Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 248

Search results for: improved durability

248 Durability of LDPE Geomembrane within Sealing System of MSW (Landfill)

Authors: L. Menaa, A. Cherifi, K. Tigouirat, M. Choura

Abstract:

Analyse of locally manufactured Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) durability, used within lining systems at bottom of Municipal Solid Waste (landfill), is done in the present work. For this end, short and middle time creep behavior under tension of the analyzed material is carried out. The locally manufactured material is tested and compared to the European one (LDPE-CE). Both materials was tested in 03 various mediums: ambient and two aggressive (salty water and foam water), using three specimens in each case. A testing campaign is carried out using an especially designed and achieved testing bench. Moreover, characterisation tests were carried out to evaluate the medium effect on the mechanical properties of the tested material (LDPE). Furthermore, experimental results have been used to establish a law regression which can be used to predict creep behaviour of the analyzed material. As a result, the analyzed LDPE material has showed a good stability in different ambient and aggressive mediums; as well, locally manufactured LDPE seems more flexible, compared with the European one. This makes it more useful to the desired application.

Keywords: LDPE membrane, solid waste, aggressive mediums, durability

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247 Durability of Concrete with Different Mineral Admixtures: A Review

Authors: T. Ayub, N. Shafiq, S. U. Khan, M. F. Nuruddin

Abstract:

Several review papers exist in literature related to the concrete containing mineral admixtures; however this paper reviews the durability characteristics of the concrete containing fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK) and rice husk ash (RHA). Durability related properties reviewed include permeability, resistance to sulfate attack, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), carbonation, chloride ion penetration, freezing and thawing, abrasion, fire, acid and efflorescence. From review of existing literature, it is found that permeability of concrete depends upon the content of alumina in mineral admixtures, i.e. higher the alumina content, lesser the permeability which results higher resistance to sulfate and chloride ion penetration. Highly reactive mineral admixtures prevent more ASR and reduce efflorescence. The carbonation increases with the mineral admixtures because higher water binder ratio and lesser content of portlandite in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction. Mineral admixtures require air entrainment except MK and RHA for better resistance to freezing and thawing.

Keywords: Alkali silica reaction, carbonation, durability, mineral admixture, permeability.

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246 New Evaluation Methodology for Solidification Product Durability Assessment

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova, Jakub Hodul, Rostislav Drochytka, Jana Kosikova

Abstract:

This paper deals with a proposal of a new methodology for durability assessment of solidification product for its safe further use. The new methodology is based on a review of the current state of assessment of treated waste in Czech Republic and abroad. The aim of the paper is to propose an optimal evaluation methodology for verifying properties of solidification product to ensure its safe further use in building industry.

Keywords: Solidification/stabilization, durability, waste.

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245 Durability Properties of Foamed Concrete with Fiber Inclusion

Authors: Hanizam Awang, Muhammad Hafiz Ahmad

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted on foamed concrete with synthetic and natural fibres consisting of AR-glas, polypropylene, steel, kenaf and oil palm fibre. The foamed concrete mixtures produced had a target density of 1000kg/m3 and a mix ratio of (1:1.5:0.45). The fibres were used as additives. The inclusion of fibre was maintained at a volumetric fraction of 0.25 and 0.4%. The water absorption, thermal and shrinkage were determined to study the effect of the fibre on the durability properties of foamed concrete. The results showed that AR-glass fibre has the lowest percentage value of drying shrinkage compared to others.

Keywords: Foamed concrete, Fibres, Durability.

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244 Obtaining Composite Cotton Fabric by Cyclodextrin Grafting

Authors: U. K. Sahin, N. Erdumlu, C. Saricam, I. Gocek, M. H. Arslan, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, B. Kalav

Abstract:

Finishing is an important part of fabric processing with which a wide range of features are imparted to greige or colored fabrics for various end-uses. Especially, by the addition or impartation of nano-scaled particles to the fabric structure composite fabrics, a kind of composite materials can be acquired. Composite materials, generally shortened as composites or in other words composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more component materials with significantly different physical, mechanical or chemical characteristics remaining separate and distinctive at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the end product structure. Therefore, the technique finishing which is one of the fundamental methods to be applied on fabrics for obtainment of composite fabrics with many functionalities was used in the current study with the same purpose. However, regardless of the finishing materials applied, the efficient life of finished product on offering desired feature is low, since the durability of finishes on the material is limited. Any increase in durability of these finishes on textiles would enhance the life of use for textiles, which will result in happier users. Therefore, in this study, since higher durability was desired for the finishing materials fixed on the fabrics, nano-scaled hollow structured cyclodextrins were chemically imparted by grafting to the structure of conventional cotton fabrics by the help of finishing technique in order to be fixed permanently. By this way, a processed and functionalized base fabric having potential to be treated in the subsequent processes with many different finishing agents and nanomaterials could be obtained. Henceforth, this fabric can be used as a multi-functional fabric due to the encapturing ability of cyclodextrins to molecules/particles via physical/chemical means. In this study, scoured and rinsed woven bleached plain weave 100% cotton fabrics were utilized because textiles made of cotton are the most demanded textile products in the textile market by the textile consumers in daily life. Cotton fabric samples were immersed in treating baths containing β-cyclodextrin and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and to reduce the curing temperature the catalyst sodium hypophosphite monohydrate was used. All impregnated fabric samples were pre-dried. The reaction of grafting was performed in dry state. The treated and cured fabric samples were rinsed with warm distilled water and dried. The samples were dried for 4 h and weighed before and after finishing and rinsing. Stability and durability of β-cyclodextrins on fabric surface against external factors such as washing as well as strength of functionalized fabric in terms of tensile and tear strength were tested. Presence and homogeneity of distribution of β-cyclodextrins on fabric surface were characterized.

Keywords: Cotton fabric, cyclodextrin, improved durability, multifunctional composite textile.

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243 Long-Term Durability of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement

Authors: Jun Hee Lee, Young Kyu Kim, Seong Jae Hong, Chamroeun Chhorn, Seung Woo Lee

Abstract:

Roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP), an environmental friendly pavement of which load carry capacity benefitted from both hydration and aggregate interlock from roller compacting, demonstrated a superb structural performance for a relatively small amount of water and cement content. Even though an excellent structural performance can be secured, it is required to investigate roller-compacted concrete (RCC) under environmental loading and its long-term durability under critical conditions. In order to secure long-term durability, an appropriate internal air-void structure is required for this concrete. In this study, a method for improving the long-term durability of RCCP is suggested by analyzing the internal air-void structure and corresponding durability of RCC. The method of improving the long-term durability involves measurements of air content, air voids, and air-spacing factors in RCC that experiences changes in terms of type of air-entraining agent and its usage amount. This test is conducted according to the testing criteria in ASTM C 457, 672, and KS F 2456. It was found that the freezing-thawing and scaling resistances of RCC without any chemical admixture was quite low. Interestingly, an improvement of freezing-thawing and scaling resistances was observed for RCC with appropriate the air entraining (AE) agent content; Relative dynamic elastic modulus was found to be more than 80% for those mixtures. In RCC with AE agent mixtures, large amount of air was distributed within a range of 2% to 3%, and an air void spacing factor ranging between 200 and 300 μm (close to 250 μm, recommended by PCA) was secured. The long-term durability of RCC has a direct relationship with air-void spacing factor, and thus it can only be secured by ensuring the air void spacing factor through the inclusion of the AE in the mixture.

Keywords: RCCP, durability, air spacing factor, surface scaling resistance test, freezing and thawing resistance test.

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242 Durability of Mortar in Presence of Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Md. Harunur Rashid, Md. Keramat Ali Molla, Tarif Uddin Ahmed

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the durability of cement mortar in presence of Rice Husk Ash (RHA). The strength and durability of mortar with different replacement level (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) by RHA is investigated here. RHA was manufactured from an uncontrolled burning process. Test samples were prepared with river sand of FM 2.73. Samples were kept in controlled environment up to test time. The results show that addition of RHA was shown better results for 20% replacement level than OPC at 90 days. In durability test all samples passed for 20 cycles except 25% and 30% replacement level.

Keywords: Rice Husk Ash; durability; mortar, graded sand.

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241 Pleurotus Ostreatus for Durability Test of Rubber and Sengon Woods using Indonesian National Standard and Japanese Standard Methods

Authors: Elis N. Herliyana , Kunio Tsunoda, Yusuf S. Hadi, Arinana, Dewi A. Natalia

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the level of resistance of Hevea brasiliensis and Paraserianthes falcataria (synonym: Falcataria molucana) against wood rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus based on Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207-2006 and Japanese standard JIS K 1571-2004. The variables measured were visual appearance and weight loss percentage of wood based on longitudinal and cross section fiber directions of rubber wood and sengon wood. Measurement of oven dry weight loss of wood samples performed after 12 weeks incubation. Replication performed was 10 times at each treatment combination. The results based on SNI 01.7207-2006, weight loss value of H. brasiliensis and P. falcataria wood with fiber direction longitudinal were 23,12 and 22,25% respectively and cross section were 20,77 and 18,76% respectively, and all were classified to resistance class IV (no resistance). The results based on JIS K 1571-2004, weight loss value of both woods with fiber direction cross section were 10,95 and 14,20% respectively.

Keywords: H. brasiliensis wood, Natural durability, P. falcataria wood, P. ostreatus.

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240 Effects of Aggressive Ammonium Nitrate on Durability Properties of Concrete Using Sandstone and Granite Aggregates

Authors: L. Wong, H. Asrah, M.E. Rahman, M.A. Mannan

Abstract:

The storage of chemical fertilizers in concrete building often leads to durability problems due to chemical attack. The damage of concrete is mostly caused by certain ammonium salts. The main purpose of the research is to investigate the durability properties of concrete being exposed to ammonium nitrate solution. In this investigation, experiments are conducted on concrete type G50 and G60. The leaching process is achieved by the use of 20% concentration solution of ammonium nitrate. The durability properties investigated are water absorption, volume of permeable voids, and sorptivity. Compressive strength, pH value, and degradation depth are measured after a certain period of leaching. A decrease in compressive strength and an increase in porosity are found through the conducted experiments. Apart from that, the experimental data shows that pH value decreases with increased leaching time while the degradation depth of concrete increases with leaching time. By comparing concrete type G50 and G60, concrete type G60 is more resistant to ammonium nitrate attack.

Keywords: Normal weight concrete durability, Aggressive Ammonium Nitrate Solution, G50 & G60 concretes, Chemical attack.

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239 Effect of Leaks in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Tested for Durability under Co-Electrolysis Conditions

Authors: Megha Rao, Søren H. Jensen, Xiufu Sun, Anke Hagen, Mogens B. Mogensen

Abstract:

Solid oxide electrolysis cells have an immense potential in converting CO2 and H2O into syngas during co-electrolysis operation. The produced syngas can be further converted into hydrocarbons. This kind of technology is called power-to-gas or power-to-liquid. To produce hydrocarbons via this route, durability of the cells is still a challenge, which needs to be further investigated in order to improve the cells. In this work, various nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) fuel electrode supported or YSZ electrolyte supported cells, cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) barrier layer, and an oxygen electrode are investigated for durability under co-electrolysis conditions in both galvanostatic and potentiostatic conditions. While changing the gas on the oxygen electrode, keeping the fuel electrode gas composition constant, a change in the gas concentration arc was observed by impedance spectroscopy. Measurements of open circuit potential revealed the presence of leaks in the setup. It is speculated that the change in concentration impedance may be related to the leaks. Furthermore, the cells were also tested under pressurized conditions to find an inter-play between the leak rate and the pressure. A mathematical modeling together with electrochemical and microscopy analysis is presented.

Keywords: Co-electrolysis, solid oxide electrolysis cells, leaks, durability, gas concentration.

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238 Improvement of Durability of Wood by Maleic Anhydride

Authors: Yong F. Li, Yi X. Liu, Xiang M. Wang, Feng H. Wang

Abstract:

Wood as a natural renewable material is vulnerable to degradation by microorganisms and susceptible to change in dimension by water. In order to effectively improve the durability of wood, an active reagent, maleic anhydride (Man) was selected for wood modification. Man was first dissolved into a solvent, and then penetrated into wood porous structure under a vacuum/pressure condition. After a final catalyst-thermal treatment, wood modification was finished. The test results indicate that acetone is a good solvent for transporting Man into wood matrix. SEM observation proved that wood samples treated by Man kept a good cellular structure, indicating a well penetration of Man into wood cell walls. FTIR analysis suggested that Man reacted with hydroxyl groups on wood cell walls by its ring-ether group, resulting in reduction of amount of hydroxyl groups and resultant good dimensional stability as well as fine decay resistance. Consequently, Man modifying wood to improve its durability is an effective method.

Keywords: Wood, porous structure, durability improvement, maleic anhydride

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237 Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump

Authors: Y. Shiren, M. Masuzawa, H. Ohkura, T. Yamagata, Y. Aman, N. Kobayashi

Abstract:

An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.

Keywords: CaSO4, chemical heat pump, durability of chemical heat storage material, heat storage.

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236 Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I

Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas

Abstract:

Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.

Keywords: Chloride attack, chloride environments, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion resistance, durability, SIFCON, Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete.

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235 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength and Durability of High Strength High Performance Concrete

Authors: H. B. Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Y. W. Yee, Y. T. Yeap

Abstract:

This paper reports the strength and durability properties of high strength high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash (RHA) having high silica, low carbon content and appropriate fineness. In this study concrete containing 10%, 15% and 20% RHA as cement replacement and water to binder ratio of 0.25 were investigated. The results show that increasing amount of RHA increases the dosage of superplasticizer to maintain similar workability. Partial replacement of cement with RHA did not increase the early age compressive strength of concrete. However, concrete containing RHA showed higher compressive strength at later ages. The results showed that compressive strength of concrete in the 90-115 MPa range can be obtained at 28 curing days and the durability properties of RHA concrete performed better than that of control concrete. The water absorption of concrete incorporating 15% RHA exhibited the lowest value. The porosity of concrete is consistent with water absorption whereby higher replacement of RHA decreased the porosity of concrete. There is a positive correlation between reducing porosity and increasing compressive strength of high strength high performance concrete. The results also indicate that up to 20% of RHA incorporation could be advantageously blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength and durability properties of concrete.

Keywords: Compressive strength, durability, high performance concrete, rice husk ash.

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234 An Improved STBC Structure and Transmission Scheme for High Rate and Reliability in OFDMA Cooperative Communication

Authors: Hyoung-Muk Lim, Won-Jun Choi, Jae-Seon Yoon, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Space-time block code(STBC) has been studied to get full diversity and full rate in multiple input multiple output(MIMO) system. Achieving full rate is difficult in cooperative communications due to the each user consumes the time slots for transmitting information in cooperation phase. So combining MIMO systems with cooperative communications has been researched for full diversity and full rate. In orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system, it is an alternative way that each user shares their allocated subchannels instead of using the MIMO system to improve the transmission rate. In this paper, a Decode-and-forward (DF) based cooperative communication scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme has improved transmission rate and reliability in multi-path fading channel of the OFDMA up-link condition by modified STBC structure and subchannel sharing.

Keywords: cooperation, improved rate, OFDMA, STBC.

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233 System Reduction by Eigen Permutation Algorithm and Improved Pade Approximations

Authors: Jay Singh, Kalyan Chatterjee, C. B. Vishwakarma

Abstract:

A mixed method by combining a Eigen algorithm and improved pade approximations is proposed for reducing the order of the large-scale dynamic systems. The most dominant Eigen value of both original and reduced order systems remain same in this method. The proposed method guarantees stability of the reduced model if the original high-order system is stable and is comparable in quality with the other well known existing order reduction methods. The superiority of the proposed method is shown through examples taken from the literature.

Keywords: Eigen algorithm, Order reduction, improved pade approximations, Stability, Transfer function.

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232 Durability Study Partially Saturated Fly Ash Blended Cement Concrete

Authors: N. Shafiq, M. F. Nuruddin, S. C. Chin

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of the investigation of various properties related to the durability and longterm performance of mortars made of Fly Ash blended cement, FA and Ordinary Portland cement, OPC. The properties that were investigated in an experimental program include; equilibration of specimen in different relative humidity, determination of total porosity, compressive strength, chloride permeability index, and electrical resistivity. Fly Ash blended cement mortar specimens exhibited 10% to 15% lower porosity when measured at equilibrium conditions in different relative humidities as compared to the specimens made of OPC mortar, which resulted in 6% to 8% higher compressive strength of FA blended cement mortar specimens. The effects of ambient relative humidity during sample equilibration on porosity and strength development were also studied. For specimens equilibrated in higher relative humidity conditions, such as 75%, the total porosity of different mortar specimens was between 35% to 50% less than the porosity of samples equilibrated in 12% relative humidity, consequently leading to higher compressive strengths of these specimens.A valid statistical correlation between values of compressive strength, porosity and the degree of saturation was obtained. Measured values of chloride permeability index of fly ash blended cement mortar were obtained as one fourth to one sixth of those measured for OPC mortar specimens, which indicates high resistance against chloride ion penetration in FA blended cement specimens, hence resulting in a highly durable mortar.

Keywords: chloride permeability index, equilibrium condition, electrical resistivity, fly ash

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231 Influence of Metakaolin on the Performance of Mortars and Concretes

Authors: M. Si-Ahmed, A. Belakrouf, S. Kenai

Abstract:

The use of additions in cement in manufacturing, mortar and concrete offers economic and ecological advantages. Cements with additions such as limestone, slag and natural pouzzolana are produced in cement factories in Algeria. Several studies analyzed the effect of these additions on the physical and mechanical properties as well as the durability of concrete. However, few studies were conducted on the effect of local metakaolin on mechanical properties and durability of concrete. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of mortar and concrete with local metakaolin. The preparation of the metakaolin was carried out by calcination of kaolin at a temperature of 850 °C for a period of 3 hours. The experimental results have shown that the rates of substitutions of 10 and 15% metakaolin increases the compressive strength and flexural strength at both early age and long term. The durability and the permeability were also improved by reducing the coefficient of sorptivity.

Keywords: Metakaolin, calcination, compressive strength, durability.

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230 Integrated Approaches to Enhance Aggregate Production Planning with Inventory Uncertainty Based On Improved Harmony Search Algorithm

Authors: P. Luangpaiboon, P. Aungkulanon

Abstract:

This work presents a multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) model based on the desirability function approach for solving the aggregate production planning (APP) decision problem upon Masud and Hwang-s model. The proposed model minimises total production costs, carrying or backordering costs and rates of change in labor levels. An industrial case demonstrates the feasibility of applying the proposed model to the APP problems with three scenarios of inventory levels. The proposed model yields an efficient compromise solution and the overall levels of DM satisfaction with the multiple combined response levels. There has been a trend to solve complex planning problems using various metaheuristics. Therefore, in this paper, the multi-objective APP problem is solved by hybrid metaheuristics of the hunting search (HuSIHSA) and firefly (FAIHSA) mechanisms on the improved harmony search algorithm. Results obtained from the solution of are then compared. It is observed that the FAIHSA can be used as a successful alternative solution mechanism for solving APP problems over three scenarios. Furthermore, the FAIHSA provides a systematic framework for facilitating the decision-making process, enabling a decision maker interactively to modify the desirability function approach and related model parameters until a good optimal solution is obtained with proper selection of control parameters when compared.

Keywords: Aggregate Production Planning, Desirability Function Approach, Improved Harmony Search Algorithm, Hunting Search Algorithm and Firefly Algorithm.

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229 Determining the Workability of the New Metallurgical Materials

Authors: Ondrej Dupala, Josef Brychta, Robert Cep, Adam Janasek

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to experimentally discover the workability coefficient of the Inconel 718 material by using a slide turning machining. Two different types of cutting inserts, one made of carbide and the other one made of ceramic, are being used. The purpose is to compare measured results and recommend the appropriate materials and cutting parameters for a machining of the Inconel 718. Furthermore, the durability of inserts with the chosen wear criterion is being compared for different cutting speeds. Machinability of these materials is a crucial characteristic as it allows us to shorten the technological cycle time and increase the machining productivity. And this is of great importance from an economic point of view.

Keywords: Workability, Inconel 718, Turning Machining, Durability.

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228 Grain Size Effect on Durability of Bioclogging Treatment

Authors: T. Farah, H. Souli, J. –M. Fleureau, G. Kermouche, J. –J. Fry, B. Girard, D. Aelbrecht

Abstract:

In this work, the bioclogging of two soils with different granulometries is presented. The durability of the clogging is also studied under cycles of hydraulic head and under cycles of desaturation-resaturation. The studied materials present continuous grain size distributions. The first one corresponding to the "material 1” presents grain sizes between 0.4 and 4mm. The second material called "material 2" is composed of grains with size varying between 1 and 10mm. The results show that clogging occurs very quickly after the injection of nutrition and an outlet flow near to 0 is observed. The critical hydraulic head is equal to 0.76 for "material 1", and 0.076 for "material 2". The durability tests show a good resistance to unclogging under cycles of hydraulic head and desaturation-resaturation for the "material 1". Indeed, the flow after the cycles is very low. In contrast, "material 2", shows a very bad resistance, especially under the hydraulic head cycles. The resistance under the cycles of desaturation-resaturation is better but an important increase of the flow is observed. The difference of behavior is due to the granulometry of the materials. Indeed, the large grain size contributes to the reduction of the efficiency of the bioclogging treatment in this material. 

Keywords: Bioclogging, Granulometry, permeability, nutrition.

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227 A Review on Geomembrane Characteristics and Application in Geotechnical Engineering

Authors: Sandra Ghavam Shirazi, Komeil Valipourian, Mohammad Reza Golhashem

Abstract:

This paper represents the basic idea and mechanisms associated with the durability of geomembranes and discusses the factors influencing the service life and temperature of geomembrane liners. Geomembrane durability is stated as field performance and laboratory test outcomes under various conditions. Due to the high demand of geomembranes as landfill barriers and their crucial role in sensitive projects, sufficient service life of geomembranes is very important, therefore in this paper, the durability, the effect of temperature on geomembrane and the role of this type of reinforcement in different types of soil will be discussed. Also, the role of geomembrane in the earthquake will be considered in the last part of the paper.

Keywords: Geomembrane, durability temperature soil mechanic.

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226 Numerical Solution of Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations by Improved Runge-Kutta Nystrom Method

Authors: Faranak Rabiei, Fudziah Ismail, S. Norazak, Saeid Emadi

Abstract:

In this paper we developed the Improved Runge-Kutta Nystrom (IRKN) method for solving second order ordinary differential equations. The methods are two step in nature and require lower number of function evaluations per step compared with the existing Runge-Kutta Nystrom (RKN) methods. Therefore, the methods are computationally more efficient at achieving the higher order of local accuracy. Algebraic order conditions of the method are obtained and the third and fourth order method are derived with two and three stages respectively. The numerical results are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method compared to the existing RKN methods.

Keywords: Improved Runge-Kutta Nystrom method, Two step method, Second-order ordinary differential equations, Order conditions

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225 Modeling of Thermal Processes Associated to an Electric Arc

Authors: Allagui Hatem, Ghodbane Fathi

Abstract:

The primary objective of this paper is to study the thermal effects of the electric arc on the breaker apparatus contacts for forecasting and improving the contact durability. We will propose a model which takes account of the main influence factors on the erosion contacts. This phenomenon is very complicated because the amount of ejected metal is not necessarily constituted by the whole melted metal bath but this depends on the balance of forces on the contact surface. Consequently, to calculate the metal ejection coefficient, we propose a method which consists in comparing the experimental results with the calculated ones. The proposed model estimates the mass lost by vaporization, by droplets ejection and by the extraction mechanism of liquid or solid metal. In the one-dimensional geometry, to calculate of the contact heating, we used Green’s function which expresses the point source and allows the transition to the surface source. However, for the two- dimensional model we used explicit and implicit numerical methods. The results are similar to those found by Wilson’s experiments.

Keywords: Electric arc, thermal effect, erosion, contact, durability.

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224 Experimental Study on Strength and Durability Properties of Bio-Self-Cured Fly Ash Based Concrete under Aggressive Environments

Authors: R. Malathy

Abstract:

High performance concrete is not only characterized by its high strength, workability, and durability but also by its smartness in performance without human care since the first day. If the concrete can cure on its own without external curing without compromising its strength and durability, then it is said to be high performance self-curing concrete. In this paper, an attempt is made on the performance study of internally cured concrete using biomaterials, namely Spinacea pleracea and Calatropis gigantea as self-curing agents, and it is compared with the performance of concrete with existing self-cure chemical, namely polyethylene glycol. The present paper focuses on workability, strength, and durability study on M20, M30, and M40 grade concretes replacing 30% of fly ash for cement. The optimum dosage of Spinacea pleracea, Calatropis gigantea, and polyethylene glycol was taken as 0.6%, 0.24%, and 0.3% by weight of cement from the earlier research studies. From the slump tests performed, it was found that there is a minimum variation between conventional concrete and self-cured concrete. The strength activity index is determined by keeping compressive strength of conventionally cured concrete for 28 days as unity and observed that, for self-cured concrete, it is more than 1 after 28 days and more than 1.15 after 56 days because of secondary reaction of fly ash. The performance study of concretes in aggressive environment like acid attack, sea water attack, and chloride attack was made, and the results are positive and encouraging in bio-self-cured concretes which are ecofriendly, cost effective, and high performance materials.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Calatropis gigantea, polyethylene glycol, Spinacea oleracea, self-curing concrete.

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223 Possibilities of Utilization Zeolite in Concrete

Authors: M. Sedlmajer, J. Zach, J. Hroudová, P. Rovnaníková

Abstract:

There are several possibilities of reducing the required amount of cement in concrete production. Natural zeolite is one of the raw materials which can partly substitute Portland cement. The effort to reduce the amount of Portland cement used in concrete production is brings both economical as well as ecological benefits. The paper presents the properties of concrete containing natural zeolite as an active admixture in the concrete which partly substitutes Portland cement. The properties discussed here bring information about the basic mechanical properties and frost resistance of concrete containing zeolite. The properties of concretes with the admixture of zeolite are compared with a reference concrete with no content of zeolite. The properties of the individual concretes are observed for 360 days.

Keywords: Concrete, zeolite, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, durability.

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222 Influence of Different Mixing Ratios of Adhesives for Wood Bondline Quality

Authors: Jan Vanerek, Anna Benesova, Pavel Rovnanik

Abstract:

The research study was based on an evaluation of the ability of glued test samples to pass the criterion of sufficient bondline adhesion under the exposure conditions defined in EN 302- 1. Additionally, an infrared spectroscopic analysis of the evaluated adhesives (phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde PRF and melamine-ureaformaldehyde MUF) with different mix ratios was carried out to evaluate the possible effects of a faulty technological process.

Keywords: Adhesives, bondline, durability, timber.

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221 The Effects of SCMs on the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Fibre Cement Plates

Authors: Ceren Ince, Berkay Z. Erdem, Shahram Derogar, Nabi Yuzer

Abstract:

Fibre cement plates, often used in construction, generally are made using quartz as an inert material, cement as a binder and cellulose as a fibre. This paper, first of all, investigates the mechanical properties and durability of fibre cement plates when quartz is both partly and fully replaced with diatomite. Diatomite does not only have lower density compared to quartz but also has high pozzolanic activity. The main objective of this paper is the investigation of the effects of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) on the short and long term mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using diatomite. Supplementary cementing materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slug (GGBS) and fly ash (FA) are used in this study. Volume proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% of GGBS and FA are used as partial replacement materials to cement. Short and long term mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strengths as well as sorptivity characteristics and mass were investigated. Consistency and setting time at each replacement levels of SCMs were also recorded. The effects of using supplementary cementing materials on the carbonation and sulphate resistance of fibre cement plates were then experimented. The results, first of all, show that the use of diatomite as a full or partial replacement to quartz resulted in a systematic decrease in total mass of the fibre cement plates. The reduction of mass was largely due to the lower density and finer particle size of diatomite compared to quartz. The use of diatomite did not only reduce the mass of these plates but also increased the compressive strength significantly as a result of its high pozzolanic activity. The replacement levels of both GGBS and FA resulted in a systematic decrease in short term compressive strength with increasing replacement levels. This was essentially expected as the total rate of hydration is much lower in GGBS and FA than that of cement. Long term results however, indicated that the compressive strength of fibre cement plates prepared using both GGBS and FA increases with time and hence the compressive strength of plates prepared using SCMs is either equivalent or more than the compressive strength of plates prepared using cement alone. Durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using SCMs were enhanced significantly. Measurements of sopritivty characteristics were also indicated that the plates prepared using SCMs has much lower water absorption capacities compared to plates prepared cement alone. Much higher resistance to carbonation and sulphate attach were observed with plates prepared using SCMs. The results presented in this paper show that the use of SCMs does not only support the production of more sustainable construction materials but also enhances the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates.

Keywords: Diatomite, fibre, strength, supplementary cementing materials.

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220 Effect of Incorporating Silica Fume in Fly Ash Geopolymers

Authors: Suresh Thokchom, Debabrata Dutta, Somnath Ghosh

Abstract:

This paper presents results of an experimental study performed to investigate effect of incorporating silica fume on physico-mechanical properties and durability of resulting fly ash geopolymers. Geopolymer specimens were prepared by activating fly ash incorporated with additional silica fume in the range of 2.5% to 5%, with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution having Na2O content of 8%. For studying durability, 10% magnesium sulphate solution was used to immerse the specimens up to a period of 15 weeks during which visual observation, weight changes and strength changes were monitored regularly. Addition of silica fume lowers performance of geopolymer pastes. However, in mortars, addition of silica fume significantly enhanced physico-mechanical properties and durability.

Keywords: Fly ash, silica fume, geopolymer, apparent porosity, sorptivity, compressive strength, durability.

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219 Fundamental Research on Factors Affecting the Under-Film Corrosion Behavior of Coated Steel Members

Authors: T. Sakamoto, S. Kainuma

Abstract:

Firstly, in order to examine the influence of the remaining amount of the rust on the coating film durability, the accelerated deterioration tests were carried out. In order to prepare test specimens, uncoated steel plates were corroded by the Salt Spray Test (SST) prior to the accelerated deterioration tests, and then the prepared test specimens were coated by epoxy resin and phthalic acid resin each of which has different gas-barrier performance. As the result, it was confirmed that the under-film corrosion occurred in the area and the adjacency to great quantities of salt exists in the rust, and did not occurred in the specimen which was applied the epoxy resin paint after the surface preparation by the power tool. Secondly, in order to clarify the influence of the corrosive factors on the coating film durability, outdoor exposure tests were conducted for one year on actual steel bridge located at a coastal area. The tests specimens consist of coated corroded plates and the uncoated steel plates, and they were installed on the different structural members of the bridge for one year. From the test results, the uncoated steel plates which were installed on the underside of the member are easily corrosive and had highly correlation with the amount of salt in the rust. On the other hand, the most corrosive under-film steel was the vertical surface of the web plate. Thus, it was confirmed that under-film corrosion rate was not match with corrosion rate of the uncoated steel. Consequently, it is estimated that the main factors of under-film corrosion are gas-barrier property of coating film and corrosive factors such as water vapor and temperature. The salt which significantly corrodes the uncoated steel plate is not directly related to the under-film corrosion.

Keywords: Accelerated deterioration test, Coating durability, Environmental factor, Under-film corrosion.

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