Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: impact loading

11 Fiber-Based 3D Cellular Reinforcing Structures for Mineral-Bonded Composites with Enhanced Structural Impact Tolerance

Authors: Duy M. P. Vo, Cornelia Sennewald, Gerald Hoffmann, Chokri Cherif

Abstract:

The development of solutions to improve the resistance of buildings to short-term dynamic loads, particularly impact load, is driven by the urgent demand worldwide on securing human life and critical infrastructures. The research training group GRK 2250/1 aims to develop mineral-bonded composites that allow the fabrication of thin-layered strengthening layers providing available concrete members with enhanced impact resistance. This paper presents the development of 3D woven wire cellular structures that can be used as innovative reinforcement for targeted composites. 3D woven wire cellular structures are truss-like architectures that can be fabricated in an automatized process with a great customization possibility. The specific architecture allows this kind of structures to have good load bearing capability and forming behavior, which is of great potential to give strength against impact loading. An appropriate combination of topology and material enables an optimal use of thin-layered reinforcement in concrete constructions.

Keywords: 3D woven cellular structures, ductile behavior, energy absorption, fiber-based reinforced concrete, impact resistant.

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10 Dynamic Shear Energy Absorption of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

Authors: Robert J. Thomas, Colton Bedke, Andrew Sorensen

Abstract:

The exemplary mechanical performance and durability of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has led to its rapid emergence as an advanced cementitious material. The uncharacteristically high mechanical strength and ductility of UHPC makes it a promising potential material for defense structures which may be subject to highly dynamic loads like impact or blast. However, the mechanical response of UHPC under dynamic loading has not been fully characterized. In particular, there is a need to characterize the energy absorption of UHPC under high-frequency shear loading. This paper presents preliminary results from a parametric study of the dynamic shear energy absorption of UHPC using the Charpy impact test. UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in the range of 100-150 MPa exhibited dynamic shear energy absorption in the range of 0.9-1.5 kJ/m. Energy absorption is shown to be sensitive to the water/cement ratio, silica fume content, and aggregate gradation. Energy absorption was weakly correlated to compressive strength. Results are highly sensitive to specimen preparation methods, and there is a demonstrated need for a standardized test method for high frequency shear in cementitious composites.

Keywords: Charpy impact test, dynamic shear, impact loading, ultra-high performance concrete.

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9 Seismic Behavior of Steel Structure with Buckling- Restrained Braces

Authors: M. Reza Bagerzadeh Karimi, M. Ali Lotfollahi Yaghin, R. Mehdi Nezhad, V. Sadeghi, M. Aghabalaie

Abstract:

One of the main purposes of designing bucklingrestrained braces is the fact that the entire lateral load is wasted by the braces, the entire gravitational load is moved to the foundation through the beams, and the columns can be moved to the foundation. In other words, braces are designed for bearing lateral load. In the implementation of the structure, it should be noted that the implementation of various parts of the structure must be conducted in such a way that the buckling-restrained braces would not bear the gravitational load. Moreover, this type of brace has been investigated under impact loading, and the design goals of designing method (direct motion) are controlled under impact loading. The results of dynamic analysis are shown as the relocation charts of the floors and switch between the floors. Finally, the results are compared with each other.

Keywords: Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame (BRBF), energydissipating, ABAQUS, SAP2000, impact load.

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8 Effect of Impact Load on the Bond between Steel and CFRP Laminate

Authors: A. Al-Mosawe, R. Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

Carbon fiber reinforced polymersarewidely used to strengthen steel structural elements. These structural elements are normally subjected to static, dynamic and fatigue loadings during their life-time. CFRP laminate is commonly used to strengthen these structures under the subjected loads. A number of studies have focused on the characteristics of CFRP sheets bonded to steel members under static, dynamic and fatigue loadings. However, there is a gap in understanding the bonding behavior between CFRP laminates and steel members under impact loading. This paper shows the effect of high load rates on this bond. CFRP laminate CFK 150/2000 was used to strengthen steel joints using Araldite 420 epoxy. The results show that applying a high load rate significantly affects the bond strength but has little influence on the effective bond length.

Keywords: Adhesively-bonded joints, Bond strength, CFRP laminate, Impact tensile loading.

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7 Mechanical Properties of 3D Noninterlaced Cf/SiC Composites Prepared through Hybrid Process (CVI+PIP)

Authors: A. Udayakumar, M. Rizvan Basha, M. Stalin, V.V Bhanu Prasad

Abstract:

Three dimensional non-Interlaced carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide (3-D-Cf/SiC) composites with pyrocarbon interphase were fabricated using isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI) combined with polymer impregnation pyrolysis (PIP) process. Polysilazane (PSZ) is used as a preceramic polymer to obtain silicon carbide matrix. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Infrared spectroscopic analysis (IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out on PSZ pyrolysed at different temperatures to understand the pyrolysis and obtaining the optimum pyrolysing condition to yield β-SiC phase. The density of the composites was 1.94 g cm-3 after the 3-D carbon preform was SiC infiltrated for 280 h with one intermediate polysilazane pre-ceramic PIP process. Mechanical properties of the composite materials were investigated under tensile, flexural, shear and impact loading. The values of tensile strength were 200 MPa at room temperature (RT) and 195 MPa at 500°C in air. The average RT flexural strength was 243 MPa. The lower flexural strength of these composites is because of the porosity. The fracture toughness obtained from single edge notched beam (SENB) technique was 39 MPa.m1/2. The work of fracture obtained from the load-displacement curve of SENB test was 22.8 kJ.m-2. The composites exhibited excellent impact resistance and the dynamic fracture toughness of 44.8 kJ.m-2 is achieved as determined from instrumented Charpy impact test. The shear strength of the composite was 93 MPa, which is significantly higher compared 2-D Cf/SiC composites. Microstructure evaluation of fracture surfaces revealed the signatures of fracture processes and showed good support for the higher toughness obtained.

Keywords: 3-D-Cf/SiC, charpy impact test, composites, dynamic fracture toughness, polysilazane, pyrocarbon, Interphase.

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6 Analysis of Motor Cycle Helmet under Static and Dynamic Loading

Authors: V. C. Sathish Gandhi, R. Kumaravelan, S. Ramesh, M. Venkatesan, M. Ponraj

Abstract:

Each year nearly nine hundred persons die in head injuries and over fifty thousand persons are severely injured due to non wearing of helmets. In motor cycle accidents, the human head is exposed to heavy impact loading against natural protection. In this work, an attempt has been made for analyzing the helmet with all the standard data. The simulation software ‘ANSYS’ is used to analyze the helmet with different conditions such as bottom fixed-load on top surface, bottom fixed -load on top line, side fixed –load on opposite surface, side fixed-load on opposite line and dynamic analysis. The maximum force of 19.5 kN is applied on the helmet to study the model in static and dynamic conditions. The simulation has been carried out for the static condition for the parameters like total deformation, strain energy, von-Mises stress for different cases. The dynamic analysis has been performed for the parameter like total deformation and equivalent elastic strain. The result shows that these values are concentrated in the retention portion of the helmet. These results have been compared with the standard experimental data proposed by the BIS and well within the acceptable limit.

Keywords: Helmet, Deformation, Strain energy, Equivalent elastic strain.

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5 Structural Safety Evaluation of Zip-Line Due to Dynamic Impact Load

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Jae Sang Kim, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

In recent year, with recent increase of interest towards leisure sports, increased number of Zip-Line or Zip-Wire facilities has built. Many researches have been actively conducted on the emphasis of the cable and the wire at the bridge. However, very limited researches have been conducted on the safety of the Zip-Line structure. In fact, fall accidents from Zip-Line have been reported frequently. Therefore, in this study, the structural safety of Zip-Line under dynamic impact loading condition were evaluated on the previously installed steel cable for leisure (Zip-Line), using 3-dimensional nonlinear Finite Element (FE) model. The result from current study would assist assurance of systematic stability of Zip-Line.

Keywords: Zip-Line, Wire, Cable, 3D FE Model, Safety.

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4 Deformation Mechanisms at Elevated Temperatures: Influence of Momenta and Energy in the Single Impact Test

Authors: Harald Rojacz, Markus Varga, Horst Winkelmann

Abstract:

Within this work High Temperature Single Impact Studies were performed to evaluate deformation mechanisms at different energy and momentum levels. To show the influence of different microstructures and hardness levels and their response to single impacts four different materials were tested at various temperatures up to 700°C. One carbide reinforced NiCrBSi based Metal Matrix Composite and three different steels were tested. The aim of this work is to determine critical energies for fracture appearance and the materials response at different energy and momenta levels. Critical impact loadings were examined at elevated temperatures to limit operating conditions in impact dominated regimes at elevated temperatures. The investigations on the mechanisms were performed using different means of microscopy at the surface and in metallographic cross sections. Results indicate temperature dependence of the occurrence of cracks in hardphase rich materials, such as Metal Matrix Composites High Speed Steels and the influence of different impact momenta at constant energies on the deformation of different steels.

Keywords: Deformation, High Temperature, Metal Matrix Composite, Single Impact Test, Steel.

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3 Numerical Study on the Response of Reinforced Concrete Wall Resisting the Impact Loading

Authors: DucKien Thai, Seung EockKim

Abstract:

A numerical analysis of a reinforced concrete (RC) wall under missile impact loading is presented in this study. The model created by Technical Research Center of Finland was used. The commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA was used to analyze. The structural components of the reinforced concrete wall, missile and their contacts are fully modeled. The material nonlinearity with strain rate effects considering damage and failure is included in the analysis. The results of analysis were verified with other research results. The case-studies with different reinforcement ratios were conducted to investigate the influence of reinforcement on the punching behavior of walls under missile impact.

Keywords: Missile Impact, Reinforced Concrete Walls, LSDYNA, Dynamic Analysis, Punching Behavior.

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2 Numerical Modeling of Steel-Composite Hybrid Tubes Subject to Static and Dynamic Loading

Authors: Y. S. Tai, M. Y. Huang, H. T. Hu

Abstract:

The commercial finite element program LS-DYNA was employed to evaluate the response and energy absorbing capacity of cylindrical metal tubes that are externally wrapped with composite. The effects of composite wall thickness, loading conditions and fiber ply orientation were examined. The results demonstrate that a wrapped composite can be utilized effectively to enhance the crushing characteristics and energy absorbing capacity of the tubes. Increasing the thickness of the composite increases the mean force and the specific energy absorption under both static and dynamic crushing. The ply pattern affects the energy absorption capacity and the failure mode of the metal tube and the composite material property is also significant in determining energy absorption efficiency.

Keywords: fiber-reinforced metal tubes, energy absorption, axial crushing, impact loading.

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1 Static and Dynamic Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Pelvic Bone

Authors: M. S. El-Asfoury, M. A. El-Hadek

Abstract:

The complex shape of the human pelvic bone was successfully imaged and modeled using finite element FE processing. The bone was subjected to quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions simulating the effect of both weight gain and impact. Loads varying between 500 – 2500 N (~50 – 250 Kg of weight) was used to simulate 3D quasi-static weight gain. Two different 3D dynamic analyses, body free fall at two different heights (1 and 2 m) and forced side impact at two different velocities (20 and 40 Km/hr) were also studied. The computed resulted stresses were compared for the four loading cases, where Von Misses stresses increases linearly with the weight gain increase under quasi-static loading. For the dynamic models, the Von Misses stress history behaviors were studied for the affected area and effected load with respect to time. The normalization Von Misses stresses with respect to the applied load were used for comparing the free fall and the forced impact load results. It was found that under the forced impact loading condition an over lapping behavior was noticed, where as for the free fall the normalized Von Misses stresses behavior was found to nonlinearly different. This phenomenon was explained through the energy dissipation concept. This study will help designers in different specialization in defining the weakest spots for designing different supporting systems.

Keywords: Pelvic Bone, Static and Dynamic Analysis, Three- Dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

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