Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: lactose

26 Effect of Different Salts on Pseudomonas taetrolens’ Ability to Lactobionic Acid Production

Authors: I. Sarenkova, I. Ciprovica, I. Cinkmanis

Abstract:

Lactobionic acid is a disaccharide formed from gluconic acid and galactose, and produced by oxidation of lactose. Productivity of lactobionic acid by microbial synthesis can be affected by various factors, and one of them is a presence of potassium, magnesium and manganese ions. In order to extend lactobionic acid production efficiency, it is necessary to increase the yield of lactobionic acid by optimising the fermentation conditions and available substrates for Pseudomonas taetrolens growth. The object of the research was to determinate the application of K2HPO4, MnSO4, MgSO4 × 7H2O salts in different concentration for effective lactose oxidation to lactobionic acid by Pseudomonas taetrolens. Pseudomonas taetrolens NCIB 9396 (NCTC, England) and Pseudomonas taetrolens DSM 21104 (DSMZ, Germany) were used for the study. The acid whey was used as the study object. The content of lactose in whey samples was determined using MilcoScanTM Mars (Foss, Denmark) and high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC 20 Prominence, Japan). The content of lactobionic acid in whey samples was determined using the high performance liquid chromatography. The impact of studied salts differs, Mn2+ and Mg2+ ions enhanced fermentation instead of K+ ions. Results approved that Mn2+ and Mg2+ ions are necessary for Pseudomonas taetrolens growth. The study results will help to improve the effectiveness of lactobionic acid production with Pseudomonas taetrolens NCIB 9396 and DSM 21104.

Keywords: lactobionic acid, lactose oxidation, Pseudomonas taetrolens, whey.

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25 Recent Advances in the Valorization of Goat Milk: Nutritional Properties and Production Sustainability

Authors: A. M. Tarola, R. Preti, A. M. Girelli, P. Campana

Abstract:

Goat dairy products are gaining popularity worldwide. In developing countries, but also in many marginal regions of the Mediterranean area, goats represent a great part of the economy and ensure food security. In fact, these small ruminants are able to convert efficiently poor weedy plants and small trees into traditional products of high nutritional quality, showing great resilience to different climatic and environmental conditions. In developed countries, goat milk is appreciated for the presence of health-promoting compounds, bioactive compounds such as conjugated linoleic acids, oligosaccharides, sphingolipids and polyammines. This paper focuses on the recent advances in literature on the nutritional properties of goat milk and on innovative techniques to improve its quality as to become a promising functional food. The environmental sustainability of different methodologies of production has also been examined. Goat milk is valued today as a food of high nutritional value and functional properties as well as small environmental footprint. It is widely consumed in many countries due to high nutritional value, lower allergenic potential, and better digestibility when compared to bovine milk, that makes this product suitable for infants, elderly or sensitive patients. The main differences in chemical composition between a cow and goat milk rely on fat globules that in goat milk are smaller and in fatty acids that present a smaller chain length, while protein, fat, and lactose concentration are comparable. Milk nutritional properties have demonstrated to be strongly influenced by animal diet, genotype, and welfare, but also by season and production systems. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in the dairy industry in goat milk for its relatively high concentration of prebiotics and a good amount of probiotics, which have recently gained importance for their therapeutic potential. Therefore, goat milk is studied as a promising matrix to develop innovative functional foods. In addition to the economic and nutritional value, goat milk is considered a sustainable product for its small environmental footprint, as they require relatively little water and land, and less medical treatments, compared to cow, these characteristics make its production naturally vocated to organic farming. Organic goat milk production has becoming more and more interesting both for farmers and consumers as it can answer to several concerns like environment protection, animal welfare and economical sustainment of rural populations living in marginal lands. These evidences make goat milk an ancient food with novel properties and advantages to be valorized and exploited.

Keywords: Goat milk, nutritional quality, bioactive compounds, sustainable production.

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24 Ultrasound Assisted Cooling Crystallization of Lactose Monohydrate

Authors: Sanjaykumar R. Patel, Parth R. Kayastha

Abstract:

α-lactose monohydrate is widely used in the pharmaceutical industries as an inactive substance that acts as a vehicle or a medium for a drug or other active substance. It is a byproduct of dairy industries, and the recovery of lactose from whey not only boosts the improvement of the economics of whey utilization but also causes a reduction in pollution as lactose recovery can reduce the BOD of whey by more than 80%. In the present study, levels of process parameters were kept as initial lactose concentration (30-50% w/w), sonication amplitude (20-40%), sonication time (2-6 hours), and crystallization temperature (10-20 oC) for the recovery of lactose in ultrasound assisted cooling crystallization. In comparison with cooling crystallization, the use of ultrasound enhanced the lactose recovery by 39.17% (w/w). The parameters were optimized for the lactose recovery using Taguchi Method. The optimum conditions found were initial lactose concentration at level 3 (50% w/w), amplitude of sonication at level 2 (40%), the sonication time at level 3 (6 hours), and crystallization temperature at level 1 (10 °C). The maximum recovery was found to be 85.85% at the optimum conditions. Sonication time and the initial lactose concentration were found to be significant parameters for the lactose recovery.

Keywords: Crystallization, Taguchi method, ultrasound, lactose.

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23 Formulation and Evaluation of Dispersible Tablet of Furosemide for Pediatric Use

Authors: O. Benaziz, A. Dorbane, S. Djeraba

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to formulate a dry dispersible form of furosemide in the context of pediatric dose adjustment. To achieve this, we have produced a set of formulas that will be tested in process and after compression. The formula with the best results will be improved to optimize the final shape of the product. Furosemide is the most widely used pediatric diuretic because of its low toxicity. The manufacturing process was chosen taking into account all the data relating to the active ingredient and the excipients used and complying with the specifications and requirements of dispersible tablets. The process used to prepare these tablets was wet granulation. Different excipients were used: lactose, maize starch, magnesium stearate and two superdisintegrants. The mode of incorporation of super-disintegrant changes with each formula. The use of super-disintegrant in the formula allowed optimization of the disintegration time. Prepared tablets were evaluated for weight, content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, friability and in vitro dissolution test. 

Keywords: Formulation, dispersible tablets, wet granulation, superdisintegrants, disintegration.

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22 Nutritional Potential and Functionality of Whey Powder Influenced by Different Processing Temperature and Storage

Authors: Zarmina Gillani, Nuzhat Huma, Aysha Sameen, Mulazim Hussain Bukhari

Abstract:

Whey is an excellent food ingredient owing to its high nutritive value and its functional properties. However, composition of whey varies depending on composition of milk, processing conditions, processing method, and its whey protein content. The aim of this study was to prepare a whey powder from raw whey and to determine the influence of different processing temperatures (160 and 180 °C) on the physicochemical, functional properties during storage of 180 days and on whey protein denaturation. Results have shown that temperature significantly (P < 0.05) affects the pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), protein total soluble solids, fat and lactose contents. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher foaming capacity (FC), foam stability (FS), whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI), and a lower turbidity and solubility index (SI) were observed in whey powder processed at 160 °C compared to whey powder processed at 180 °C. During storage of 180 days, slow but progressive changes were noticed on the physicochemical and functional properties of whey powder. Reverse phase-HPLC analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of temperature on whey protein contents. Denaturation of β-Lactoglobulin is followed by α-lacalbumin, casein glycomacropeptide (CMP/GMP), and bovine serum albumin (BSA).

Keywords: Whey powder, temperature, denaturation, reverse phase – HPLC.

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21 Isolation and Screening of Fungal Strains for β-Galactosidase Production

Authors: Parmjit S. Panesar, Rupinder Kaur, Ram S. Singh

Abstract:

Enzymes are the biocatalysts which catalyze the biochemical processes and thus have a wide variety of applications in the industrial sector. β-Galactosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.23) also known as lactase, is one of the prime enzymes, which has significant potential in the dairy and food processing industries. It has the capability to catalyze both the hydrolytic reaction for the production of lactose hydrolyzed milk and transgalactosylation reaction for the synthesis of prebiotics such as lactulose and galactooligosaccharides. These prebiotics have various nutritional and technological benefits. Although, the enzyme is naturally present in almonds, peaches, apricots and other variety of fruits and animals, the extraction of enzyme from these sources increases the cost of enzyme. Therefore, focus has been shifted towards the production of low cost enzyme from the microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. As compared to yeast and bacteria, fungal β-galactosidase is generally preferred as being extracellular and thermostable in nature. Keeping the above in view, the present study was carried out for the isolation of the β-galactosidase producing fungal strain from the food as well as the agricultural wastes. A total of more than 100 fungal cultures were examined for their potential in enzyme production. All the fungal strains were screened using X-gal and IPTG as inducers in the modified Czapek Dox Agar medium. Among the various isolated fungal strains, the strain exhibiting the highest enzyme activity was chosen for further phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The strain was identified as Rhizomucor pusillus on the basis of 5.8s RNA gene sequencing data.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, enzyme, fungus, isolation.

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20 Chemical Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Zizyphus lotus Leaves

Authors: Zakaria Boual, Abdellah Kemassi, Toufik Chouana, Philippe Michaud, Mohammed Didi Ould El Hadj

Abstract:

In order to investigate the prebiotic potential of oligosaccharides prepared by chemical hydrolysis of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from Zizyphus lotus leaves, the effect of oligosaccharides on bacterial growth was studied. The chemical composition of WSP was evaluated by colorimetric assays revealed the average values: 7.05±0.73% proteins and 86.21±0.74% carbohydrates, among them 64.81±0.42% is neutral sugar and the rest 16.25±1.62% is uronic acids. The characterization of monosaccharides was determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) was found to be composed of galactose (23.95%), glucose (21.30%), rhamnose (20.28%), arabinose (9.55%), and glucuronic acid (22.95%). The effects of oligosaccharides on the growth of lactic acid bacteria were compared with those of fructooligosaccharide (RP95). The oligosaccharides concentration was 1g/L of Man, Rogosa, Sharpe broth. Bacterial growth was assessed during 2, 4.5, 6.5, 9, 12, 16 and 24 h by measuring the optical density of the cultures at 600 nm (OD600) and pH values. During fermentation, pH in broth cultures decreased from 6.7 to 5.87±0.15. The enumeration of lactic acid bacteria indicated that oligosaccharides led to a significant increase in bacteria (P≤0.05) compared to the control. The fermentative metabolism appeared to be faster on RP95 than on oligosaccharides from Zizyphus lotus leaves. Both RP95 and oligosaccharides showed clear prebiotic effects, but had differences in fermentation kinetics because of to the different degree of polymerization. This study shows the prebiotic effectiveness of oligosaccharides, and provides proof for the selection of leaves of Zizyphus lotus for use as functional food ingredients.

Keywords: Zizyphus lotus, polysaccharides, characterization, prebiotic effects.

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19 Untargeted Small Metabolite Identification from Thermally Treated Tualang Honey

Authors: Lee Suan Chua

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of thermal treatment on Tualang honey sample in terms of honey colour and heat-induced small metabolites. The heating process was carried out in a temperature controlled water batch at 90oC for 4 hours. The honey samples were put in cylinder tubes with the dimension of 1 cm diameter and 10 cm length for homogenous heat transfer. The results found that the thermal treatment produced not only hydroxylmethylfurfural, but also other harmful substances such as phthalic anhydride and radiolytic byproducts. The degradation of honey protein was due to the detection of free amino acids such as cysteine and phenylalanine in heat-treated honey samples. Sugar dehydration was also occurred because fragmented di-galactose was identified based on the presence of characteristic ions in the mass fragmentation pattern. The honey colour was found getting darker as the heating duration was increased up to 4 hours. Approximately, 60 mm PFund of increment was noticed for the honey colour with the colour change rate of 14.8 mm PFund per hour. Based on the principal component analysis, the score plot clearly shows that the chemical profile of Tualang honey was significantly altered after 2 hours of heating at 90oC.

Keywords: Honey colour, hydroxylmethylfurfural, thermal treatment, Tualang honey.

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18 Utilization of Whey for the Production of β-Galactosidase Using Yeast and Fungal Culture

Authors: Rupinder Kaur, Parmjit S. Panesar, Ram S. Singh

Abstract:

Whey is the lactose rich by-product of the dairy industry, having good amount of nutrient reservoir. Most abundant nutrients are lactose, soluble proteins, lipids and mineral salts. Disposing of whey by most of milk plants which do not have proper pre-treatment system is the major issue. As a result of which, there can be significant loss of potential food and energy source. Thus, whey has been explored as the substrate for the synthesis of different value added products such as enzymes. β-galactosidase is one of the important enzymes and has become the major focus of research due to its ability to catalyze both hydrolytic as well as transgalactosylation reaction simultaneously. The enzyme is widely used in dairy industry as it catalyzes the transformation of lactose to glucose and galactose, making it suitable for the lactose intolerant people. The enzyme is intracellular in both bacteria and yeast, whereas for molds, it has an extracellular location. The present work was carried to utilize the whey for the production of β-galactosidase enzyme using both yeast and fungal cultures. The yeast isolate Kluyveromyces marxianus WIG2 and various fungal strains have been used in the present study. Different disruption techniques have also been investigated for the extraction of the enzyme produced intracellularly from yeast cells. Among the different methods tested for the disruption of yeast cells, SDS-chloroform showed the maximum β-galactosidase activity. In case of the tested fungal cultures, Aureobasidium pullulans NCIM 1050 was observed to be the maximum extracellular enzyme producer.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, fungus, yeast, whey.

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17 Studying the Effect of Ethanol and Operating Temperature on Purification of Lactulose Syrup Containing Lactose

Authors: N. Zanganeh, M. Zabet

Abstract:

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide which has remarkable applications in food and pharmaceutical fields. Lactulose is not found in nature and it is produced by isomerization reaction of lactose in an alkaline environment. It should be noted that this reaction has a very low yield since significant amount of lactose stays un-reacted in the system. Basically, purification of lactulose is difficult and costly. Previous studies have revealed that solubility of lactose and lactulose are significantly different in ethanol. Considering the fact that solubility is also affected by temperature itself, we investigated the effect of ethanol and temperature on separation process of lactose from the syrup containing lactose and lactulose. For this purpose, a saturated solution containing lactulose and lactose was made at three different temperatures; 25⁰C (room temperature), 31⁰C, and 37⁰C first.  Five samples containing 2g saturated solution was taken and then 2g, 3g, 4g, 5g, and 6g ethanol separately was added to the sampling tubes. Sampling tubes were kept at respective temperatures afterward. The concentration of lactose and lactulose after separation process measured and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that ethanol has such a greater impact than operating temperature on purification process. Also, it was observed that the maximum rate of separation occurred at initial amount of added ethanol.

Keywords: Ethanol, lactose, lactulose syrup, purification.

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16 Effect of Humidity on in-Process Crystallization of Lactose during Spray Drying

Authors: Amirali Ebrahimi, T. A. G. Langrish

Abstract:

The effect of various humidities on process yields and degrees of crystallinity for spray-dried powders from spray drying of lactose with humid air in a straight-through system have been studied. It has been suggested by Williams–Landel–Ferry kinetics (WLF) that a higher particle temperature and lower glass-transition temperature would increase the crystallization rate of the particles during the spray-drying process. Freshly humidified air produced by a Buchi-B290 spray dryer as a humidifier attached to the main spray dryer decreased the particle glass-transition temperature (Tg), while allowing the particle temperature (Tp) to reach higher values by using an insulated drying chamber. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and moisture sorption analysis were used to measure the degree of crystallinity for the spray-dried lactose powders. The results showed that higher Tp-Tg, as a result of applying humid air, improved the process yield from 21 ± 4 to 26 ± 2% and crystallinity of the particles by decreasing the latent heat of crystallization from 43 ± 1 to 30 ± 11 J/g and the sorption peak height from 7.3 ± 0.7% to 6 ± 0.7%.

Keywords: Lactose, crystallization, spray drying, humid air.

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15 Statistical Modeling for Permeabilization of a Novel Yeast Isolate for β-Galactosidase Activity Using Organic Solvents

Authors: Shweta Kumari, Parmjit S. Panesar, Manab B. Bera

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, optimization, permeabilization, response surface methodology, yeast.

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14 Development and Optimization of Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System of Ayurvedic Churna Formulation Using Eudragit L100 and Ethyl Cellulose as Coating Material

Authors: Anil Bhandari, Imran Khan Pathan, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to prepare time and pH dependent release tablets of Ayurvedic Churna formulation and evaluate their advantages as colon targeted drug delivery system. The Vidangadi Churna was selected for this study which contains Embelin and Gallic acid. Embelin is used in Helminthiasis as therapeutic agent. Embelin is insoluble in water and unstable in gastric environment so it was formulated in time and pH dependent tablets coated with combination of two polymers Eudragit L100 and ethyl cellulose. The 150mg of core tablet of dried extract and lactose were prepared by wet granulation method. The compression coating was used in the polymer concentration of 150mg for both the layer as upper and lower coating tablet was investigated. The results showed that no release was found in 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffers for initial 5 hours and about 98.97% of the drug was released in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer in total 17 Hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed first order kinetics as highest linearity (r2= 0.9943). The results of the present study have demonstrated that the time and pH dependent tablets system is a promising vehicle for preventing rapid hydrolysis in gastric environment and improving oral bioavailability of Embelin and Gallic acid for treatment of Helminthiasis.

Keywords: Embelin, Gallic acid, Vidangadi Churna, Colon targeted drug delivery.

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13 Characterization of a Novel Galactose-Binding Lectin Homologue from Tenebrio molitor

Authors: JiEun Jeong, Dong Hyun Kim, Bharat Bhusan Patnaik, Se Won Kang, HeeJu Hwang, Yong Hun Jo, Dae-Hyun Seog, YeonSooHan, Yong Seok Lee

Abstract:

An expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis provideus portions of expressed genes. We have constructed cDNA library and determined randomly sequences from cDNA library clones of T. molitor injected with acholeplasma lysate. We identified the homologous to a galectin gene. As the result of cloning and characterization of novel, we found that the protein has an open reading frame (ORF) of 495 bp, with 164 amino acid residues and molecular weight of 18.5 kDa. To characterize the role of novel Tm-galectin in immune system, we quantified the mRNA level of galectin at different times after treatment with immune elicitors. The galectin mRNA was up-regulated about 7-folds within 18 hrs. This suggests that Tm-galectin is a novel member of animal lectins, and has a role in the process of pathogen recognition. Our study would be helpful for the study on immune defense system and signaling cascade.

Keywords: EST, Innate immunity, Tenebrio molitor, Galectin.

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12 Characterization of Lactose Consumption during the Biogas Production from Acid Whey by FT-IR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Rugele, M. Gavare, M. Grube, K. Tihomirova, E. Skripsts, S. Larsson, J. Rubulis

Abstract:

The consumption of lactose in acid cheese whey anaerobic fermentation process under fed-batch conditions was studied. During fermentation for 100 hours the biogas production (CO2 and CH4) was analyzed online. Among the standard analyses FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the consumption of lactose by bacteria. The absorption bands at 990, 894 and 787 cm-1 in the 2nd derivative spectra were shown to be characteristic for lactose and were used to follow the lactose conversion. It was shown that acid cheese whey lactose was converted by bacteria in first 7 hours. In the spectra of 17, 18 and 95 hour fermentation samples lactose was not identified and these results correlated with the HPLC data.

Keywords: Acid whey, anaerobic digestion, biogas, FT-IR spectroscopy, lactose consumption.

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11 Effects of Feeding Glycerol to Lactating Dairy Cows on Milk Production and Composition

Authors: Pipat Lounglawan, Wassana Lounglawan, Wisitiporm Suksombat

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding glycerol on dairy cows performance. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in early lactation; averaging 13+2.4 kg of milk, 64+45 days in milk, 55+16 months old and 325+26 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. All cows were fed approximate 8 kg of concentrate together with ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Nil or 150 and 300g of glycerol were supplemented to the cows according to treatment groups. All cows consumed similar concentrate, corn silage and total DM and NELP. There were no significant differences in DM intake, CP intake, NELP intake, milk and milk composition yields. All cows had similar fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat and total solid percentage. All cows gain similar live weight. The present study indicated that, supplementation of glycerol did not enhance milk yield, milk composition and live weight change.

Keywords: Glycerol, Milk production and composition, Dairycattle

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10 Effect of Tonilisat and Roemin W2 Supplementations on the Performance of Lambs

Authors: A. M. Ismaiel, Ali Hafez El-Far, Abou-Ganema I. I

Abstract:

A thirty Rahmani weaned male lambs of average body weight (27.28±1.40 kg) were randomly allotted to three similar groups, ten lambs in each, to study the benefit of commercial feed additives Tonilisat (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Roemin W2 (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium and Lactose) as growth promoters on lambs performance, digestibility, rumen activity and some blood constituents. The experiment lasted about 107 days. Three experimental groups were allotted as control group: received the basal ration, T1 group: received the basal ration supplemented with Tonilisat as (0.5kg/ ton concentrate feed mixture) and T2 group: received the basal ration supplemented with Roemin W2 (1kg/ ton concentrate feed mixture). Our study revealed that addition of Tonilisat significantly increased digestion coefficient of crude protein than that of the control group, Furthermore, the supplementation of Tonilisat or Roemin W2 increased (p<0.05) crude fiber digestibility than control group. Total digestible nutrients and crude digestible protein were not significantly changed between treatments. Retained nitrogen was higher in treated lamb groups than untreated but the different was non significant. Rumen activity of different rations showed that volatile fatty acids concentrations for Tonilisat and Roemin W2 groups were higher than control group, but the differences were not significant. There are no significant changes between groups in tested blood parameters but in T1 group ALT and AST were decreased. Conclusion: Supplementation of the lamb's rations with probiotics had a non significant effect (p<0.05) on blood constituents. While, growth performance and economic efficiency revealed that Tonilisat supplemented lambs had the best average daily gain followed by Roemin W2 treated group in comparison with control group. The best economic efficiency was recorded for T1 which fed Tonilisat followed by control group at whole period.

Keywords: Rahmani sheep, Tonilisat, Roemin W2, Growth, Performance.

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9 Long-term Irrigation with Dairy Factory Wastewater Influences Soil Quality

Authors: Yen-Yiu Liu, Richard J. Haynes

Abstract:

The effects of irrigation with dairy factory wastewater on soil properties were investigated at two sites that had received irrigation for > 60 years. Two adjoining paired sites that had never received DFE were also sampled as well as another seven fields from a wider area around the factory. In comparison with paired sites that had not received effluent, long-term wastewater irrigation resulted in an increase in pH, EC, extractable P, exchangeable Na and K and ESP. These changes were related to the use of phosphoric acid, NaOH and KOH as cleaning agents in the factory. Soil organic C content was unaffected by DFE irrigation but the size (microbial biomass C and N) and activity (basal respiration) of the soil microbial community were increased. These increases were attributed to regular inputs of soluble C (e.g. lactose) present as milk residues in the wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the soils data from all 11sites confirmed that the main effects of DFE irrigation were an increase in exchangeable Na, extractable P and microbial biomass C, an accumulation of soluble salts and a liming effect. PCA analysis of soil bacterial community structure, using PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA fragments, generally separated individual sites from one another but did not group them according to irrigation history. Thus, whilst the size and activity of the soil microbial community were increased, the structure and diversity of the bacterial community remained unaffected.

Keywords: Dairy factory, wastewater; effluent, irrigation, soil quality.

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8 Long- term Irrigation with Dairy Factory Wastewater Influences Soil Quality

Authors: Yen-Yiu Liu, Richard J. Haynes

Abstract:

The effects of irrigation with dairy factory wastewater on soil properties were investigated at two sites that had received irrigation for > 60 years. Two adjoining paired sites that had never received DFE were also sampled as well as another seven fields from a wider area around the factory. In comparison with paired sites that had not received effluent, long-term wastewater irrigation resulted in an increase in pH, EC, extractable P, exchangeable Na and K and ESP. These changes were related to the use of phosphoric acid, NaOH and KOH as cleaning agents in the factory. Soil organic C content was unaffected by DFE irrigation but the size (microbial biomass C and N) and activity (basal respiration) of the soil microbial community were increased. These increases were attributed to regular inputs of soluble C (e.g. lactose) present as milk residues in the wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the soils data from all 11sites confirmed that the main effects of DFE irrigation were an increase in exchangeable Na, extractable P and microbial biomass C, an accumulation of soluble salts and a liming effect. PCA analysis of soil bacterial community structure, using PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA fragments, generally separated individual sites from one another but did not group them according to irrigation history. Thus, whilst the size and activity of the soil microbial community were increased, the structure and diversity of the bacterial community remained unaffected.

Keywords: Dairy factory, wastewater; effluent, irrigation, soil quality.

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7 Some Peculiarities of Growth and Functional Activity of Escherichia coli Strain from Probiotic Formula “ASAP“

Authors: Marine A. Balayan, Susanna S. Mirzabekyan, Marine Isajanyan, Zaven S. Pepoyan, Аrmen H. Trchounian, Аstghik Z. Pepoyan, Helena Bujdakova

Abstract:

It has been shown that pH 7,3 and 37 0C are the optimal condition for the growth of E. coli “ASAP". The cells grow well on Glucose, Lactose, D-Mannitol, D-Sorbitol, (+)-Xylose, L- (+)-Arabinose and Dulcitol. No growth has been observed on Sucrose, Inositol, Phenylalanine, and Tryptophan. The strain is sensitive to a range of antibiotics. The present study has demonstrated that E. coli “ASAP" inhibit the growth of S. enterica ATCC #700931 in vitro. The studies on conjugating activity has revealed no conjugant of E. coli “ASAP" with plasmid strains E. coli G35#59 and S. enterica ATCC #700931. On the other hand, the conjugants with low frequencies were obtained from E. coli “ASAP" with E. coli G35#61, and E. coli “ASAP" with randomly chosen isolate from healthy human gut microflora: E. coli E6. The results of present study have demonstrated improvements in gut microflora condition of patients with different diseases after the administration of “ASAP"

Keywords: E. coli, ASAP, Probiotic formula, gut microflora.

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6 Application of Central Composite Design Based Response Surface Methodology in Parameter Optimization and on Cellulase Production Using Agricultural Waste

Authors: R.Muthuvelayudham, T.Viruthagiri

Abstract:

Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a powerful and efficient mathematical approach widely applied in the optimization of cultivation process. Cellulase enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei RutC30 using agricultural waste rice straw and banana fiber as carbon source were investigated. In this work, sequential optimization strategy based statistical design was employed to enhance the production of cellulase enzyme through submerged cultivation. A fractional factorial design (26-2) was applied to elucidate the process parameters that significantly affect cellulase production. Temperature, Substrate concentration, Inducer concentration, pH, inoculum age and agitation speed were identified as important process parameters effecting cellulase enzyme synthesis. The concentration of lignocelluloses and lactose (inducer) in the cultivation medium were found to be most significant factors. The steepest ascent method was used to locate the optimal domain and a Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to estimate the quadratic response surface from which the factor levels for maximum production of cellulase were determined.

Keywords: Banana fiber, Cellulase, Optimization, Rice straw

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5 Biological Effects of a Carbohydrate-Binding Protein from an Annelid, Perinereis nuntia Against Human and Phytopathogenic Microorganisms

Authors: Sarkar M. A. Kawsar, Sarkar M. A. Mamun, Md S. Rahman, Hidetaro Yasumitsu, Yasuhiro Ozeki

Abstract:

Lectins have a good scope in current clinical microbiology research. In the present study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of a D-galactose binding lectin (PnL) was purified from the annelid, Perinereis nuntia (polychaeta) by affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the lectin was determined to be 32 kDa as a single polypeptide by SDS-PAGE under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. The hemagglutinating activity of the PnL showed against trypsinized and glutaraldehyde-fixed human erythrocytes was specifically inhibited by D-Gal, GalNAc, Galβ1-4Glc and Galα1-6Glc. PnL was evaluated for in vitro antibacterial screening studies against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. From the screening results, it was revealed that PnL exhibited significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. Bacillus megaterium showed the highest growth inhibition by the lectin (250 μg/disc). However, PnL did not inhibit the growth of gram-negative bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas sp. PnL was also examined for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal phytopathogens. PnL (100 μg/mL) inhibited the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata (24.4%). These results indicate that future findings of lectin applications obtained from annelids may be of importance to life sciences.

Keywords: Perinereis nuntia, Lectin, Inhibition zone, Mycelial growth.

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4 In Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of a 30 kDa D-Galactoside-Specific Lectin from the Demosponge, Halichondria okadai

Authors: Sarkar M. A. Kawsar, Sarkar M. A. Mamun, Md S. Rahman, Hidetaro Yasumitsu, Yasuhiro Ozeki

Abstract:

The present study has been taken to explore the screening of in vitro antimicrobial activities of D-galactose-binding sponge lectin (HOL-30). HOL-30 was purified from the marine demosponge Halichondria okadai by affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the lectin was determined to be 30 kDa with a single polypeptide by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions. HOL-30 agglutinated trypsinized and glutaraldehydefixed rabbit and human erythrocytes with preference for type O erythrocytes. The lectin was subjected to evaluation for inhibition of microbial growth by the disc diffusion method against eleven human pathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The lectin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis. However, it did not affect against gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. The largest zone of inhibition was recorded of Bacillus megaterium (12 in diameter) and Bacillus subtilis (10 mm in diameter) at a concentration of the lectin (250 μg/disc). On the other hand, the antifungal activity of the lectin was investigated against six phytopathogenic fungi based on food poisoning technique. The lectin has shown maximum inhibition (22.83%) of mycelial growth of Botrydiplodia theobromae at a concentration of 100 μg/mL media. These findings indicate that the lectin may be of importance to clinical microbiology and have therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Halichondria okadai, Inhibition zone, Lectin.

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3 Comparison of Nutritional and Chemical Parameters of Soymilk and Cow milk

Authors: Bahareh Hajirostamloo

Abstract:

Cow milk, is a product of the mammary gland and soymilk is a beverage made from soybeans; it is the liquid that remains after soybeans are soaked. In this research effort, we compared nutritional parameters of this two kind milk such as total fat, fiber, protein, minerals (Ca, Fe and P), fatty acids, carbohydrate, lactose, water, total solids, ash, pH, acidity and calories content in one cup (245 g). Results showed soymilk contains 4.67 grams of fat, 0.52 of fatty acids, 3.18 of fiber, 6.73 of protein, 4.43 of carbohydrate, 0.00 of lactose, 228.51 of water, 10.40 of total solids and 0.66 of ash, also 9.80 milligrams of Ca, 1.42 of Fe, and 120.05 of P, 79 Kcal of calories, pH=6.74 and acidity was 0.24%. Cow milk contains 8.15 grams of fat, 5.07 of fatty acids, 0.00 of fiber, 8.02 of protein, 11.37 of carbohydrate, ´Çá4.27 of lactose, 214.69 of water, 12.90 of total solids, 1.75 of ash, 290.36 milligrams of Ca, 0.12 of Fe, and 226.92 of P, 150 Kcal of calories, pH=6.90 and acidity was 0.21% . Soy milk is one of plant-based complete proteins and cow milk is a rich source of nutrients as well. Cow milk is containing near twice as much fat as and ten times more fatty acids do soymilk. Cow milk contains greater amounts of mineral (except Fe) it contain more than three hundred times the amount of Ca and nearly twice the amount of P as does soymilk but soymilk contains more Fe (ten time more) than does cow milk. Cow milk and soy milk contain nearly identical amounts of protein and water and fiber is a big plus, dairy has none. Although what we choose to drink is really a mater of personal preference and our health objectives but looking at the comparison, soy looks like healthier choices.

Keywords: Soymilk, cow milk, nutritional, comparison.

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2 Flow Properties of Commercial Infant Formula Powders

Authors: Maja Benkovic, Ingrid Bauman

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to investigate flow properties of powdered infant formula samples. Samples were purchased at a local pharmacy and differed in composition. Lactose free infant formula, gluten free infant formula and infant formulas containing dietary fibers and probiotics were tested and compared with a regular infant formula sample which did not contain any of these supplements. Particle size and bulk density were determined and their influence on flow properties was discussed. There were no significant differences in bulk densities of the samples, therefore the connection between flow properties and bulk density could not be determined. Lactose free infant formula showed flow properties different to standard supplement-free sample. Gluten free infant formula with addition of probiotic microorganisms and dietary fiber had the narrowest particle size distribution range and exhibited the best flow properties. All the other samples exhibited the same tendency of decreasing compaction coefficient with increasing flow speed, which means they all become freer flowing with higher flow speeds.

Keywords: flow properties, infant formula, powderedmaterial

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1 Production of Milk Clotting Protease by Rhizopus Stolonifer through Optimization of Culture Conditions

Authors: S. Gais, F. Fazouane, A. Mechakra

Abstract:

The present study describes the biosynthesis of a milkclotting protease by solid state fermentation (SSF) of a locally isolated mould, Rhizopus stolonifer. The production medium was prepared using wheat bran at 50% (w/v). The production conditions are optimized by varying 7 parameters: carbon and nitrogen sources, medium moisture, temperature, pH, fermentation time and inoculum-s size. The maximum enzyme synthesis was measured after 96 h of incubation time at temperature of 28°C. The optimum pH determined was 6 and the inoculum size was 3.106spores/ml. The optimum initial moisture content is comprised between 50 to 70%. The formation of milk clotting protease is enhanced when galactose and peptone are used at 10% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) concentrations respectively. The maximum production of milk clotting protease is 120 US/ml.

Keywords: Milk clotting activity, protease production, Rhizopus stolonifer, Solid state fermentation.

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