Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: impact force

14 Analysis of Impact Load Induced by Ultrasonic Cavitation Bubble Collapse Using Thin Film Pressure Sensors

Authors: Moiz S. Vohra, Nagalingam Arun Prasanth, Wei L. Tan, S. H. Yeo

Abstract:

The understanding of generation and collapse of acoustic cavitation bubbles are prerequisites for application of cavitation erosion. Microbubbles generated due to rapid fluctuation of pressure induced by propagation of ultrasonic wave lead to formation of high velocity microjets and or shock waves upon collapse. Due to vast application of ultrasonic, it is important to characterize and understand cavitation collapse pressure under the radiating surface at different conditions. A comparative investigation is carried out to determine impact load and dynamic pressure distribution exerted upon bubble collapse using thin film pressure sensors. Measurements were recorded at different input conditions such as amplitude, stand-off distance, insertion depth of the horn inside the liquid and pulse on-off time of acoustic vibrations. Impact force of 2.97 N is recorded at amplitude of 108 μm and stand-off distance of 1 mm from the sensor film, whereas impulsive force as low as 0.4 N is recorded at amplitude of 12 μm and stand-off distance of 5 mm from the sensor film. The results drawn from the investigation indicated that variety of impact loads can be achieved by controlling generation and collapse of bubbles, making it suitable to use for numerous application.

Keywords: Ultrasonic cavitation, bubble collapse, pressure mapping sensor, impact load.

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13 Development of Highly Sensitive System for Measurement and Monitoring of Small Impacts

Authors: Priyanka Guin, Dibyendu Chatterjee, Arijit Roy

Abstract:

Developing electronic system for detecting low energy impacts using open source hardware such as Arduino is challenging. A highly efficient loadcell is designed and fabricated. A commercial polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film is used as primary sensor for sensing small impacts. Without modifying hardware, the Arduino board is configured by programming to capture the signal from the film sensor with a resolution better than 1.1 mV. By our system, impact energy as low as 1.8 µJ (corresponds to impact force of 39.9 mN) is reliably and monitored. In the linear zone, sensitivity of the system found to be as high as 20.7 kV/J or 3.3 V/N with a measurement frequency of 500 Hz. The various characteristics such as linearity, hysteresis, repeatability and spectrum analysis are discussed. After calibration, measurements of unknown impact energy and impact force are investigated and results are found to agree well.

Keywords: Arduino, impact energy, impact force, measurement system, PVDF film sensor.

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12 Perforation Analysis of the Aluminum Alloy Sheets Subjected to High Rate of Loading and Heated Using Thermal Chamber: Experimental and Numerical Approach

Authors: A. Bendarma, T. Jankowiak, A. Rusinek, T. Lodygowski, M. Klósak, S. Bouslikhane

Abstract:

The analysis of the mechanical characteristics and dynamic behavior of aluminum alloy sheet due to perforation tests based on the experimental tests coupled with the numerical simulation is presented. The impact problems (penetration and perforation) of the metallic plates have been of interest for a long time. Experimental, analytical as well as numerical studies have been carried out to analyze in details the perforation process. Based on these approaches, the ballistic properties of the material have been studied. The initial and residual velocities laser sensor is used during experiments to obtain the ballistic curve and the ballistic limit. The energy balance is also reported together with the energy absorbed by the aluminum including the ballistic curve and ballistic limit. The high speed camera helps to estimate the failure time and to calculate the impact force. A wide range of initial impact velocities from 40 up to 180 m/s has been covered during the tests. The mass of the conical nose shaped projectile is 28 g, its diameter is 12 mm, and the thickness of the aluminum sheet is equal to 1.0 mm. The ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to simulate the perforation processes. The comparison of the ballistic curve was obtained numerically and was verified experimentally, and the failure patterns are presented using the optimal mesh densities which provide the stability of the results. A good agreement of the numerical and experimental results is observed.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, ballistic behavior, failure criterion, numerical simulation.

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11 Dynamic Simulation of IC Engine Bearings for Fault Detection and Wear Prediction

Authors: M. D. Haneef, R. B. Randall, Z. Peng

Abstract:

Journal bearings used in IC engines are prone to premature failures and are likely to fail earlier than the rated life due to highly impulsive and unstable operating conditions and frequent starts/stops. Vibration signature extraction and wear debris analysis techniques are prevalent in industry for condition monitoring of rotary machinery. However, both techniques involve a great deal of technical expertise, time, and cost. Limited literature is available on the application of these techniques for fault detection in reciprocating machinery, due to the complex nature of impact forces that confounds the extraction of fault signals for vibration-based analysis and wear prediction. In present study, a simulation model was developed to investigate the bearing wear behaviour, resulting because of different operating conditions, to complement the vibration analysis. In current simulation, the dynamics of the engine was established first, based on which the hydrodynamic journal bearing forces were evaluated by numerical solution of the Reynold’s equation. In addition, the essential outputs of interest in this study, critical to determine wear rates are the tangential velocity and oil film thickness between the journals and bearing sleeve, which if not maintained appropriately, have a detrimental effect on the bearing performance. Archard’s wear prediction model was used in the simulation to calculate the wear rate of bearings with specific location information as all determinative parameters were obtained with reference to crank rotation. Oil film thickness obtained from the model was used as a criterion to determine if the lubrication is sufficient to prevent contact between the journal and bearing thus causing accelerated wear. A limiting value of 1 μm was used as the minimum oil film thickness needed to prevent contact. The increased wear rate with growing severity of operating conditions is analogous and comparable to the rise in amplitude of the squared envelope of the referenced vibration signals. Thus on one hand, the developed model demonstrated its capability to explain wear behaviour and on the other hand it also helps to establish a co-relation between wear based and vibration based analysis. Therefore, the model provides a cost effective and quick approach to predict the impending wear in IC engine bearings under various operating conditions.

Keywords: Condition monitoring, IC engine, journal bearings, vibration analysis, wear prediction.

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10 Identification of High Stress and Strain Regions in Proximal Femur during Single-Leg Stance and Sideways Fall Using QCT-Based Finite Element Model

Authors: H. Kheirollahi, Y. Luo

Abstract:

Studying stress and strain trends in the femur and recognizing femur failure mechanism is very important for preventing hip fracture in the elderly. The aim of this study was to identify high stress and strain regions in the femur during normal walking and falling to find the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the femur. We developed a finite element model of the femur from the subject’s quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image and used it to identify potentially high stress and strain regions during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. It was found that fracture may initiate from the superior region of femoral neck and propagate to the inferior region during a high impact force such as sideways fall. The results of this study showed that the femur bone is more sensitive to strain than stress which indicates the effect of strain, in addition to effect of stress, should be considered for failure analysis.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, hip fracture, strain, stress.

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9 Structural Assessment of Low-rise Reinforced Concrete Frames under Tsunami Loads

Authors: Hussain Jiffry, Kypros Pilakoutas, Reyes Garcia

Abstract:

This study examines analytically the effect of tsunami loads on reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings. The impact of tsunami wave loads and waterborne objects are analyzed using a typical substandard full-scale two-story RC frame building tested as part of the EU-funded Ecoleader project. The building was subjected to shake table tests in bare condition, and subsequently strengthened using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) composites and retested. Numerical models of the building in both bare and CFRP-strengthened conditions are calibrated in DRAIN-3DX software to match the test results. To investigate the response of wave loads and impact forces, the numerical models are subjected to nonlinear dynamic analyses using force time-history input records. The analytical results are compared in terms of displacements at the floors and at the “impact point” of a boat. The results show that the roof displacement of the CFRP-strengthened building reduced by 63% when compared to the bare building. The results also indicate that strengthening only the mid-height of the impact column using CFRP is more effective at reducing damage when compared to strengthening other parts of the column. Alternative solutions to mitigate damage due to tsunami loads are suggested.

Keywords: Tsunami loads, hydrodynamic load, impact load, waterborne objects, RC buildings.

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8 Harvesting of Kinetic Energy of the Raindrops

Authors: K. C. R. Perera, B. G. Sampath, V. P. C. Dassanayake, B. M. Hapuwatte.

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology to harvest the kinetic energy of the raindrops using piezoelectric devices. In the study 1m×1m PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) piezoelectric membrane, which is fixed by the four edges, is considered for the numerical simulation on deformation of the membrane due to the impact of the raindrops. Then according to the drop size of the rain, the simulation is performed classifying the rainfall types into three categories as light stratiform rain, moderate stratiform rain and heavy thundershower. The impact force of the raindrop is dependent on the terminal velocity of the raindrop, which is a function of raindrop diameter. The results were then analyzed to calculate the harvestable energy from the deformation of the piezoelectric membrane.

Keywords: Raindrop, piezoelectricity, deformation, terminal velocity.

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7 Sub-Impact Phenomenon of Elasto-Plastic Free-Free Beam during a Strike

Authors: H. Rong, X. C. Yin, J. Yang, Y. N. Shen

Abstract:

Based on Rayleigh beam theory, the sub-impacts of a free-free beam struck horizontally by a round-nosed rigid mass is simulated by the finite difference method and the impact-separation conditions. In order to obtain the sub-impact force, a uniaxial compression elastic-plastic contact model is employed to analyze the local deformation field on contact zone. It is found that the horizontal impact is a complicated process including the elastic plastic sub-impacts in sequence. There are two sub-zones of sub-impact. In addition, it found that the elastic energy of the free-free beam is more suitable for the Poisson collision hypothesis to explain compression and recovery processes.

Keywords: beam, sub-impact, elastic-plastic deformation, finite difference method.

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6 Effect of Impact Location upon Sub-Impacts between Beam and Block

Authors: T. F. Jin, X. C. Yin, P. B. Qian

Abstract:

The present investigation is concerned with sub-impacts taken placed when a rigid hemispherical-head block transversely impacts against a beam at different locations. Dynamic substructure technique for elastic-plastic impact is applied to solve numerically this problem. The time history of impact force and energy exchange between block and beam are obtained. The process of sub-impacts is analyzed from the energy exchange point of view. The results verify the influences of the impact location on impact duration, the first sub-impact and energy exchange between the beam and the block.

Keywords: Beam, sub-impact, substructure, elastic-plasticity.

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5 Mechanical Behavior of Deep-Drawn Cups with Aluminum/Duralumin Multi-Layered Clad Structures

Authors: Hideaki Tsukamoto, Yoshiki Komiya, Hisashi Sato, Yoshimi Watanabe

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate mechanical behavior of deep-drawn cups consisting of aluminum (A1050)/ duralumin (A2017) multi-layered clad structures with micro- and macro-scale functional gradients. Such multi-layered clad structures are possibly used for a new type of crash-boxes in automobiles to effectively absorb the impact forces generated when automobiles having collisions. The effect of heat treatments on microstructure, compositional gradient, micro hardness in 2 and 6-layered aluminum/ duralumin clad structures, which were fabricated by hot rolling, have been investigated. Impact compressive behavior of deep-drawn cups consisting of such aluminum/ duralumin clad structures has been also investigated in terms of energy absorption and maximum force. Deep-drawn cups consisting of 6-layerd clad structures with microand macro-scale functional gradients exhibit superior properties in impact compressive tests.

Keywords: Crash box, functionally graded material (FGM), Impact compressive property, Multi-layered clad structure.

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4 Simulation and Statistical Analysis of Motion Behavior of a Single Rockfall

Authors: Iau-Teh Wang, Chin-Yu Lee

Abstract:

The impact force of a rockfall is mainly determined by its moving behavior and velocity, which are contingent on the rock shape, slope gradient, height, and surface roughness of the moving path. It is essential to precisely calculate the moving path of the rockfall in order to effectively minimize and prevent damages caused by the rockfall. By applying the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program (CRSP) program as the analysis tool, this research studies the influence of three shapes of rock (spherical, cylindrical and discoidal) and surface roughness on the moving path of a single rockfall. As revealed in the analysis, in addition to the slope gradient, the geometry of the falling rock and joint roughness coefficient ( JRC ) of the slope are the main factors affecting the moving behavior of a rockfall. On a single flat slope, both the rock-s bounce height and moving velocity increase as the surface gradient increases, with a critical gradient value of 1:m = 1 . Bouncing behavior and faster moving velocity occur more easily when the rock geometry is more oval. A flat piece tends to cause sliding behavior and is easily influenced by the change of surface undulation. When JRC <1.4 the moving velocity decreases and the bounce height increases as JRC increases. If the gradient is fixed, when JRC is greater, the bounce height will be higher, while the moving velocity will experience a downward trend. Therefore, the best protecting point and facilities can be chosen if the moving paths of rockfalls are precisely estimated.

Keywords: rock shape, surface roughness, moving path.

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3 Effects of Input Speed on the Dynamic Response of Planar Multi-body Systems with Differently Located Frictionless Revolute Clearance Joints

Authors: Onesmus Muvengei, John Kihiu, Bernard Ikua

Abstract:

This paper numerically investigates the effects of input speed on the overall dynamic characteristics of a multi-body system with differently located revolute clearance joints without friction. A typical planar slider-crank mechanism is used as a demonstration case in which the effects of the input speed on the dynamic performance of the mechanism with a revolute clearance joint between the crank and connecting rod, and between the connecting rod and slider are separately investigated with comprehensive observations numerically presented. It is observed that, changing the driving speed of a multibody system makes the behavior of the system to change from either periodic to chaotic, or chaotic to periodic depending on which joint has clearance. The location of the clearance revolute joint and the operating speed of a multi-body system play a crucial role in predicting accurately the dynamic responses of the system. Therefore the dynamic behavior of one clearance revolute joint cannot be used as a general case for a mechanical system.

Keywords: Chaotic behavior, Contact-impact forces, Dynamic response, Multi-body mechanical system, Periodic behavior, Poincare maps, Quasi-periodic behavior, Revolute clearance joint

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2 One-DOF Precision Position Control using the Combined Piezo-VCM Actuator

Authors: Yung-Tien Liu, Chun-Chao Wang

Abstract:

This paper presents the control performance of a high-precision positioning device using the hybrid actuator composed of a piezoelectric (PZT) actuator and a voice-coil motor (VCM). The combined piezo-VCM actuator features two main characteristics: a large operation range due to long stroke of the VCM, and high precision and heavy load positioning ability due to PZT impact force. A one-degree-of-freedom (DOF) experimental setup was configured to examine the fundamental characteristics, and the control performance was effectively demonstrated by using a switching controller. In rough positioning state, an integral variable structure controller (IVSC) was used for the VCM to conduct long range of operation; in precision positioning state, an impact force controller (IFC) for the PZT actuator coupled with presliding states of the sliding table was used to obtain high-precision position control and achieve both forward and backward actuations. The experimental results showed that the sliding table having a mass of 881g and with a preload of 10 N was successfully positioned within the positioning accuracy of 10 nm in both forward and backward position controls.

Keywords: Integral variable structure controller (IVSC), impact force, precision positioning, presliding, PZT actuator, voice-coil motor (VCM).

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1 Vibration Base Identification of Impact Force Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: R. Hashemi, M.H.Kargarnovin

Abstract:

This paper presents the identification of the impact force acting on a simply supported beam. The force identification is an inverse problem in which the measured response of the structure is used to determine the applied force. The identification problem is formulated as an optimization problem and the genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the optimization problem. The objective function is calculated on the difference between analytical and measured responses and the decision variables are the location and magnitude of the applied force. The results from simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and its robustness vs. the measurement noise and sensor location.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Inverse problem, Optimization, Vibration.

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