component-specific toxicity, human health risks, particulate matter.

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6 Mitigation of Radiation Levels for Base Transceiver Stations based on ITU-T Recommendation K.70

Authors: Reyes C., Ramos B.

Abstract:

This essay presents applicative methods to reduce human exposure levels in the area around base transceiver stations in a environment with multiple sources based on ITU-T recommendation K.70. An example is presented to understand the mitigation techniques and their results and also to learn how they can be applied, especially in developing countries where there is not much research on non-ionizing radiations.

Keywords: Electromagnetic fields (EMF), human exposure limits, intentional radiator, cumulative exposure ratio, base transceiver station (BTS), radiation levels.

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5 Freedom of Expression and Its Restriction in Audio Visual Media

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

Abstract:

Audio visual communication is a type of collective expression. Due to inform the masses, give direction to opinions, and establish public opinion, audio visual communication must be subjected to special restrictions. This has been stipulated in both the Constitution and the European Human Rights Agreement. This paper aims to review freedom of expression and its restriction in audio visual media. For this purpose, the authorization of the Radio and Television Supreme Council to impose sanctions as an independent administrative authority empowered to regulate the field of audio visual communication has been reviewed with regard to freedom of expression and its limits.

Keywords: Audio visual media, freedom of expression, its limits, Radio and Television Supreme Council.

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4 Dynamic Economic Dispatch Using Glowworm Swarm Optimization Technique

Authors: K. C. Meher, R. K. Swain, C. K. Chanda

Abstract:

This paper gives an intuition regarding glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) technique to solve dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problems of thermal generating units. The objective of the problem is to schedule optimal power generation of dedicated thermal units over a specific time band. In this study, Glowworm swarm optimization technique enables a swarm of agents to split into subgroup, exhibit simultaneous taxis towards each other and rendezvous at multiple optima (not necessarily equal) of a given multimodal function. The feasibility of the GSO method has been tested on ten-unit-test systems where the power balance constraints, operating limits, valve point effects, and ramp rate limits are taken into account. The results obtained by the proposed technique are compared with other heuristic techniques. The results show that GSO technique is capable of producing better results.

Keywords: Dynamic economic dispatch, Glowworm swarm optimization, Luciferin, Valve–point loading effect, Ramp rate limits.

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3 Electron Filling Factor and Sunlight Concentration Effects on the Efficiency of Intermediate Band Solar Cell

Authors: Nima Es'haghi Gorji, Hossein Movla, Foozieh Sohrabi, Alireza Mottaghizadeh, Mohammad Houshmand, Hassan Babaei, Arash Nikniazi

Abstract:

For a determined intermediate band position, the effects of electron filling factor and sunlight concentration on the active region thickness and efficiency of the quantum-dot intermediate band solar cell are calculated. For each value of electron filling factor, the maximum point of efficiency obtained and resulted in the optimum thickness of the cell under three different sunlight concentrations. We show the importance of filling factor as a parameter to be more considered. The photon recycling effect eliminated in all calculations.

Keywords: Intermediate band, Sunlight concentration, Efficiency limits, Electron filling factor

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2 Assessment of Risk of Ground Water Resources for the Emergency Supply in Relation to Their Contamination by Metals

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Alexandr Bozek, Alena Bumbova, Jiri Dvorak, Lenka Jesonkova

Abstract:

The contamination of 15 ground water resources of a selected region earmarked for the emergency supply of population has been monitored. The resources have been selected on the basis of previous assessment of natural conditions and the exploitation of territory in their surroundings and infiltration area. Two resources out of 15 have been excluded from further exploitation, because they have not met some of the 72 assessed hygienic indicators of extended analysis. The remaining 13 resources have been the subject of health risk analysis in relation to the contamination by arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, nickel and manganese. The risk analysis proved that all 13 resources meet health standards with regard to the above mentioned purposefully selected elements and may thus be included into crisis plans. Water quality of ground resources may be assessed in the same way with regard to other contaminants.

Keywords: Contamination, drinking water, emergency supply, health risk, hygienic limits, metals, risk assessment.

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1 An Analysis of Dynamic Economic Dispatch Using Search Space Reduction Based Gravitational Search Algorithm

Authors: K. C. Meher, R. K. Swain, C. K. Chanda

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance analysis of dynamic search space reduction (DSR) based gravitational search algorithm (GSA) to solve dynamic economic dispatch of thermal generating units with valve point effects. Dynamic economic dispatch basically dictates the best setting of generator units with anticipated load demand over a definite period of time. In this paper, the presented technique is considered that deals an inequality constraints treatment mechanism known as DSR strategy to accelerate the optimization process. The presented method is demonstrated through five-unit test systems to verify its effectiveness and robustness. The simulation results are compared with other existing evolutionary methods reported in the literature. It is intuited from the comparison that the fuel cost and other performances of the presented approach yield fruitful results with marginal value of simulation time.

Keywords: Dynamic economic dispatch, dynamic search space reduction strategy, gravitational search algorithm, ramp rate limits, valve-point effects.

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