Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: industrial applications

62 Numerical Study of Bubbling Fluidized Beds Operating at Sub-atmospheric Conditions

Authors: Lanka Dinushke Weerasiri, Subrat Das, Daniel Fabijanic, William Yang

Abstract:

Fluidization at vacuum pressure has been a topic that is of growing research interest. Several industrial applications (such as drying, extractive metallurgy, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) can potentially take advantage of vacuum pressure fluidization. Particularly, the fine chemical industry requires processing under safe conditions for thermolabile substances, and reduced pressure fluidized beds offer an alternative. Fluidized beds under vacuum conditions provide optimal conditions for treatment of granular materials where the reduced gas pressure maintains an operational environment outside of flammability conditions. The fluidization at low-pressure is markedly different from the usual gas flow patterns of atmospheric fluidization. The different flow regimes can be characterized by the dimensionless Knudsen number. Nevertheless, hydrodynamics of bubbling vacuum fluidized beds has not been investigated to author’s best knowledge. In this work, the two-fluid numerical method was used to determine the impact of reduced pressure on the fundamental properties of a fluidized bed. The slip flow model implemented by Ansys Fluent User Defined Functions (UDF) was used to determine the interphase momentum exchange coefficient. A wide range of operating pressures was investigated (1.01, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1 and 0.03 Bar). The gas was supplied by a uniform inlet at 1.5Umf and 2Umf. The predicted minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results show that the operating pressure has a notable impact on the bed properties and its hydrodynamics. Furthermore, it also shows that the existing Gorosko correlation that predicts bed expansion is not applicable under reduced pressure conditions.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, fluidized bed, gas-solid flow, vacuum pressure, slip flow, minimum fluidization velocity.

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61 Machinability Analysis in Drilling Flax Fiber-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Bio-Composite Laminates

Authors: Amirhossein Lotfi, Huaizhong Li, Dzung Viet Dao

Abstract:

Interest in natural fiber-reinforced composites (NFRC) is progressively growing both in terms of academia research and industrial applications thanks to their abundant advantages such as low cost, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and relatively good mechanical properties. However, their widespread use is still presumed as challenging because of the specificity of their non-homogeneous structure, limited knowledge on their machinability characteristics and parameter settings, to avoid defects associated with the machining process. The present work is aimed to investigate the effect of the cutting tool geometry and material on the drilling-induced delamination, thrust force and hole quality produced when drilling a fully biodegradable flax/poly (lactic acid) composite laminate. Three drills with different geometries and material were used at different drilling conditions to evaluate the machinability of the fabricated composites. The experimental results indicated that the choice of cutting tool, in terms of material and geometry, has a noticeable influence on the cutting thrust force and subsequently drilling-induced damages. The lower value of thrust force and better hole quality was observed using high-speed steel (HSS) drill, whereas Carbide drill (with point angle of 130o) resulted in the highest value of thrust force. Carbide drill presented higher wear resistance and stability in variation of thrust force with a number of holes drilled, while HSS drill showed the lower value of thrust force during the drilling process. Finally, within the selected cutting range, the delamination damage increased noticeably with feed rate and moderately with spindle speed.

Keywords: Natural fiber-reinforced composites, machinability, thrust force, delamination.

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60 Level Shifted Carrier Signal Based Scalar Random Pulse Width Modulation Algorithms for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive

Authors: M. Nayeemuddin, T. Bramhananda Reddy, M. Vijaya Kumar

Abstract:

Acoustic noise becoming ever more obnoxious radiated by voltage source inverter fed induction motor drive in modern and industrial applications. The drive utilized for industrial and modern applications should use “spread spectrum” innovation known as Random pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithms where acoustic noise emanates through the machine should be critically concerned. This paper illustrates three types of random PWM control algorithms with fixed switching frequency namely 1) Random modulating PWM 2) Random carrier PWM and 3) Random modulating-carrier PWM. The spectrum plots of the motor stator current demonstrate the strength and robustness of the proposed PWM algorithms. To affirm the proposed algorithms, experimental tests have been conducted using dSPACE rt1104 control board on a v/f control three phase induction motor drive fed by DC link cascaded multilevel inverter.

Keywords: Multilevel inverter, acoustic noise, CSVPWM, total harmonic distortion, random PWM algorithm.

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59 Identification of the Best Blend Composition of Natural Rubber-High Density Polyethylene Blends for Roofing Applications

Authors: W. V. W. H. Wickramaarachchi, S. Walpalage, S. M. Egodage

Abstract:

Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is a multifunctional polymeric material which possesses a combination of excellent properties of parent materials. Basically, TPE has a rubber phase and a thermoplastic phase which gives processability as thermoplastics. When the rubber phase is partially or fully crosslinked in the thermoplastic matrix, TPE is called as thermoplastic elastomer vulcanizate (TPV). If the rubber phase is non-crosslinked, it is called as thermoplastic elastomer olefin (TPO). Nowadays TPEs are introduced into the commercial market with different products. However, the application of TPE as a roofing material is limited. Out of the commercially available roofing products from different materials, only single ply roofing membranes and plastic roofing sheets are produced from rubbers and plastics. Natural rubber (NR) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) are used in various industrial applications individually with some drawbacks. Therefore, this study was focused to develop both TPO and TPV blends from NR and HDPE at different compositions and then to identify the best blend composition to use as a roofing material. A series of blends by varying NR loading from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, at 10 wt% intervals, were prepared using a twin screw extruder. Dicumyl peroxide was used as a crosslinker for TPV. The standard properties for a roofing material like tensile properties tear strength, hardness, impact strength, water absorption, swell/gel analysis and thermal characteristics of the blends were investigated. Change of tensile strength after exposing to UV radiation was also studied. Tensile strength, hardness, tear strength, melting temperature and gel content of TPVs show higher values compared to TPOs at every loading studied, while water absorption and swelling index show lower values, suggesting TPVs are more suitable than TPOs for roofing applications. Most of the optimum properties were shown at 10/90 (NR/HDPE) composition. However, high impact strength and gel content were shown at 20/80 (NR/HDPE) composition. Impact strength, as being an energy absorbing property, is the most important for a roofing material in order to resist impact loads. Therefore, 20/80 (NR/HDPE) is identified as the best blend composition. UV resistance and other properties required for a roofing material could be achieved by incorporating suitable additives to TPVs.

Keywords: Thermoplastic elastomer, natural rubber, high density polyethylene, roofing material.

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58 Feasibility Study of Mine Tailing’s Treatment by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM 26636

Authors: M. Gómez-Ramírez, A. Rivas-Castillo, I. Rodríguez-Pozos, R. A. Avalos-Zuñiga, N. G. Rojas-Avelizapa

Abstract:

Among the diverse types of pollutants produced by anthropogenic activities, metals represent a serious threat, due to their accumulation in ecosystems and their elevated toxicity. The mine tailings of abandoned mines contain high levels of metals such as arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb), which do not suffer any degradation process, they are accumulated in environment. Abandoned mine tailings potentially could contaminate rivers and aquifers representing a risk for human health due to their high metal content. In an attempt to remove the metals and thereby mitigate the environmental pollution, an environmentally friendly and economical method of bioremediation has been introduced. Bioleaching has been actively studied over the last several years, and it is one of the bioremediation solutions used to treat heavy metals contained in sewage sludge, sediment and contaminated soil. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, an extremely acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, gram-negative, rod shaped microorganism, which is typically related to Cu mining operations (bioleaching), has been well studied for industrial applications. The sulfuric acid produced plays a major role in bioleaching. Specifically, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain DSM 26636 has been able to leach Al, Ni, V, Fe, Mg, Si, and Ni contained in slags from coal combustion wastes. The present study reports the ability of A. thiooxidans DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals contained in two different mine tailing samples (MT1 and MT2). It was observed that Al, Fe, and Mn were removed in 36.3±1.7, 191.2±1.6, and 4.5±0.2 mg/kg for MT1, and in 74.5±0.3, 208.3±0.5, and 20.9±0.1 for MT2. Besides, < 1.5 mg/kg of Au and Ru were also bioleached from MT1; in MT2, bioleaching of Zn was observed at 55.7±1.3 mg/kg, besides removal of < 1.5 mg/kg was observed for As, Ir, Li, and 0.6 for Os in this residue. These results show the potential of strain DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals that came from different mine tailings.

Keywords: A. thiooxidans, bioleaching, metals, mine tailings.

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57 Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Authors: Wilson Handoko, Farshid Pahlevani, Isha Singla, Himanish Kumar, Veena Sahajwalla

Abstract:

Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

Keywords: Aluminium bronze, waste-based surface modification, Tafel polarisation, corrosion resistance.

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56 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Crossover Technologies in Industrial Applications

Authors: W. Schellong

Abstract:

Industry accounts for one-third of global final energy demand. Crossover technologies (e.g. motors, pumps, process heat, and air conditioning) play an important role in improving energy efficiency. These technologies are used in many applications independent of the production branch. Especially electrical power is used by drives, pumps, compressors, and lightning. The paper demonstrates the algorithm of the energy analysis by some selected case studies for typical industrial processes. The energy analysis represents an essential part of energy management systems (EMS). Generally, process control system (PCS) can support EMS. They provide information about the production process, and they organize the maintenance actions. Combining these tools into an integrated process allows the development of an energy critical equipment strategy. Thus, asset and energy management can use the same common data to improve the energy efficiency.

Keywords: Crossover technologies, data management, energy analysis, energy efficiency, process control.

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55 Minimizing the Drilling-Induced Damage in Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites

Authors: S. D. El Wakil, M. Pladsen

Abstract:

Fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites are finding wide-spread industrial applications because of their exceptionally high specific strength and specific modulus of elasticity. Nevertheless, it is very seldom to get ready-for-use components or products made of FRP composites. Secondary processing by machining, particularly drilling, is almost always required to make holes for fastening components together to produce assemblies. That creates problems since the FRP composites are neither homogeneous nor isotropic. Some of the problems that are encountered include the subsequent damage in the region around the drilled hole and the drilling – induced delamination of the layer of ply, that occurs both at the entrance and the exit planes of the work piece. Evidently, the functionality of the work piece would be detrimentally affected. The current work was carried out with the aim of eliminating or at least minimizing the work piece damage associated with drilling of FPR composites. Each test specimen involves a woven reinforced graphite fiber/epoxy composite having a thickness of 12.5 mm (0.5 inch). A large number of test specimens were subjected to drilling operations with different combinations of feed rates and cutting speeds. The drilling induced damage was taken as the absolute value of the difference between the drilled hole diameter and the nominal one taken as a percentage of the nominal diameter. The later was determined for each combination of feed rate and cutting speed, and a matrix comprising those values was established, where the columns indicate varying feed rate while and rows indicate varying cutting speeds. Next, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach was employed using Minitab software, in order to obtain the combination that would improve the drilling induced damage. Experimental results show that low feed rates coupled with low cutting speeds yielded the best results.

Keywords: Drilling of Composites, dimensional accuracy of holes drilled in composites, delamination and charring, graphite-epoxy composites.

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54 Modified Energy and Link Failure Recovery Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. Jayekumar, V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network finds role in environmental monitoring, industrial applications, surveillance applications, health monitoring and other supervisory applications. Sensing devices form the basic operational unit of the network that is self-battery powered with limited life time. Sensor node spends its limited energy for transmission, reception, routing and sensing information. Frequent energy utilization for the above mentioned process leads to network lifetime degradation. To enhance energy efficiency and network lifetime, we propose a modified energy optimization and node recovery post failure method, Energy-Link Failure Recovery Routing (E-LFRR) algorithm. In our E-LFRR algorithm, two phases namely, Monitored Transmission phase and Replaced Transmission phase are devised to combat worst case link failure conditions. In Monitored Transmission phase, the Actuator Node monitors and identifies suitable nodes for shortest path transmission. The Replaced Transmission phase dispatches the energy draining node at early stage from the active link and replaces it with the new node that has sufficient energy. Simulation results illustrate that this combined methodology reduces overhead, energy consumption, delay and maintains considerable amount of alive nodes thereby enhancing the network performance.

Keywords: Actuator node, energy efficient routing, energy hole, link failure recovery, link utilization, wireless sensor network.

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53 CFD Study of Subcooled Boiling Flow at Elevated Pressure Using a Mechanistic Wall Heat Partitioning Model

Authors: Machimontorn Promtong, Sherman C. P. Cheung, Guan H. Yeoh, Sara Vahaji, Jiyuan Tu

Abstract:

The wide range of industrial applications involved with boiling flows promotes the necessity of establishing fundamental knowledge in boiling flow phenomena. For this purpose, a number of experimental and numerical researches have been performed to elucidate the underlying physics of this flow. In this paper, the improved wall boiling models, implemented on ANSYS CFX 14.5, were introduced to study subcooled boiling flow at elevated pressure. At the heated wall boundary, the Fractal model, Force balance approach and Mechanistic frequency model are given for predicting the nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter, and bubble departure frequency. The presented wall heat flux partitioning closures were modified to consider the influence of bubble sliding along the wall before the lift-off, which usually happens in the flow boiling. The simulation was performed based on the Two-fluid model, where the standard k-ω SST model was selected for turbulence modelling. Existing experimental data at around 5 bars were chosen to evaluate the accuracy of the presented mechanistic approach. The void fraction and Interfacial Area Concentration (IAC) are in good agreement with the experimental data. However, the predicted bubble velocity and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) are over-predicted. This over-prediction may be caused by consideration of only dispersed and spherical bubbles in the simulations. In the future work, the important physical mechanisms of bubbles, such as merging and shrinking during sliding on the heated wall will be incorporated into this mechanistic model to enhance its capability for a wider range of flow prediction.

Keywords: CFD, mechanistic model, subcooled boiling flow, two-fluid model.

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52 FEM Simulation of Triple Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamics Effect of Nanofluid Flow over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet

Authors: Rangoli Goyal, Rama Bhargava

Abstract:

The triple diffusive boundary layer flow of nanofluid under the action of constant magnetic field over a non-linear stretching sheet has been investigated numerically. The model includes the effect of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and cross-diffusion; slip mechanisms which are primarily responsible for the enhancement of the convective features of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations (by using group theory transformations) and solved numerically by using variational finite element method. The effects of various controlling parameters, such as the magnetic influence number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter, modified Dufour parameter, and Dufour solutal Lewis number, on the fluid flow as well as on heat and mass transfer coefficients (both of solute and nanofluid) are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. The present study has industrial applications in aerodynamic extrusion of plastic sheets, coating and suspensions, melt spinning, hot rolling, wire drawing, glass-fibre production, and manufacture of polymer and rubber sheets, where the quality of the desired product depends on the stretching rate as well as external field including magnetic effects.

Keywords: FEM, Thermophoresis, Diffusiophoresis, Brownian motion.

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51 Movement Optimization of Robotic Arm Movement Using Soft Computing

Authors: V. K. Banga

Abstract:

Robots are now playing a very promising role in industries. Robots are commonly used in applications in repeated operations or where operation by human is either risky or not feasible. In most of the industrial applications, robotic arm manipulators are widely used. Robotic arm manipulator with two link or three link structures is commonly used due to their low degrees-of-freedom (DOF) movement. As the DOF of robotic arm increased, complexity increases. Instrumentation involved with robotics plays very important role in order to interact with outer environment. In this work, optimal control for movement of various DOFs of robotic arm using various soft computing techniques has been presented. We have discussed about different robotic structures having various DOF robotics arm movement. Further stress is on kinematics of the arm structures i.e. forward kinematics and inverse kinematics. Trajectory planning of robotic arms using soft computing techniques is demonstrating the flexibility of this technique. The performance is optimized for all possible input values and results in optimized movement as resultant output. In conclusion, soft computing has been playing very important role for achieving optimized movement of robotic arm. It also requires very limited knowledge of the system to implement soft computing techniques.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, kinematics, robotic arm, neural networks, fuzzy logic.

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50 Solar Tracking System Using a Refrigerant as Working Medium for Solar Energy Conversion

Authors: S. Sendhil Kumar, S. N. Vijayan

Abstract:

Utilization of solar energy can be found in various domestic and industrial applications. The performance of any solar collector is largely affected by various parameters such as glazing, absorber plate, top covers, and heating pipes. Technology improvements have brought us another method for conversion of solar energy to direct electricity using solar photovoltaic system. Utilization and extraction of solar energy is the biggest problem in these conversion methods. This paper aims to overcome these problems and take the advantages of available energy from solar by maximizing the utilization through solar tracking system using a refrigerant as a working medium. The use of this tracking system can help increase the efficiency of conversion devices by maximum utilization of solar energy. The dual axis tracking system gives maximum energy output compared to single axis tracking system.

Keywords: Refrigerant, solar collector, solar energy, solar panel, solar tracking.

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49 Large-Scale Production of High-Performance Fiber-Metal-Laminates by Prepreg-Press-Technology

Authors: Christian Lauter, Corin Reuter, Shuang Wu, Thomas Troester

Abstract:

Lightweight construction became more and more important over the last decades in several applications, e.g. in the automotive or aircraft sector. This is the result of economic and ecological constraints on the one hand and increasing safety and comfort requirements on the other hand. In the field of lightweight design, different approaches are used due to specific requirements towards the technical systems. The use of endless carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) offers the largest weight saving potential of sometimes more than 50% compared to conventional metal-constructions. However, there are very limited industrial applications because of the cost-intensive manufacturing of the fibers and production technologies. Other disadvantages of pure CFRP-structures affect the quality control or the damage resistance. One approach to meet these challenges is hybrid materials. This means CFRP and sheet metal are combined on a material level. Therefore, new opportunities for innovative process routes are realizable. Hybrid lightweight design results in lower costs due to an optimized material utilization and the possibility to integrate the structures in already existing production processes of automobile manufacturers. In recent and current research, the advantages of two-layered hybrid materials have been pointed out, i.e. the possibility to realize structures with tailored mechanical properties or to divide the curing cycle of the epoxy resin into two steps. Current research work at the Chair for Automotive Lightweight Design (LiA) at the Paderborn University focusses on production processes for fiber-metal-laminates. The aim of this work is the development and qualification of a large-scale production process for high-performance fiber-metal-laminates (FML) for industrial applications in the automotive or aircraft sector. Therefore, the prepreg-press-technology is used, in which pre-impregnated carbon fibers and sheet metals are formed and cured in a closed, heated mold. The investigations focus e.g. on the realization of short process chains and cycle times, on the reduction of time-consuming manual process steps, and the reduction of material costs. This paper gives an overview over the considerable steps of the production process in the beginning. Afterwards experimental results are discussed. This part concentrates on the influence of different process parameters on the mechanical properties, the laminate quality and the identification of process limits. Concluding the advantages of this technology compared to conventional FML-production-processes and other lightweight design approaches are carried out.

Keywords: Composite material, Fiber metal laminate, Lightweight construction, Prepreg press technology, Large-series production.

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48 Characterization of Biocomposites Based on Mussel Shell Wastes

Authors: Suheyla Kocaman, Gulnare Ahmetli, Alaaddin Cerit, Alize Yucel, Merve Gozukucuk

Abstract:

Shell wastes represent a considerable quantity of byproducts in the shellfish aquaculture. From the viewpoint of ecofriendly and economical disposal, it is highly desirable to convert these residues into high value-added products for industrial applications. So far, the utilization of shell wastes was confined at relatively lower levels, e.g. wastewater decontaminant, soil conditioner, fertilizer constituent, feed additive and liming agent. Shell wastes consist of calcium carbonate and organic matrices, with the former accounting for 95-99% by weight. Being the richest source of biogenic CaCO3, shell wastes are suitable to prepare high purity CaCO3 powders, which have been extensively applied in various industrial products, such as paper, rubber, paints and pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the shell waste could be further processed to be the filler of polymer composites. This paper presents a study on the potential use of mussel shell waste as biofiller to produce the composite materials with different epoxy matrices, such as bisphenol-A type, CTBN modified and polyurethane modified epoxy resins. Morphology and mechanical properties of shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material. The effects of shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. It was shown that in all composites, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values increase with the increase of mussel shell particles content from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, while the elongation at break decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. The highest Young’s modulus values were determined for bisphenol-A type epoxy composites.

Keywords: Biocomposite, epoxy resin, mussel shell, mechanical properties.

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47 Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations

Authors: Mun Yee Chan, Sin Ming Goh, Lisa Gaik Ai Ong

Abstract:

Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly, which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system. Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study, fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3 (1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates. Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile dyes.

Keywords: Bioremediation, dyes, fermentation, laccase.

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46 Motion Planning of SCARA Robots for Trajectory Tracking

Authors: Giovanni Incerti

Abstract:

The paper presents a method for a simple and immediate motion planning of a SCARA robot, whose end-effector has to move along a given trajectory; the calculation procedure requires the user to define in analytical form or by points the trajectory to be followed and to assign the curvilinear abscissa as function of the time. On the basis of the geometrical characteristics of the robot, a specifically developed program determines the motion laws of the actuators that enable the robot to generate the required movement; this software can be used in all industrial applications for which a SCARA robot has to be frequently reprogrammed, in order to generate various types of trajectories with different motion times.

Keywords: Motion planning, SCARA robot, trajectory tracking.

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45 Rheological Properties of Polysulfone-Sepiolite Nanocomposites

Authors: Nilay Tanrıver, Birgül Benli, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

Polysulfone (PSU) is a specialty engineering polymer having various industrial applications. PSU is especially used in waste water treatment membranes due to its good mechanical properties, structural and chemical stability. But it is a hydrophobic material and therefore its surface aim to pollute easily. In order to resolve this problem and extend the properties of membrane, PSU surface is rendered hydrophilic by addition of the sepiolite nanofibers. Sepiolite is one of the natural clays, which is a hydrate magnesium silicate fiber, also one of the well known layered clays of the montmorillonites where has several unique channels and pores within. It has also moisture durability, strength and low price. Sepiolite channels give great capacity of absorption and good surface properties. In this study, nanocomposites of commercial PSU and Sepiolite were prepared by solvent mixing method. Different organic solvents and their mixtures were used. Rheological characteristics of PSU-Sepiolite solvent mixtures were analyzed, the solubility of nanocomposite content in those mixtures were studied.

Keywords: Nanocomposite, polysulfone, rheology, sepiolite, solution mixing.

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44 Microwave-Assisted Alginate Extraction from Portuguese Saccorhiza polyschides – Influence of Acid Pretreatment

Authors: Mário Silva, Filipa Gomes, Filipa Oliveira, Simone Morais, Cristina Delerue-Matos

Abstract:

Brown seaweeds are abundant in Portuguese coastline and represent an almost unexploited marine economic resource. One of the most common species, easily available for harvesting in the northwest coast, is Saccorhiza polyschides grows in the lowest shore and costal rocky reefs. It is almost exclusively used by local farmers as natural fertilizer, but contains a substantial amount of valuable compounds, particularly alginates, natural biopolymers of high interest for many industrial applications. Alginates are natural polysaccharides present in cell walls of brown seaweed, highly biocompatible, with particular properties that make them of high interest for the food, biotechnology, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Conventional extraction processes are based on thermal treatment. They are lengthy and consume high amounts of energy and solvents. In recent years, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) has shown enormous potential to overcome major drawbacks that outcome from conventional plant material extraction (thermal and/or solvent based) techniques, being also successfully applied to the extraction of agar, fucoidans and alginates. In the present study, acid pretreatment of brown seaweed Saccorhiza polyschides for subsequent microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of alginate was optimized. Seaweeds were collected in Northwest Portuguese coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean between May and August, 2014. Experimental design was used to assess the effect of temperature and acid pretreatment time in alginate extraction. Response surface methodology allowed the determination of the optimum MAE conditions: 40 mL of HCl 0.1 M per g of dried seaweed with constant stirring at 20ºC during 14h. Optimal acid pretreatment conditions have enhanced significantly MAE of alginates from Saccorhiza polyschides, thus contributing for the development of a viable, more environmental friendly alternative to conventional processes.

Keywords: Acid pretreatment, Alginate, Brown seaweed, Microwave-assisted extraction, Response surface methodology.

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43 Study of Magnetic Properties on the Corrosion Behavior and Influence of Temperature in Permanent Magnet (Nd-Fe-B) Used in PMSM

Authors: N. Yogal, C. Lehrmann

Abstract:

The use of permanent magnets (PM) is increasing in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) to fulfill the requirements of high efficiency machines in modern industry. PMSM are widely used in industrial applications, wind power plants and the automotive industry. Since PMSM are used in different environmental conditions, the long-term effect of NdFeB-based magnets at high temperatures and their corrosion behavior have to be studied due to the irreversible loss of magnetic properties. In this paper, the effect of magnetic properties due to corrosion and increasing temperature in a climatic chamber has been presented. The magnetic moment and magnetic field of the magnets were studied experimentally.

Keywords: Permanent magnets (PM), NdFeB, corrosion behavior, temperature effect, permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM).

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42 Solar Architecture of Low-Energy Buildings for Industrial Applications

Authors: P. Brinks, O. Kornadt, R. Oly

Abstract:

This research focuses on the optimization of glazed surfaces and the assessment of possible solar gains in industrial buildings. Existing window rating methods for single windows were evaluated and a new method for a simple analysis of energy gains and losses by single windows was introduced. Furthermore extensive transient building simulations were carried out to appraise the performance of low cost polycarbonate multi-cell sheets in interaction with typical buildings for industrial applications. Mainly energy saving potential was determined by optimizing the orientation and area of such glazing systems in dependency on their thermal qualities. Moreover the impact on critical aspects such as summer overheating and daylight illumination was considered to ensure the user comfort and avoid additional energy demand for lighting or cooling. Hereby the simulated heating demand could be reduced by up to 1/3 compared to traditional architecture of industrial halls using mainly skylights.

Keywords: Solar Architecture, Passive Solar Building Design, Glazing, Low-Energy Buildings, Industrial Buildings.

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41 Preliminary Survey on MATLAB Learning among Power Electronics Students in Technical Education: A Case Study

Authors: Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Razali Bin Hassan, Fahad Sherwani, Insaf Ali Siming

Abstract:

This paper discusses about the findings of preliminary survey on MATLAB software learning among power electronics students. One of the main focuses of power electronics course is on DC to DC boost convertors, because boost convertors are generally used in different industrial and non industrial applications. Population samples of this study were randomly selected final year bachelor of electronics and electrical engineering students from University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM).As per the results from the survey questioner analysis, almost eighty percent students are facing problem and difficulties in Dc to Dc boost convertors experimental understanding without using MATLAB simulink package. As per finding of this study it is clear that MATLAB play an effective and efficient function for better understanding of boost convertors experimental work among power electronics learners.

Keywords: MATLAB, Simulation, Power Electronics, Experimental Work.

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40 Design and Evaluation of a Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Gripper

Authors: Tudor Deaconescu, Andrea Deaconescu

Abstract:

Deployment of pneumatic muscles in various industrial applications is still in its early days, considering the relative newness of these components. The field of robotics holds particular future potential for pneumatic muscles, especially in view of their specific behaviour known as compliance. The paper presents and discusses an innovative constructive solution for a gripper system mountable on an industrial robot, based on actuation by a linear pneumatic muscle and transmission of motion by gear and rack mechanism. The structural, operational and constructive models of the new gripper are presented, along with some of the experimental results obtained subsequently to the testing of a prototype. Further presented are two control variants of the gripper system, one by means of a 3/2-way fast-switching solenoid valve, the other by means of a proportional pressure regulator. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for both variants.

Keywords: Gripper system, pneumatic muscle, structural modeling.

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39 Zamzam Water as Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel Rebar in Rainwater and Simulated Acid Rain

Authors: Ahmed A. Elshami, Stéphanie Bonnet, Abdelhafid Khelidj

Abstract:

Corrosion inhibitors are widely used in concrete industry to reduce the corrosion rate of steel rebar which is present in contact with aggressive environments. The present work aims to using Zamzam water from well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam as corrosion inhibitor for steel in rain water and simulated acid rain. The effect of Zamzam water was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Potentiodynamic polarization techniques in Department of Civil Engineering - IUT Saint-Nazaire, Nantes University, France. Zamzam water is considered to be one of the most important steel corrosion inhibitor which is frequently used in different industrial applications. Results showed that zamzam water gave a very good inhibition for steel corrosion in rain water and simulated acid rain.

Keywords: Zamzam water, corrosion inhibitor, rain water and simulated acid rain.

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38 Stable Delta-Sigma Modulator with Signal Dependent Forward Path Gain for Industrial Applications

Authors: K. Diwakar, K. Aanandha Saravanan, C. Senthilpari

Abstract:

Higher order ΔΣ Modulator (DSM) is basically an unstable system. The approximate conditions for stability cannot be used for the design of a DSM for industrial applications where risk is involved. The existing second order, single stage, single bit, unity feedback gain , discrete DSM cannot be used for the normalized full range (-1 to +1) of an input signal since the DSM becomes unstable when the input signal is above ±0.55. The stability is also not guaranteed for input signals of amplitude less than ±0.55. In the present paper, the above mentioned second order DSM is modified with input signal dependent forward path gain. The proposed DSM is suitable for industrial applications where one needs the digital representation of the analog input signal, during each sampling period. The proposed DSM can operate almost for the full range of input signals (-0.95 to +0.95) without causing instability, assuming that the second integrator output should not exceed the circuit supply voltage, ±15 Volts.

Keywords: DSM, stability, SNR, state variables.

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37 SiC Merged PiN and Schottky (MPS) Power Diodes Electrothermal Modeling in SPICE

Authors: A. Lakrim, D. Tahri

Abstract:

This paper sets out a behavioral macro-model of a Merged PiN and Schottky (MPS) diode based on silicon carbide (SiC). This model holds good for both static and dynamic electrothermal simulations for industrial applications. Its parameters have been worked out from datasheets curves by drawing on the optimization method: Simulated Annealing (SA) for the SiC MPS diodes made available in the industry. The model also adopts the Analog Behavioral Model (ABM) of PSPICE in which it has been implemented. The thermal behavior of the devices was also taken into consideration by making use of Foster’ canonical network as figured out from electro-thermal measurement provided by the manufacturer of the device.

Keywords: SiC MPS Diode, electro-thermal, SPICE Model.

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36 Statistical Modeling for Permeabilization of a Novel Yeast Isolate for β-Galactosidase Activity Using Organic Solvents

Authors: Shweta Kumari, Parmjit S. Panesar, Manab B. Bera

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, optimization, permeabilization, response surface methodology, yeast.

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35 SVPWM Based Two Level VSI for Micro Grids

Authors: P. V. V. Rama Rao, M. V. Srikanth, S. Dileep Kumar Varma

Abstract:

With advances in solid-state power electronic devices and microprocessors, various pulse-width-modulation (PWM) techniques have been developed for industrial applications. This paper presents the comparison of two different PWM techniques, the sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) technique and the space-vector PWM (SVPWM) technique applied to two level VSI for micro grid applications. These two methods are compared by discussing their ease of implementation and by analyzing the output harmonic spectra of various output voltages (line-to-neutral voltages, and line-to-line voltages) and their total harmonic distortion (THD). The SVPWM technique in the under-modulation region can increase the fundamental output voltage by 15.5% over the SPWM technique.

Keywords: SPWM, SVPWM, VSI, Modulation Index.

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34 Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of Composite Structure Cracks

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Material damages dynamic analysis is difficult to deal with different material geometry and mechanism. In addition, it is difficult to measure the dynamic behavior of cracks, debond and delamination inside the material. Different simulation methods are developed in recent years for different physical features of mechanical systems like vibration and acoustic. Nonlinear fractures are analyzed and identified for different locations in this paper. The main idea of this work is to perform dynamic analysis on different types of materials (from normal homogeneous material to complex composite laminates). Technical factors like cracks, voids, interfaces and the damages’ locations are evaluated. In this project the modal analysis is performed on different types of materials. The results could be helpful in finding modal frequencies, natural frequencies, Time domain and fast Fourier transform (FFT) in industrial applications.

Keywords: Finite element method, dynamic analysis, vibration and acoustic, composite, crack, delamination.

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33 Developing a New Vibration Analysis Calculative Method for Esfahan Subway Train and Railways Design, Manufacturing, and Construction

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

The simulated mass and spring method evaluation for subway or railways construction and installation systems have a wide application in rail industries. This kind of design should be optimizing all related parameters to reduce the amount of vibration in cities, homelands, historical zones and other critical locations. Finite element method could help us a lot to analysis such applications with an excellent accuracy but always developing some simple, fast and user friendly evaluation method required in subway industrial applications. In addition, process parameter optimization extremely required in railway industries to achieve some optimal design of railways with maximum safety, reliability and performance. Furthermore, it is important to reduce vibrations and further related maintenance costs as well as possible. In this paper a simple but useful simulated mass and spring evaluation system developed for Esfahan subway construction. Besides, some of related recent patent and innovations in rail world industries like Suspension mass tuned vibration reducer, short sleeper vibration attenuation fastener and Airtight track vibration-noise reducing fastener discussed in details.

Keywords: Subway construction engineering, natural frequency, operation frequency, vibration analysis, polyurethane layer.

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