Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: interfacial tension

56 Screening of Minimal Salt Media for Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus spp.

Authors: Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry, A. E. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bemani, S. J. Joshi, A. K. Al-Bahri

Abstract:

Crude oil is a major source of global energy. The major problem is its widespread use and demand resulted is in increasing environmental pollution. One associated pollution problem is ‘oil spills’. Oil spills can be remediated with the use of chemical dispersants, microbial biodegradation and microbial metabolites such as biosurfactants. Four different minimal salt media for biosurfactant production by Bacillus isolated from oil contaminated sites from Oman were screened. These minimal salt media were supplemented with either glucose or sucrose as a carbon source. Among the isolates, W16 and B30 produced the most active biosurfactants. Isolate W16 produced better biosurfactant than the rest, and reduced surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) to 25.26mN/m and 2.29mN/m respectively within 48h which are characteristics for removal of oil in contaminated sites. Biosurfactant was produced in bulk and extracted using acid precipitation method. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of acid precipitate biosurfactant revealed two concentrated bands. Further studies of W16 biosurfactant in bioremediation of oil spills are recommended.

Keywords: Oil contamination, remediation, Bacillus spp, biosurfactant, surface tension, interfacial tension.

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55 Numerical Simulation of Interfacial Flow with Volume-Of-Fluid Method

Authors: Afshin Ahmadi Nadooshan

Abstract:

In this article, various models of surface tension force (CSF, CSS and PCIL) for interfacial flows have been applied to dynamic case and the results were compared. We studied the Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities, which are produced by shear at the interface between two fluids with different physical properties. The velocity inlet is defined as a sinusoidal perturbation. When gravity and surface tension are taking into account, we observe the development of the Instability for a critic value of the difference of velocity of the both fluids. The VOF Model enables to simulate Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability as dynamic case.

Keywords: Interfacial flow, Incompressible flow, surface tension, Volume-Of-Fluid, Kelvin-Helmholtz.

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54 Effect of Greywater Irrigation on Air-Water Interfacial area in Porous Medium

Authors: A. H. M. Faisal Anwar

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of greywater irrigation on airwater interfacial area is investigated. Several soil column experiments were conducted for different greywater irrigation to develop the pressure-saturation curves. Surface tension was measured for different greywater concentration and fitted for Gibbs adsorption equation. Pressure-saturation curves show that the reduction of capillary rise stops when it reaches its critical micelle concentration (CMC). A simple theory is derived from pressure-saturation curves for calculating air-water interfacial area in porous medium during greywater irrigation by introducing a term 'hydraulic radius' for the pores. This term diminishes any effect of pore shapes on the air-water interfacial area. The air-water interfacial area was calculated using the pressure-saturation curves and found that it decreases with increasing moisture content. But no significant effect was observed on air-water interfacial area for different greywater irrigation. A maximum of 10% variation in interfacial area was observed at the residual saturation zone.

Keywords: Greywater, Irrigation, Interfacial area, Surface tension, Porous medium.

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53 Generalization of SGIP Surface Tension Force Model in Three-Dimensional Flows and Compare to Other Models in Interfacial Flows

Authors: Afshin Ahmadi Nadooshan, Ebrahim Shirani

Abstract:

In this paper, the two-dimensional stagger grid interface pressure (SGIP) model has been generalized and presented into three-dimensional form. For this purpose, various models of surface tension force for interfacial flows have been investigated and compared with each other. The VOF method has been used for tracking the interface. To show the ability of the SGIP model for three-dimensional flows in comparison with other models, pressure contours, maximum spurious velocities, norm spurious flow velocities and pressure jump error for motionless drop of liquid and bubble of gas are calculated using different models. It has been pointed out that SGIP model in comparison with the CSF, CSS and PCIL models produces the least maximum and norm spurious velocities. Additionally, the new model produces more accurate results in calculating the pressure jumps across the interface for motionless drop of liquid and bubble of gas which is generated in surface tension force.

Keywords: Volume-of-Fluid; SGIP model; CSS model; CSF model; PCIL model; surface tension force; spurious currents.

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52 Bio-Surfactant Production and Its Application in Microbial EOR

Authors: A. Rajesh Kanna, G. Suresh Kumar, Sathyanaryana N. Gummadi

Abstract:

There are various sources of energies available worldwide and among them, crude oil plays a vital role. Oil recovery is achieved using conventional primary and secondary recovery methods. In-order to recover the remaining residual oil, technologies like Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) are utilized which is also known as tertiary recovery. Among EOR, Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technique which enables the improvement of oil recovery by injection of bio-surfactant produced by microorganisms. Bio-surfactant can retrieve unrecoverable oil from the cap rock which is held by high capillary force. Bio-surfactant is a surface active agent which can reduce the interfacial tension and reduce viscosity of oil and thereby oil can be recovered to the surface as the mobility of the oil is increased. Research in this area has shown promising results besides the method is echo-friendly and cost effective compared with other EOR techniques. In our research, on laboratory scale we produced bio-surfactant using the strain Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 2467) and injected into designed simple sand packed column which resembles actual petroleum reservoir. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the efficiency of produced bio-surfactant in oil recovery. The column was made of plastic material with 10 cm in length. The diameter was 2.5 cm. The column was packed with fine sand material. Sand was saturated with brine initially followed by oil saturation. Water flooding followed by bio-surfactant injection was done to determine the amount of oil recovered. Further, the injection of bio-surfactant volume was varied and checked how effectively oil recovery can be achieved. A comparative study was also done by injecting Triton X 100 which is one of the chemical surfactant. Since, bio-surfactant reduced surface and interfacial tension oil can be easily recovered from the porous sand packed column.

Keywords: Bio-surfactant, Bacteria, Interfacial tension, Sand column.

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51 Effect of Tethers Tension Force in the Behavior of a Tension Leg Platform Subjected to Hydrodynamic Force

Authors: Amr R. El-Gamal, Ashraf Essa, Ayman Ismail

Abstract:

The tension leg platform (TLP) is one of the compliant structures which are generally used for deep water oil exploration. With respect to the horizontal degrees of freedom, it behaves like a floating structure moored by vertical tethers which are pretension due to the excess buoyancy of the platform, whereas with respect to the vertical degrees of freedom, it is stiff and resembles a fixed structure and is not allowed to float freely. In the current study, a numerical study for square TLP using modified Morison equation was carried out in the time domain with water particle kinematics using Airy’s linear wave theory to investigate the effect of changing the tether tension force on the stiffness matrix of TLP's, the dynamic behavior of TLP's; and on the fatigue stresses in the cables. The effect was investigated for different parameters of the hydrodynamic forces such as wave periods, and wave heights. The numerical study takes into consideration the effect of coupling between various degrees of freedom. The stiffness of the TLP was derived from a combination of hydrostatic restoring forces and restoring forces due to cables. Nonlinear equation was solved using Newmark’s beta integration method. Only uni-directional waves in the surge direction was considered in the analysis. It was found that for short wave periods (i.e. 10 sec.), the surge response consisted of small amplitude oscillations about a displaced position that is significantly dependent on tether tension force, wave height; whereas for longer wave periods, the surge response showed high amplitude oscillations that is significantly dependent on wave height, and that special attention should be given to tethers fatigue because of their high tensile static and dynamic stress.

Keywords: Tethers tension, tension leg platforms, hydrodynamic wave forces, wave characteristic.

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50 Evaluation of Tension Capacity of Pile (Case Study in Sandy Soil)

Authors: Shooshpasha I., Kiakojoori M., Mirzagoltabar R. A.

Abstract:

High building constructions are increasing in south beaches of the Caspian Sea because of tourist attractions and limitation of residential areas. According to saturated alluvial fields transfer of load from high structures to the soil by piles is inevitable. In spite of most of these piles are under compression forces, tension piles are used in special conditions. Few studies have been conducted because of the limited use of these piles. Tension capacity of openended pipe piles in full scale was tested in this study. The length of the bored piles was 420 up to 480 cm and all were in 120 cm diameter. The results of testing 7 piles were compared with the results of relations given by researches.

Keywords: piles, tension capacity, sand, shaft friction

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49 Approximate Tension Buckling Capacity of Thin Edge-Cracked Web Plate Subjected to Pure Bending

Authors: Sebastian B. Mendes

Abstract:

The presence of a vertical edge-crack within a web plate subjected to pure bending induces local compressive stresses about the crack which may cause tension buckling. Approximate theoretical expressions were derived for the critical far-field tensile stress and bending moment capacity of an edge-cracked web plate associated with tension buckling. These expressions were validated with finite element analyses and used to investigate the possibility of tension buckling in web-cracked trial girders. It was found that tension buckling is an unlikely occurrence unless the web is relatively thin or the crack is very long.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, tension buckling, Rayleigh-Ritz, structural stability.

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48 Elastic Strain-Concentration Factor of Cylindrical Bars with Circumferential Flat-Bottom Groove under Static Tension

Authors: Hitham M. Tlilan

Abstract:

Using finite element method (FEM), the elastic new strain-concentration factor (SNCF) of cylindrical bars with circumferential flat-bottom groove is studied. This new SNCF has been defined under triaxial stress state. The employed specimens have constant groove depth with net section and gross diameters of 10.0 and 16.7 mm, respectively. The length of flatness ao has been varied form 0.0 ~12.5 mm to study the elastic SNCF of this type of geometrical irregularities. The results that the elastic new SNCF rapidly drops from its elastic value of the groove with ao = 0.0, i.e. circumferential U-notch, and reaches minimum value at ao = 2 mm. After that the elastic new SNCF becomes nearly constant with increasing flatness length (ao). The value of tensile load at yielding at the groove root increases with increasing ao. The current results show that severity of the notch decreases with increasing flatness length ao.

Keywords: Bar, groove, strain, tension

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47 Elastic Strain-Concentration Factor of Notched Bars under Combined Loading of Static Tension and Pure Bending

Authors: Hitham M. Tlilan

Abstract:

The effect of notch depth on the elastic new strainconcentration factor (SNCF) of rectangular bars with single edge Unotch under combined loading is studied here. The finite element method (FEM) and super position technique are used in the current study. This new SNCF under combined loading of static tension and pure bending has been defined under triaxial stress state. The employed specimens have constant gross thickness of 16.7 mm and net section thickness varied to give net-to-gross thickness ratio ho/Ho from 0.2 to 0.95. The results indicated that the elastic SNCF for combined loading increases with increasing notch depth up to ho/Ho = 0.7 and sharply decreases with increasing notch depth. It is also indicated that the elastic SNCF of combined loading is greater than that of pure bending and less than that of the static tension for 0.2 ≤ ho/Ho ≤ 0.7. However, the elastic SNCF of combined loading is the elastic SNCF for static tension and less than that of pure bending for shallow notches (i.e. 0.8 ≤ ho/Ho ≤ 0.95).

Keywords: Bar, notch, strain, tension, bending

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46 Effect of Different Types of Nano/Micro Fillers on the Interfacial Shear Properties of Polyamide 6 with De-Sized Carbon Fiber

Authors: Mohamed H. Gabr, Kiyoshi Uzawa

Abstract:

The current study aims to investigate the effect of fillers with different geometries and sizes on the interfacial shear properties of PA6 composites with de-sized carbon fiber. The fillers which have been investigated are namely; nano-layer silicates (nanoclay), sub-micro aluminum titanium (ALTi) particles, and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), epoxide group which defined as a sizing agent, has been removed. Sizing removal can reduce the acid parameter of carbon fibers surface promoting bonding strength at the fiber/matrix interface which is a desirable property for the carbon fiber composites. Microdroplet test showed that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) has been enhanced with the addition of 10wt% ALTi by about 23% comparing with neat PA6. However, with including other types of fillers into PA6, the results did not show enhancement of IFSS.

Keywords: Sub-micro-filler, nano-composites, interfacial shear strength, polyamide.

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45 Influence of Tether Length in the Response Behavior of Square Tension Leg Platform in Regular Waves

Authors: Amr R. El-Gamal, Ashraf Essa, Ayman Ismail

Abstract:

The tension leg platform (TLP) is a vertically moored structure with excess buoyancy. The TLP is regarded as moored structure in horizontal plan, while inherit stiffness of fixed platform in vertical plane. In this paper, a numerical study using modified Morison equation was carried out in the time domain to investigate the influence of nonlinearities due to hydrodynamic forces and the coupling effect between surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch and yaw degrees of freedom on the dynamic behavior of TLP's. The stiffness of the TLP was derived from a combination of hydrostatic restoring forces and restoring forces due to cables and the nonlinear equations of motion were solved utilizing Newmark’s beta integration scheme. The effect of tethers length and wave characteristics such as wave period and wave height on the response of TLP's was evaluated.

Only uni-directional waves in the surge direction was considered in the analysis. It was found that for short wave periods (i.e. 10 sec.), the surge response consisted of small amplitude oscillations about a displaced position that is significantly dependent on tether length, wave height; whereas for longer wave periods, the surge response showed high amplitude oscillations about that is significantly dependent on tether length.

Keywords: Hydrodynamic wave forces, tension leg platforms, tethers length, wave characteristic.

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44 Large Strain Compression-Tension Behavior of AZ31B Rolled Sheet in the Rolling Direction

Authors: A. Yazdanmehr, H. Jahed

Abstract:

Being made with the lightest commercially available industrial metal, Magnesium (Mg) alloys are of interest for light-weighting. Expanding their application to different material processing methods requires Mg properties at large strains. Several room-temperature processes such as shot and laser peening and hole cold expansion need compressive large strain data. Two methods have been proposed in the literature to obtain the stress-strain curve at high strains: 1) anti-buckling guides and 2) small cubic samples. In this paper, an anti-buckling fixture is used with the help of digital image correlation (DIC) to obtain the compression-tension (C-T) of AZ31B-H24 rolled sheet at large strain values of up to 10.5%. The effect of the anti-bucking fixture on stress-strain curves is evaluated experimentally by comparing the results with those of the compression tests of cubic samples. For testing cubic samples, a new fixture has been designed to increase the accuracy of testing cubic samples with DIC strain measurements. Results show a negligible effect of anti-buckling on stress-strain curves, specifically at high strain values.

Keywords: Large strain, compression-tension, loading-unloading, Mg alloys.

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43 Numerical Implementation of an Interfacial Edge Dislocation Solution in a Multi-Layered Medium

Authors: Aditya Khanna, Andrei Kotousov

Abstract:

A novel method is presented for obtaining the stress field induced by an edge dislocation in a multilayered composite. To demonstrate the applications of the obtained solution, we consider the problem of an interfacial crack in a periodically layered bimaterial medium. The crack is modelled as a continuous distribution of edge dislocations and the Distributed Dislocation Technique (DDT) is utilized to obtain numerical results for the energy release rate (ERR). The numerical implementation of the dislocation solution in MATLAB is also provided.

Keywords: Distributed dislocation technique, Edge dislocation, Elastic field, Interfacial crack, Multi-layered composite.

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42 Investigation on the Stability of Rock Slopes Subjected to Tension Cracks via Limit Analysis

Authors: W. Wu, S. Utili

Abstract:

Based on the kinematic approach of limit analysis, a full set of upper bound solutions for the stability of homogeneous rock slopes subjected to tension cracks are obtained. The generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion is employed to describe the non-linear strength envelope of rocks. In this paper, critical failure mechanisms are determined for cracks of known depth but unspecified location, cracks of known location but unknown depth, and cracks of unspecified location and depth. It is shown that there is a nearly up to 50% drop in terms of the stability factors for the rock slopes intersected by a tension crack compared with intact ones. Tables and charts of solutions in dimensionless forms are presented for ease of use by practitioners.

Keywords: Hoek-Brown failure criterion, limit analysis, rock slope, tension cracks.

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41 Microscopic Analysis of Interfacial Transition Zone of Cementitious Composites Prepared by Various Mixing Procedures

Authors: Josef Fládr, Jiří Němeček, Veronika Koudelková, Petr Bílý

Abstract:

Mechanical parameters of cementitious composites differ quite significantly based on the composition of cement matrix. They are also influenced by mixing times and procedure. The research presented in this paper was aimed at identification of differences in microstructure of normal strength (NSC) and differently mixed high strength (HSC) cementitious composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) phase analysis of NSC and HSC samples was conducted. Evaluation of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the aggregate and cement matrix was performed. Volume share, thickness, porosity and composition of ITZ were studied. In case of HSC, samples obtained by several different mixing procedures were compared in order to find the most suitable procedure. In case of NSC, ITZ was identified around 40-50% of aggregate grains and its thickness typically ranged between 10 and 40 µm. Higher porosity and lower share of clinker was observed in this area as a result of increased water-to-cement ratio (w/c) and the lack of fine particles improving the grading curve of the aggregate. Typical ITZ with lower content of Ca was observed only in one HSC sample, where it was developed around less than 15% of aggregate grains. The typical thickness of ITZ in this sample was similar to ITZ in NSC (between 5 and 40 µm). In the remaining four HSC samples, no ITZ was observed. In general, the share of ITZ in HSC samples was found to be significantly smaller than in NSC samples. As ITZ is the weakest part of the material, this result explains to large extent the improved mechanical properties of HSC compared to NSC. Based on the comparison of characteristics of ITZ in HSC samples prepared by different mixing procedures, the most suitable mixing procedure from the point of view of properties of ITZ was identified.

Keywords: Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high strength concrete, interfacial transition zone, mixing procedure, normal strength concrete, scanning electron microscopy.

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40 Microstructural Properties of the Interfacial Transition Zone and Strength Development of Concrete Incorporating Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Authors: S. Boudali, A. M. Soliman, B. Abdulsalam, K. Ayed, D. E. Kerdal, S. Poncet

Abstract:

This study investigates the potential of using crushed concrete as aggregates to produce green and sustainable concrete. Crushed concrete was sieved to powder fine recycled aggregate (PFRA) less than 80 µm and coarse recycled aggregates (CRA). Physical, mechanical, and microstructural properties for PFRA and CRA were evaluated. The effect of the additional rates of PFRA and CRA on strength development of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) was investigated. Additionally, the characteristics of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between cement paste and recycled aggregate were also examined. Results show that concrete mixtures made with 100% of CRA and 40% PFRA exhibited similar performance to that of the control mixture prepared with 100% natural aggregate (NA) and 40% natural pozzolan (NP). Moreover, concrete mixture incorporating recycled aggregate exhibited a slightly higher later compressive strength than that of the concrete with NA. This was confirmed by the very dense microstructure for concrete mixture incorporating recycled concrete aggregates compared to that of conventional concrete mixture.

Keywords: Compressive strength, recycled concrete aggregates, microstructure, interfacial transition zone, powder fine recycled aggregate.

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39 Effect of Transverse Reinforcement on the Behavior of Tension Lap splice in High-Strength Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Ahmed H. Abdel-Kareem, Hala. Abousafa, Omia S. El-Hadidi

Abstract:

The results of an experimental program conducted on seventeen simply supported concrete beams to study the effect of transverse reinforcement on the behavior of lap splice of steel reinforcement in tension zones in high strength concrete beams, are presented. The parameters included in the experimental program were the concrete compressive strength, the lap splice length, the amount of transverse reinforcement provided within the splice region, and the shape of transverse reinforcement around spliced bars. The experimental results showed that the displacement ductility increased and the mode of failure changed from splitting bond failure to flexural failure when the amount of transverse reinforcement in splice region increased, and the compressive strength increased up to 100 MPa. The presence of transverse reinforcement around spliced bars had pronounced effect on increasing the ultimate load, the ultimate deflection, and the displacement ductility. The prediction of maximum steel stresses for spliced bars using ACI 318-05 building code was compared with the experimental results. The comparison showed that the effect of transverse reinforcement around spliced bars has to be considered into the design equations for lap splice length in high strength concrete beams.

Keywords: Ductility, high strength concrete, tension lap splice, transverse reinforcement, steel stresses.

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38 Cable Tension Control and Analysis of Reel Transparency for 6-DOF Haptic Foot Platform on a Cable-Driven Locomotion Interface

Authors: Martin J.-D. Otis, Thien-Ly Nguyen-Dang, Thierry Laliberte, Denis Ouellet, Denis Laurendeau, Clement Gosselin

Abstract:

A Cable-Driven Locomotion Interface provides a low inertia haptic interface and is used as a way of enabling the user to walk and interact with virtual surfaces. These surfaces generate Cartesian wrenches which must be optimized for each motorized reel in order to reproduce a haptic sensation in both feet. However, the use of wrench control requires a measure of the cable tensions applied to the moving platform. The latter measure may be inaccurate if it is based on sensors located near the reel. Moreover, friction hysteresis from the reel moving parts needs to be compensated for with an evaluation of low angular velocity of the motor shaft. Also, the pose of the platform is not known precisely due to cable sagging and mechanical deformation. This paper presents a non-ideal motorized reel design with its corresponding control strategy that aims at overcoming the aforementioned issues. A transfert function of the reel based on frequency responses in function of cable tension and cable length is presented with an optimal adaptative PIDF controller. Finally, an hybrid position/tension control is discussed with an analysis of the stability for achieving a complete functionnality of the haptic platform.

Keywords: haptic, reel, transparency, cable, tension, control

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37 Numerical Simulation of a Single Air Bubble Rising in Water with Various Models of Surface Tension Force

Authors: Afshin Ahmadi Nadooshan, Ebrahim Shirani

Abstract:

Different numerical methods are employed and developed for simulating interfacial flows. A large range of applications belong to this group, e.g. two-phase flows of air bubbles in water or water drops in air. In such problems surface tension effects often play a dominant role. In this paper, various models of surface tension force for interfacial flows, the CSF, CSS, PCIL and SGIP models have been applied to simulate the motion of small air bubbles in water and the results were compared and reviewed. It has been pointed out that by using SGIP or PCIL models, we are able to simulate bubble rise and obtain results in close agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Volume-of-Fluid, Bubble Rising, SGIP model, CSS model, CSF model, PCIL model, interface, surface tension force.

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36 A Quick Prediction for Shear Behaviour of RC Membrane Elements by Fixed-Angle Softened Truss Model with Tension-Stiffening

Authors: X. Wang, J. S. Kuang

Abstract:

The Fixed-angle Softened Truss Model with Tension-stiffening (FASTMT) has a superior performance in predicting the shear behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) membrane elements, especially for the post-cracking behaviour. Nevertheless, massive computational work is inevitable due to the multiple transcendental equations involved in the stress-strain relationship. In this paper, an iterative root-finding technique is introduced to FASTMT for solving quickly the transcendental equations of the tension-stiffening effect of RC membrane elements. This fast FASTMT, which performs in MATLAB, uses the bisection method to calculate the tensile stress of the membranes. By adopting the simplification, the elapsed time of each loop is reduced significantly and the transcendental equations can be solved accurately. Owing to the high efficiency and good accuracy as compared with FASTMT, the fast FASTMT can be further applied in quick prediction of shear behaviour of complex large-scale RC structures.

Keywords: Bisection method, fixed-angle softened truss model with tension-stiffening, iterative root-finding technique, reinforced concrete membrane.

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35 Tension Stiffening Parameter in Composite Concrete Reinforced with Inoxydable Steel: Laboratory and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: S. Alih, A. Khelil

Abstract:

In the present work, behavior of inoxydable steel as reinforcement bar in composite concrete is being investigated. The bar-concrete adherence in reinforced concrete (RC) beam is studied and focus is made on the tension stiffening parameter. This study highlighted an approach to observe this interaction behavior in bending test instead of direct tension as per reported in many references. The approach resembles actual loading condition of the structural RC beam. The tension stiffening properties are then applied to numerical finite element analysis (FEA) to verify their correlation with laboratory results. Comparison with laboratory shows a good correlation between the two. The experimental settings is able to determine tension stiffening parameters in RC beam and the modeling strategies made in ABAQUS can closely represent the actual condition. Tension stiffening model used can represent the interaction properties between inoxydable steel and concrete.

Keywords: Inoxydable steel, Finite element modeling, Reinforced concrete beam, Tension-stiffening.

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34 The Effects of Aggregate Sizes and Fiber Volume Fraction on Bending Toughness and Direct Tension of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho, Jae-Heum Moon, Jang-Hwa Lee

Abstract:

In order to supplement the brittle property of concrete, fibers are added into concrete mixtures. Compared to general concrete, various characteristics such as tensile strength, bending strength, bending toughness, and resistance to crack are superior, and even when cracks occur, improvements on toughness as well as resistance to shock are excellent due to the growth of fracture energy. Increased function of steel fiber reinforced concrete can be differentiated depending on the fiber dispersion, and sand percentage can be an important influence on the fiber dispersion. Therefore, in this research, experiments were planned on sand percentage in order to apprehend the influence of sand percentage on the bending properties and direct tension of SFRC and basic experiments were conducted on bending and direct tension in order to recognize the properties of bending properties and direct tension following the size of the aggregates and sand percentage.

Keywords: Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Bending Toughness, Direct tension.

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33 High Precision Draw Bending of Asymmetric Channel Section with Restriction Dies and Axial Tension

Authors: Y. Okude, S. Sakaki, S. Yoshihara, B. J. MacDonald

Abstract:

In recent years asymmetric cross section aluminum alloy stock has been finding increasing use in various industrial manufacturing areas such as general structures and automotive components. In these areas, components are generally required to have complex curved configuration and, as such, a bending process is required during manufacture. Undesirable deformation in bending processes such as flattening or wrinkling can easily occur when thin-walled sections are bent. Hence, a thorough understanding of the bending behavior of such sections is needed to prevent these undesirable deformations. In this study, the bending behavior of asymmetric channel section was examined using finite element analysis (FEA). Typical methods of preventing undesirable deformation, such as asymmetric laminated elastic mandrels were included in FEA model of draw bending. Additionally, axial tension was applied to prevent wrinkling. By utilizing the FE simulations effect of restriction dies and axial tension on undesirable deformation during the process was clarified.

Keywords: bending, draw bending, asymmetric channel section, restriction dies, axial tension, FEA

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32 Comparative Evaluation of Ice Adhesion Behavior

Authors: T. Strobl, D. Raps, M. Hornung

Abstract:

In this study, the adhesion of ice to solid substrates with different surface properties is compared. Clear ice, similar to atmospheric in-flight icing encounters, is accreted on the different substrates under controlled conditions. The ice adhesion behavior is investigated by means of a dynamic vibration testing technique with an electromagnetic shaker initiating ice de-bonding in the interface between the substrate and the ice. The results of the experiments reveal that the affinity for ice accretion is significantly influenced by the water contact angle of the respective sample.

Keywords: Contact angle, dynamic vibration measurement, ice adhesion, interfacial shear stress.

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31 Efficient CT Image Volume Rendering for Diagnosis

Authors: HaeNa Lee, Sun K. Yoo

Abstract:

Volume rendering is widely used in medical CT image visualization. Applying 3D image visualization to diagnosis application can require accurate volume rendering with high resolution. Interpolation is important in medical image processing applications such as image compression or volume resampling. However, it can distort the original image data because of edge blurring or blocking effects when image enhancement procedures were applied. In this paper, we proposed adaptive tension control method exploiting gradient information to achieve high resolution medical image enhancement in volume visualization, where restored images are similar to original images as much as possible. The experimental results show that the proposed method can improve image quality associated with the adaptive tension control efficacy.

Keywords: Tension control, Interpolation, Ray-casting, Medical imaging analysis.

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30 Utilization of Agro-Industrial Waste in Metal Matrix Composites: Towards Sustainability

Authors: L. Lancaster, M. H. Lung, D. Sujan

Abstract:

The application of agro-industrial waste in Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites has been getting more attention as they can reinforce particles in metal matrix which enhance the strength properties of the composites. In addition, by applying these agroindustrial wastes in useful way not only save the manufacturing cost of products but also reduce the pollutions on environment. This paper represents a literature review on a range of industrial wastes and their utilization in metal matrix composites. The paper describes the synthesis methods of agro-industrial waste filled metal matrix composite materials and their mechanical, wear, corrosion, and physical properties. It also highlights the current application and future potential of agro-industrial waste reinforced composites in aerospace, automotive and other construction industries.

Keywords: Bond layer, Interfacial shear stress, Bi-layered assembly, Thermal mismatch, Flip Chip Ball Grid Array.

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29 On the Numerical Approach for Simulating Thermal Hydraulics under Seismic Condition

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The two-phase flow field and the motion of the free surface in an oscillating channel are simulated numerically to assess the methodology for simulating nuclear reacotr thermal hydraulics under seismic conditions. Two numerical methods are compared: one is to model the oscillating channel directly using the moving grid of the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method, and the other is to simulate the effect of channel motion using the oscillating acceleration acting on the fluid in the stationary channel. The two-phase flow field in the oscillating channel is simulated using the level set method in both cases. The calculated results using the oscillating acceleration are found to coinside with those using the moving grid, and the theoretical back ground and the limitation of oscillating acceleration are discussed. It is shown that the change in the interfacial area between liquid and gas phases under seismic conditions is important for nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, simulation, seismic condition, moving grid, oscillating acceleration, interfacial area

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28 Ductile Crack Growth in Surface Cracked Pressure Vessels

Authors: Osama A. Terfas, Abdusalam A. Alaktiwi

Abstract:

Pressure vessels are usually operating at temperatures where the conditions of linear elastic fracture mechanics are no longer met because massive plasticity precedes crack propagation. In this work the development of a surface crack in a pressure vessel subject to bending and tension under elastic-plastic fracture mechanics conditions was investigated. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate the hydrostatic stress, the J-integral and crack growth for semi-elliptical surface-breaking cracks. The results showed non-uniform stress triaxiality and crack driving force around the crack front at large deformation levels. Different ductile crack extensions were observed which emphasis the dependent of ductile tearing on crack geometry and type of loading. In bending the crack grew only beneath the surface, and growth was suppressed at the deepest segment. This contrasts to tension where the crack breaks through the thickness with uniform growth along the entire crack front except at the free surface. Current investigations showed that the crack growth developed under linear elastic fracture mechanics conditions will no longer be applicable under ductile tearing scenarios.

Keywords: Bending, ductile tearing, fracture toughness, stress triaxiality, tension.

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27 Debye Layer Confinement of Nucleons in Nuclei by Laser Ablated Plasma

Authors: M. Ghanaatian, N. Ghahramany, A. Bazrafshan

Abstract:

Following the laser ablation studies leading to a theory of nuclei confinement by a Debye layer mechanism, we present here numerical evaluations for the known stable nuclei where the Coulomb repulsion is included as a rather minor component especially for lager nuclei. In this research paper the required physical conditions for the formation and stability of nuclei particularly endothermic nuclei with mass number greater than to which is an open astrophysical question have been investigated. Using the Debye layer mechanism, nuclear surface energy, Fermi energy and coulomb repulsion energy it is possible to find conditions under which the process of nucleation is permitted in early universe. Our numerical calculations indicate that about 200 second after the big bang at temperature of about 100 KeV and subrelativistic region with nucleon density nearly equal to normal nuclear density namely, 10cm all endothermic and exothermic nuclei have been formed.

Keywords: Endothermic nuclear synthesis, Fermi energy, Surface tension, Debye length.

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