Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: lateral stiffness

13 Modified Plastic-Damage Model for Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Confined Repaired Concrete Columns

Authors: I. A Tijani, Y. F Wu, C.W. Lim

Abstract:

Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model (CDPM) is capable of modeling the stress-strain behavior of confined concrete. Nevertheless, the accuracy of the model largely depends on its parameters. To date, most research works mainly focus on the identification and modification of the parameters for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined concrete prior to damage. And, it has been established that the FRP-strengthened concrete behaves differently to FRP-repaired concrete. This paper presents a modified plastic damage model within the context of the CDPM in ABAQUS for modelling of a uniformly FRP-confined repaired concrete under monotonic loading. The proposed model includes infliction damage, elastic stiffness, yield criterion and strain hardening rule. The distinct feature of damaged concrete is elastic stiffness reduction; this is included in the model. Meanwhile, the test results were obtained from a physical testing of repaired concrete. The dilation model is expressed as a function of the lateral stiffness of the FRP-jacket. The finite element predictions are shown to be in close agreement with the obtained test results of the repaired concrete. It was observed from the study that with necessary modifications, finite element method is capable of modeling FRP-repaired concrete structures.

Keywords: Concrete, FRP, damage, repairing, plasticity, and finite element method.

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12 The Effect of Shear Wall Positions on the Seismic Response of Frame-Wall Structures

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

The configuration of shear walls in plan of building will affect the seismic design of structure. The position of these walls will change the stiffness of each floor in the structure, the diaphragm center of mass displacement, and the drift of floor. Structural engineers preferred to distribute the walls in buildings to make the center of mass almost close enough to the center of rigidity, but to make this condition satisfied, they have many choices: construct the walls on the perimeter, or use intermediate walls, or use walls as core. In this paper and by using ETABS, each case is studied and compared to other cases according to three parameters: lateral stiffness, diaphragm displacement, and drift. It is found that the core walls are the best choice for the position of the walls in the buildings to resist earthquake loads.

Keywords: Lateral loads, lateral displacement, reinforced concrete, shear wall, seismic, ASCE7-16 code, ACI code, stiffness, drift.

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11 The Effect of Cracking on Stiffness of Shear Walls under Lateral Loads

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

The lateral stiffness of buildings is one of the most important properties which define resistance to displacements under lateral loads. Moreover, it has a great impact on the natural period of the structures. Different stiffness’s values can ultimately affect the behavior of the structure under the seismic load and the lateral forces that will be applied to it. In this study the effect of cracking is studied on 2D shell thin cantilever shear wall by using ETABS. Multi linear elastic analysis is conducted with the ACI stiffness modifiers for each analysis step. The results showed that the cracks affect the value of the drift especially at the top of the high rise buildings and this will change the lateral stiffness and so change the fundamental period of the structures which lead to change in the applied shear force that comes from the earthquake. Finally, this study emphasizes that the finite element method can be considered as a good tool to predict the tensile stresses in the elements.

Keywords: Lateral loads, lateral displacement, reinforced concrete, shear wall, Cracks, ETABS, ACI code, stiffness.

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10 Investigation of Seismic T-Resisting Frame with Shear and Flexural Yield of Horizontal Plate Girders

Authors: Helia Barzegar Sedigh, Farzaneh Hamedi, Payam Ashtari

Abstract:

There are some limitations in common structural systems, such as providing appropriate lateral stiffness, adequate ductility, and architectural openings at the same time. Consequently, the concept of T-Resisting Frame (TRF) has been introduced to overcome all these deficiencies. The configuration of TRF in this study is a Vertical Plate Girder (VPG) which is placed within the span and two Horizontal Plate Girders (HPGs) connect VPG to side columns at each story level by the use of rigid connections. System performance is improved by utilizing rigid connections in side columns base joint. Shear yield of HPGs causes energy dissipation in TRF; therefore, high plastic deformation in web of HPGs and VPG affects the ductility of system. Moreover, in order to prevent shear buckling in web of TRF’s members and appropriate criteria for placement of web stiffeners are applied. In this paper, an experimental study is conducted by applying cyclic loading and using finite element models and numerical studies such as push over method are assessed on shear and flexural yielding of HPGs. As a result, seismic parameters indicate adequate lateral stiffness, and high ductility factor of 6.73, and HPGs’ shear yielding achieved as a proof of TRF’s better performance.

Keywords: Experimental study, finite element model, flexural and shear yielding, T-resisting frame.

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9 Effect of Shear Wall Openings on the Fundamental Period of Shear Wall Structures

Authors: Anas M. Fares, A. Touqan

Abstract:

A common approach in resisting lateral forces is the use of reinforced concrete shear walls in buildings. These walls represent the main elements to resist the lateral forces due to their large strength and stiffness. However, such walls may contain many openings due to functional requirements, and this may largely affect the overall lateral stiffness of them. It is thus of prime importance to quantify the effect of openings on the dynamic performance of the shear walls. SAP2000 structural analysis program is used as a main source after verifying the results. This study is made by using linear elastic analysis. The results are compared to ASCE7-16 code empirical equations for estimating the fundamental period of shear wall structures. Finally, statistical regression is used to fit an equation for estimating the increase in the fundamental period of shear-walled regular structures due to windows openings in the walls.

Keywords: Concrete, earthquake-resistant design, finite element, fundamental period, lateral stiffness, linear analysis, modal analysis, rayleigh, SAP2000, shear wall, ASCE7-16.

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8 Stability of Concrete Moment Resisting Frames in View of Current Codes Requirements

Authors: Mahmoud A. Mahmoud, Ashraf Osman

Abstract:

In this study, the different approaches currently followed by design codes to assess the stability of buildings utilizing concrete moment resisting frames structural system are evaluated. For such purpose, a parametric study was performed. It involved analyzing group of concrete moment resisting frames having different slenderness ratios (height/width ratios), designed for different lateral loads to vertical loads ratios and constructed using ordinary reinforced concrete and high strength concrete for stability check and overall buckling using code approaches and computer buckling analysis. The objectives were to examine the influence of such parameters that directly linked to frames’ lateral stiffness on the buildings’ stability and evaluates the code approach in view of buckling analysis results. Based on this study, it was concluded that, the most susceptible buildings to instability and magnification of second order effects are buildings having high aspect ratios (height/width ratio), having low lateral to vertical loads ratio and utilizing construction materials of high strength. In addition, the study showed that the instability limits imposed by codes are mainly mathematical to ensure reliable analysis not a physical ones and that they are in general conservative. Also, it has been shown that the upper limit set by one of the codes that second order moment for structural elements should be limited to 1.4 the first order moment is not justified, instead, the overall story check is more reliable.

Keywords: Buckling, lateral stability, p-delta, second order.

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7 Application Research on Large Profiled Statues of Steel-Concrete Composite Shear Wall

Authors: Zhao Cai-qi, Ma Jun

Abstract:

Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear walls are composed of a pair of steel plate layers and a concrete layer sandwiched between them, which have the characteristics of both reinforced concrete shear walls and steel plate shear walls. Twin steel plates-composite shear walls contain very high ultimsate bearing capacity and ductility, which have great potential to be applied in the super high-rise buildings and special structures. In this paper, we analyzed the basic characteristics and stress mechanism of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. Specifically, we analyzed the effects of the steel plate thickness, wall thickness and concrete strength on the bearing capacity of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. The analysis results indicate that: (1) the initial shear stiffness and ultimate shear-carrying capacity is not significantly affected by the thickness of concrete wall but by the class of concrete, (2) both factors significantly impact the shear distribution of the shear walls in ultimate shear-carrying capacity. The technique of twin steel plates-composite shear walls has been successfully applied in the construction of an 88-meter Huge Statue of Buddha located in Hunan Province, China. The analysis results and engineering experiences showed that the twin steel plates-composite shear walls have great potential for future research and applications.

Keywords: Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear wall, huge statue of Buddha, shear capacity, initial lateral stiffness, overturning moment bearing.

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6 Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings

Authors: S. K. Madan, R. S. Malik, V. K. Sehgal

Abstract:

R.C.C. buildings with dual structural system consisting of shear walls (or braces) and moment resisting frames have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of combination of braces and shear walls has not yet been studied. The combination may prove to be more effective to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. This concept has been applied to regular R.C.C. buildings provided with shear walls, braces and their combinations.

Keywords: Dynamic analysis, Displacement, Dual structural system, Storey drift.

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5 Parameters Affecting the Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Outrigger Braced Walls to Earthquakes

Authors: T. A. Sakr, Hanaa E. Abd-El- Mottaleb

Abstract:

Outrigger-braced wall systems are commonly used to provide high rise buildings with the required lateral stiffness for wind and earthquake resistance. The existence of outriggers adds to the stiffness and strength of walls as reported by several studies. The effects of different parameters on the elasto-plastic dynamic behavior of outrigger-braced wall systems to earthquakes are investigated in this study. Parameters investigated include outrigger stiffness, concrete strength, and reinforcement arrangement as the main design parameters in wall design. In addition to being significantly affect the wall behavior, such parameters may lead to the change of failure mode and the delay of crack propagation and consequently failure as the wall is excited by earthquakes. Bi-linear stress-strain relation for concrete with limited tensile strength and truss members with bi-linear stress-strain relation for reinforcement were used in the finite element analysis of the problem. The famous earthquake record, El-Centro, 1940 is used in the study. Emphasize was given to the lateral drift, normal stresses and crack pattern as behavior controlling determinants. Results indicated significant effect of the studied parameters such that stiffer outrigger, higher grade concrete and concentrating the reinforcement at wall edges enhance the behavior of the system. Concrete stresses and cracking behavior are too much enhanced while less drift improvements are observed.

Keywords: Structures, High rise, Outrigger, Shear Wall, Earthquake, Nonlinear.

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4 Modeling of PZ in Haunch Connections Systems

Authors: Peyman Shadman Heidari, Roohollah Ahmady Jazany, Mahmood Reza Mehran, Pouya Shadman Heidari, Mohammad khorasani

Abstract:

Modeling of Panel Zone (PZ) seismic behavior, because of its role in overall ductility and lateral stiffness of steel moment frames, has been considered a challenge for years. There are some studies regarding the effects of different doubler plates thicknesses and geometric properties of PZ on its seismic behavior. However, there is not much investigation on the effects of number of provided continuity plates in case of presence of one triangular haunch, two triangular haunches and rectangular haunch (T shape haunches) for exterior columns. In this research first detailed finite element models of 12tested connection of SAC joint venture were created and analyzed then obtained cyclic behavior backbone curves of these models besides other FE models for similar tests were used for neural network training. Then seismic behavior of these data is categorized according to continuity plate-s arrangements and differences in type of haunches. PZ with one-sided haunches have little plastic rotation. As the number of continuity plates increases due to presence of two triangular haunches (four continuity plate), there will be no plastic rotation, in other words PZ behaves in its elastic range. In the case of rectangular haunch, PZ show more plastic rotation in comparison with one-sided triangular haunch and especially double-sided triangular haunches. Moreover, the models that will be presented in case of triangular one-sided and double- sided haunches and rectangular haunches as a result of this study seem to have a proper estimation of PZ seismic behavior.

Keywords: Continuity plate, FE models, Neural network, Panel zone, Plastic rotation, Rectangular haunch, Seismic behavior

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3 Designing a Single-Floor Structure for the Control Room of a Petroleum Refinery and Assessing the Resistance of Such a Structure against Gas Explosion Load

Authors: Amin Lotfi Eghlim, Mehran pourgholi

Abstract:

Explosion occurs due to sudden release of energy. Common examples of explosion include chemical, atomic, heat, and pressure tank (due to ignition) explosions. Petroleum, gas, and petrochemical industries operations are threatened by natural risks and processes. Fires and explosions are the greatest process risks which cause financial damages. This study aims at designing a single-floor structure for the control room of a petroleum refinery to be resistant against gas explosion loads, and the information related to the structure specifications have been provided regarding the fact that the structure is made on the ground's surface. In this research, the lateral stiffness of single pile is calculated by SPPLN.FOR computer program, and its value for 13624 KN/m single pile has been assessed. The analysis used due to the loading conditions, is dynamic nonlinear analysis with direct integration method.

Keywords: Gas Explosion Load, Petroleum Refinery, Single-Floor Structure

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2 Elastic Lateral Features of a New Glass Fiber Reinforced Gypsum Wall

Authors: Zhengyong Liu, Huiqing Ying

Abstract:

GFRG(Glass Fiber Reinforced Gypsum) wall is a green product which can erect a building fast in prefabricated method, but its application to high-rise residential buildings is limited for its poor lateral stiffness. This paper has proposed a modification to GFRG walls structure to increase its lateral stiffness, which aiming to erect small high-rise residential buildings as load-bearing walls. The elastic finite element analysis to it has shown the lateral deformation feature and the distributions of the axial force and the shear force. The analysis results show that the new GFRG reinforced concrete wall can be used for small high-rise residential buildings.

Keywords: GFRG wall, lateral features, elastic analysis, residential building.

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1 Seismic Behaviour of Steel Frames Investigation with Knee Brace Based on Pushover Analysis

Authors: Mahmoud Miri, Abdolreza Zare, Hossein Abbas zadeh

Abstract:

The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. In this framing system, a special form of diagonal brace connected to a knee element instead of beam-column joint, is investigated. Recently, a similar system was proposed and named as chevron knee bracing system (CKB) which in comparison with the former system has a better energy absorption characteristic and at the same time retains the elastic nature of the structures. Knee bracing can provide a stiffer bracing system but reduces the ductility of the steel frame. Chevron knee bracing can be employed to provide the desired ductility level for a design. In this article, relation between seismic performance and structural parameters of the two above mentioned systems are investigated and compared. Frames with similar dimensions but various heights in both systems are designed according to Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of building, and then based on a non-linear push over static analysis; the seismic parameters such as behavior factor and performance levels are compared.

Keywords: Seismic behaviour, ordinary knee bracing frame, Chevron knee brace, behaviour factor, performance level.

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